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units. Such tendencies foster divergences in human aims and culminate in the formation of nationality. But opposed ideals are not necessarily irreconcilable since the welfare of men is the highest aim in every nation. Armed struggle between nations can generally be traced to the inordinate ambition of powerful rings in any one of them. The law of orderly progress then requires that the others combine for repression. To-day Germany's challenge for supremacy flung in defiance of all that men have held most sacred and accompanied by foul and widespread outrages has convulsed the life of the whole world. More than ever is seen the need of a world organization backed by force to curb the ambition of cliques which happen to have attained control in any nation. This phase of the subject has received attention elsewhere in this series and the reader is referred to the sound presidential utterances recorded in the first number of this publication.

In thinking of nationality three fundamental elements must win their way to dominance in the mind. The people of a nation deserve

attention first. Their past is equally important. Last, , Elements of Nationality

the land in which they lived or the environment in which

they toiled, must be taken into account. Population, history and geography are, therefore, the components of nationality. I shall attempt in this paper to show that nationality in Europe is a resultant of the three in every instance. If emphasis is laid on geography it is simply because racial and historical development have been strongly influenced by environment.

From the standpoint of population alone a nation is an artificial product manufactured out of racial raw material. The assimilation

of diverse races into single nationalities is world-wide How a Nation

and time-old. We can follow the process at present Forms

under our own eyes in the United States. In Europe a similar origin and growth of nations has taken place long ago. That old continent has been invaded by human races since ages altogether lost to history. It is not unlikely that Asia contributed the heaviest flow of immigrants. Africa also added its overflow. We therefore look to the east and the south in attempting to account for the presence of man in Europe. But these early invasions were exceedingly slow movements of humanity. They trickled lazily like the slow waters of a sluggish stream. We can conceive of them best perhaps by recalling the wanderings of gipsy bands familiar to travelers in the Balkans. The nomads of Asia Minor, of



Mesopotamia or Arabia also unconsciously perpetuate human wanderings of archaic times. It was humanity's quest of comfort in space. Rigorous climate or arid regions were forsaken. Sometimes nature's supply of food, whether animal or plant, would be exhausted and family or tribe would keep on moving within the zone of supply. Thousands of miles in as many years would thus be covered by a race.

In time the descendants of early comers began to feel the pressure of new arrivals. For, along with migration, settlement had also taken

place. Thus Europe twenty-five thousand years ago Love of

was dotted with numerous settlements each of which Native Soil

probably consisted of one or a few families. It was the time of the stone age when men were rude and their culture was primitive. But even then life could not have been unlovely. The beauty of mountain scenery, of lakes and forests or of glorious summer fields was as resplendent as it is now. Love of homestead must have had its place in the emotions of these ancestors of white man. A rudimentary idea of nationality originated then and there. For, divested of the complex elements which enter into the composition of nationality, the idea reduces itself to attachment for the native soil. The peasant, ignorant of history, knows of nationality little else than love of the land in which he was born. The simple pleasures of his life are associated with the locality in which they were experienced.

uces in the stone age were well defined in Europe. The northern plain from Russia to the North Sea was the home of fair-complexioned

giants-the tallest men of the continent. Descendants of Original

this ancient race are met to-day among the tall blonds of Races

northern Russia and Finland. In Sweden and the Baltic shores of Germany a very pure type is still to be met. They were born fighters, active and energetic as men reared in a cold climate must necessarily be. From the earliest time this race has been engaged in fleeing the inclement climate of its original land. It has spread southward, fighting its way and conquering a right of sojourn in central and southern Europe. But as in all war-like migrations wandering was generally restricted to the males, the race lost its individuality once beyond its homeland. Its men married with foreign women. All the blondness in Europe as far as Spain, Italy and Greece is due to the coming of these northern men. To them also is due the infusion of northern vigor and energy in southern blood.

In the mountainous center of Europe, all the way from the Balkan peninsula, in a circular sweep to the mountains of Scotland, there lived a race of mountain men, known generically as the Alpines, who twenty-five thousand years ago must have been fairly pure. To-day wherever a dark-complexioned and stockily built individual is met it is a safe guess to consider him a descendant of the ancient mountain population. A broad chest, round head and dark eyes and hair are convincing signs of this origin. These mountaineers were also travelers. They learned in time that life in the lowlands on the north and south of their racial homeland held greater attraction. They mingled accordingly with northern and Mediterranean races. Like their northern neighbors they contributed native hardiness and splendid physique to the mingling.

These contributions from northern and central Europe were of the utmost benefit to the race of men which peopled the Mediterranean basin. We find here in the stone age peoples characterized by dark complexion and tallness but not as massive-boned as northern men. Indolence, an inevitable result where each season is fair, was a native trait. But although wanting in energy or enterprise they made up by their keen perception of the beautiful and the ability to communicate through art their appreciativeness of all that is fine in life. So throughout ages men of northern Europe have looked to the south for artistic inspiration. They felt that their heritage of toil and climatic gloom could be enlivened by the sunshine of Mediterranean lands.

From such racial intercourses the population of every European nation reached its present composition. The blending has been

carried everywhere to such an extensive degree that to No Racial

conceive of racial purity in any nation is impossible. In Purity

Finland perhaps the fair type of the north is found in a condition of striking purity. Southern Italy and southern Greece are peopled almost exclusively by Mediterranean men. Parts of Switzerland, particularly in the mountainous recesses of the eastern cantons, contain inhabitants of Alpine stock. But these are extreme cases. Incidentally, it is interesting to note that the happiest results from the standpoint of civilization are derived wherever the blending has been greatest. Racial purity leads to racial degeneracy and tends to weaken the spirit of nationality. In France and England where modern civilization reaches perhaps its highest stages, the blending of races has been particularly intense. In the United States the splendid results of racial mingling are everywhere apparent. It should

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be borne in mind, however, that these remarks apply only to the mingling which has taken place between races of white men. The presence of Asiatic blood in European races has been most pernicious. Unfortunately this phase of racial mingling cannot be overlooked, for it has left the impress of Asia in all of eastern Europe where nationality is still in a stage of travail.

Europe is soldered to Asia, so much so that for practical purposes of investigation one and the same continent may be considered as

extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific. And from Influx from Asia

Central Europe to Central Asia the world's longest plain

extends uninterruptedly. A pedestrian traveler starting from Hamburg or Antwerp may proceed east as far as Vladivostok without finding any serious mountain obstacle in his way. The silk merchants who carried their wares from China to Constantinople in the ninth and tenth centuries knew part of this road well. So did Marco Polo a little later. The fact is that Europe is devoid of a natural bulwark that might have stemmed the tides of early Asiatic invasions. But for this vast stretch of plains in Europe and Asia, the history of eastern Europe and hence that of all the continent would have been quite different. The open plain enabled Asiatics to swarm into Europe in their thousands and more. They came as Tatars, Turks or Huns. But Tatars, Turks or Huns are all members of the only race which peoples Central Asia. Between the three the difference is not even as great as that between inhabitants of southern Spain, southern Italy or southern Greece. To-day Turks and Tatars speak identical languages, whereas between Spanish and Italian the linguistic divergence is perceptible to all. The description of the Huns by early chroniclers applies in every respect to the Tatar bands which brought havoc in the Middle Ages to eastern Europe. The portrait of Attila from the pen of ancient historians would fit that of any leader of the Tatar hordes which devastated Poland in the thirteenth century. The peoples of eastern Europe—that is to say of eastern Germany, of Finland, Poland and Russia, and likewise of the Balkan countries-have received heavy admixtures of Tatar blood. The formation and growth of their nationality has been affectedretarded, to be more preciseby this fact. In all these countries pug-noses and small eyes coupled to a cruel cast of countenance are relics to-day of Europe's former defenselessness against Asia.

These blendings of men from varied climes preclude adoption of racial standards in gaging European nationalities. To determine the amount of Teutonic blood in the average Frenchman No Racial

or Englishman leads to as great a confusion as the enStandard

deavor to trace the Tatar in the Pole or the Slav in the German. England swarms with dark-complexioned men and many northern Italians or Greeks are blonds. On the map itself the areas peopled exclusively by men of northern or southern races are rarely pure except along the continental fringes. Hence the value of a racial map lies in its revelation of past conditions. In the majority of cases the citizen of any European nation carries within himself a mixture of every race which made its appearance in Europe. Were it not for the varied environment in which Europeans live the physical difference between them would be slight. Clearly a stronger tie than race is needed to hold men together by nationality. We turn hence to history. Here again the map will be found to have exerted profound influence.

A nation is a cultural creation of the past. We may conceive it as the historical masterpiece carved out of time by the thought of its

former leaders and the deeds of its former citizens, or Harmony

as a fund of achievement bequeathed by ancestors and Increasing

intrusted to the stewardship of every responsible citizen. From the earliest period of history, nations like individuals have grown from humble beginnings to greatness. But there exists a fundamental difference between this development in ancient times and that of our own day. Formerly a nation increased by the addition of alien territory and population. The modern tendency is to bring together peoples whose aims are harmonious. The world is learning to recognize that the endeavor to assimilate alien elements forcibly is fraught with discord. All this means that peoples and nations are finding themselves. A remarkable fact permeates this self-discovery. As nations and peoples acquire growing consciousness of their individuality, their respect for each other's rights in

A strong promise of future harmony is thereby indicated. To the collaboration of time in nationality must be added that of space. All life in the world has a place of its own. The oak or the

tundra thrive in their respective belts only. As men, Influence of

Frenchmen in France and Germans in Germany differ Habitat

primarily because they occupy dissimilar regions. Each leads a life which is largely a result of environment. The influence of the land can be detected both in the physical and spiritual temperament of its sons. And Europe as a human habitat is an eminently

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