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Genève, Librairie Kundig; Paris, Librairie Rousseau, 1916. xi, 593 p. 26%2 cm. (Publication de l'Union des Associations internationales.) An attempt to synthesize the scientific conclusions requisite for justifying the author's World Charter as revised. La Société des Nations. Organe de la Ligue pour une Société des Nations

basée sur une Constitution internationale." Rédacteur en chef: Emile Pignot. Paris, Imprimerie Centrale de la Bourse, 1917-. Le journal paraît

les premier et troisième samedis de chaque mois. Woolf, Leonard S., editor. The Framework of a Lasting Peace. London,

George Allen & Unwin, Ltd., 1917.
A collection of all the more important schemes for a league of nations.

International Government. Two reports, prepared for the Fabian Research Department with an introduction by George Bernard Shaw together with a project by a Fabian Committee for a supernational authority that will prevent war. New York, Brentano's, 1916. xxiii, 412 p. The scope of this book is wide. It is divided into three parts, as follows: Part I, An International Authority and the Prevention of War; Part II, International Government; Part III, Articles Suggested for Adoption by an International Conference at the Termination of the Present War (by the International Agreements Committee of the Fabian Research Department). The expository chapters cover a wide range, their titles being: The Causes of Wars; International Law; Treaties; Conferences, Congresses, and the Concert of Europe; Arbitration and Judicial Tribunals; An International Authority; International Government, International Agreement, and International Disagreement; International Organs and Organisms; The Internationalization of Administration: (a) Communications; (6) Public Health and Epidemic Diseases; (c) Industry and Commerce; (d) Morals and Crime; Cosmopolitan Law-Making: (a) International Maritime Legislation and the Unification of Maritime Law; (6) Inter: national Labor Legislation; (c) Other Examples; International Society and Interna. tional Standards; The Internationalization of Commerce, Industry and Labor.

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A nation's development unfolds itself within a definable area. Its history undergoes constant change. But the natural features of the regions in which the changes occur are abiding. And life everywhere and in all its transformations tends to adapt itself to its surroundings. Europe is a soil on which the plant of nationality has blossomed. Some of the continent's nations rose to eminence because they came into being on propitious sites. Often natural conditions were adverse. A study of the map is nothing less than a study of the foundations on which national life was laid.

Two great facts underlie European history during the past hundred years. Everywhere nations are emerging from their struggles with increasing homogeneity of population. Within them the spirit of democracy is growing stronger. A survey of boundary changes in the last century reveals the tendency of peoples of the same race and speech to consolidate into single political units. In western Europe the process has attained a highly advanced stage. Tangled conditions still prevail in the eastern section of the continent. Allowance for these considerations is necessary in a study of nationality in Europe as well as in the settlement of new boundaries.

To consider a nation as the arbitrary creation of diplomacy is to ignore the working of natural laws which preside over the formation

of nationality. The consciousness of belonging to the same A Social

political unit among individuals, and the feeling of union Force

engendered thereby, are manifestations of a persistent action of social forces which are reducible to scientific expression. Self-preservation comes into play. The perpetuation of ideals is desired. Men of a given group have needs which are not felt in other

* This article is based on the writer's book "The Frontiers of Language and Nationality in Europe" published by Henry Holt and Company for the American Geographical Society of New York. Reference to this work is invited for ampler details.

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