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the map will help in converting the sorely tried continent into a peacefully administered unit.

A final glance at the peoples dealt with in these pages as well as at their background shows evidence everywhere of a development Trend to Union

toward union and harmony. We have seen races and Harmony

effecting lodgment on European soil and mingling

with one another to form peoples. These peoples throughout the long procession of centuries have been aspiring even when thwarted by their surroundings. Yet nature rarely thwarts. The spectacle of the assistance rendered by geography in the development of union among men is before us. None who follow this growth can fail to realize its significance. Nationality is but a stage in the unfolding of a grander human union which will absorb the whole world. The end is far-very far-from having been achieved. But the process is under way. The welding of races into a single one in which the best of each will be represented, the effacement of particular interests before the common weal, the conquests of natural barriers which tend to promote parochial individuality, are all goals of humanity. We stand on the threshold of a period in which the betterment of peoples will be facilitated by the accumulated toil of scholars. Results of scientific endeavor are available to-day for the fine adjustment of any political balance. Like the blossom on the tree they are the pledges of fruitfulness. A crying need for their application exists.


AITOFF, D. Peuples et langues de la Russie. Ann. de Géogr., Vol. 15, 1909, pp.


An inquiry based on census data. ANDRÉ, L. See Bourgeois, E. ANDRÉADÉS, ANDRÉ. The Near East and the European War. London, Anglo

Hellenic League, 1916.

Presents the views of a Greek liberal (Venizelist).
ANDREE, R. Nationalitätsverhältnisse und Sprachgrenze in Böhmen.

Ver. Erdk., Leipzig, 1869, pp. 51-88.

A study of the extension of Bohemian language in relation to nationality. Les ANNALES des nationalités. Bulletin de l'union des nationalités. Fondateurs:

J. Gabrys et Jean Pelissier. Paris (Imprimerie Chaix), 1911– 25% cm.

Contains important articles on subject peoples. ANNUAIRE International de Statistique, I: État de la Population (Europe). Office

Permanent de l'Institut International de Statistique. The Hague, 1916.

A standard publication on population statistics. AUERBACH, B. Les Races et les Nationalités en Autriche-Hongrie. Paris, 1898. Explains the lack of political cohesion in Austria-Hungary.

La Germanisation de la Pologne Prussienne. La loi d'expropriation. Rev. Politique et Parlementaire, Vol. 57, juillet 1908, pp. 109-125.

A revelation of German methods of assimilation in Poland. BABELON, E. La grande Question d'Occident. Le Rhin dans l'histoire, Vols. I

and 2, Paris, 1915.

Deals with the Rhine valley considered as a borderland. BALKAN Wars, Causes and Conduct of the, Report of the International Commis

sion to inquire into the. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Division of Intercourse and Education, Publ. No. 4. Washington, 1914.

Shows, among others, that racial hatred prevails strongly in the Balkans. BARKER, J. ELLIS. The Foundations of Germany. London, 1916.

The transformation of Teutons into Germans is shown.
BATTISTI, C. Il Trentino. Novara, 1915.

Summarizes Italy's claim to the region.
BEAUVOIS, E. La nationalité du Slesvig. Paris, 1864.

The importance of the Danish elements in the population is indicated.
BECKER, JERONIMO. El medio geográfico en la historia de España. Bol. Real.

Soc. Geogr., Madrid, Vol. 58, 1916. Shows the extent to which Spanish history has been affected by environment. A more complete bibliography is carried in Mr. Dominian's “ Frontiers of Language and Nationality in Europe.

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BENÉS, EDWARD. Bohemia's Case for Independence. London, Allen & Unwin,


A presentation of the foundations of Bohemian nationality. BLANCHARD, R. La Flandre. Paris, 1906.

A thorough study of the region and its development. BLINK, H. Nederland als tuinbouwland. Historisch en economisch-geographisch

beschreven. Tijdschr. voor Econ. Geogr., Vol. 7, 1916, No. 6.

Deals mainly with economic features.
BLOCK, M. L'Ile de France (Les pays autours de Paris). Paris, 1913.

The historical center of French nationality is described.
BLONDEL, G. La dernière Étape. La paix qu'il nous faut. Marseilles, 1917.

Advocates the annexation of the Rhine valley. Boas, FRANZ. Race and Nationality. New York, American Association for In

ternational Conciliation. (Special Bulletin, January, 1915.) 14 p. 197 cm.

A discussion of the function of race and nationality in international development. BONMARIAGE, A. La Russie d'Europe. Brussels, 1903.

Brief but comprehensive-deals mainly with economic life. BOUÉ, A. Ethnographische Karte des Osmanischen Reichs, 1: 3,800,000. Gotha,

1847 and 1855.

Valuable as showing conditions immediately before the Crimean War. BOURGEOIS, E., et ANDRÉ, L. Les sources de l'histoire de France XVIIme siècle

(1610-1715), Vol. 1. Geógraphie et histoire générale. Paris, 1913.

Of utmost value to students of modern France.
BOURGOING, P. DE. Les guerres d'idiome et de nationalité. Paris, 1849.

Emphasis laid on linguistic divergence as a factor in international antagonism.
BOWLEY, A. L. The Nature and Purpose of the Measurement of Social Phenomena.

London, 1915.

Shows the trend in up-to-date methods of gaging human progress.
BRANCOFF, D. M. La Macédoine et sa population Chrétienne. Paris, 1905.

An excellent presentation of the Bulgarian viewpoint.
BRILLIANT, 0. Roumania. New York, 1915.

A work for the general reader. BÜRCHNER, L. Die neue griechisch-albanische Grenze in Nordepirus. Pet. Mitt.,

Vol. 61, 1915, pp. 68-69.

Describes the boundary between Greece and Albania. CAMBRIDGE Modern History. Vol. XI, The Growth of Nationalities. Cambridge,

1909. Studies in the awakening and development of national spirit. This volume is one of a

standard series. CAVAGNARI, ANTONIO. D'un nuovo diritto degli individui e dei popoli. Padova,

Francesco Sacchetto, 1869. viii, 455 p., (1 p. 1.). 1972 cm.

A legal study of individualism. CHAMBERLAIN, H. S. The Foundations of the XIXth Century. London, 1915.

Traces the historical events which have led to present-day international relations.

CHANTRE, E. Les Kurdes, esquisse historique et ethnographique. Bull. Soc.

Anthropol., Lyon, 1897.

Based chiefly on authropological studies.
CHARRIAUT, H. La Belgique Moderne. Paris, 1910.

A clear picture of modern Belgium and of the social forces at work within the country. CHILD, R. W. Potential Russia. New York, 1916.

Russia's undeveloped condition is exposed. CHOROSZEWSKI, W. Mapa jezykowa i wyznaniowa Galicji. Lemberg, 1911.

Statistical maps showing distribution of peoples and religions in Galicia.
CLERGET, P. La Suisse au XXme siècle. Paris, 1908.

One of the best descriptions of modern Switzerland.
CROMER, EARL. Political and Literary Essays. London, 1916.

Affords valuable insight into the causes of some of the political events in the Near East

during recent times. CUNNINGHAM, W. Western Civilization in its Economic Aspects. Vols. 1 and 2.

Cambridge, 1913.
A generalized account of the development of modern economic relations as affecting the

growth of civilization.
CURZON, LORD. Frontiers—The Romanes Lecture. Oxford, 1907.

Specially valuable for remarks on colonial frontiers.
Cvijić, J. L'annexion de la Bosnie et la Question Serbe. Paris, 1909.

The scientific basis of Serbian nationality in Bosnia is shown.
DASCOVICI, N. La Question du Bosphore et des Dardanelles. Geneva, 1915.

Deals with political and economic aspects of the problem and gives a sketch of the his

torical background. DE LUCCHI, G. Trentino e Tirolo. Bull. No. 16, Ministerio d. Affari Esteri,

Rome, 1915.

Modern methods of German penetration are revealed.
DE MARTONNE, E. La Valachie. Paris, 1902.
A sound regional study taking in both the physical and human phase.

Recherches sur la Distribution géographique de la Population en Valachie. Bull. Soc. Geogr. Rom., Vol. 23, 1902.

La Roumanie et son rôle dans l'Europe orientale. La Geógr., Vol. 3c, 1914-1915.

Both these articles supplement the previous work. DESTRÉE, JULES. Belgium and the Principle of Nationality. Translated by H.

Clay. Foreign Series, No. 5, Council for the Study of International Relations.

A pamphlet containing much information and many useful generalizations. DIAMANDY, V. Statistica comunelor românesti din Turcia. Bull. Soc. Geogr.

Rom., Vol. 25, 1904, pp. 136–147.

Describes the Rumanian communities of northern Greece.
DIPLOMATE, UN. Essai sur le principe des nationalités. Paris, E. Plon et cie.,

1887. 239 p. 1972 cm.
A discussion from the point of view of international politics.

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DRACHMANN, P. The Industrial Development and Commercial Policies of the

Three Scandinavian Countries. Oxford, 1915.

The modern economic status of Scandinavia is investigated. ENSOR, R. C. K. Belgium. New York, 1915.

Valuable for the 19th century history of Belgium. ERDELJANOVIÉ, J. Broj Srba i Khrvata. Belgrade, 1911.

The unity of Serbians and Croats as a people is shown. ERRERA, PAUL. Notions modernes de l'État. Discours prononcé à la séance de

rentrée des cours de l'Université libre de Bruxelles le 12 Octobre 1908. Bruxelles, Emile Bruylant, 1908. 29 p. 24 cm.

A clear discussion by a political scientist.
EVERSLEY, LORD. The Partition of Poland. New York, 1915.

An account of the last years of Polish independence.
FAYLE, C. ERNEST. The Great Settlement. London, 1915.

An analysis of European history undertaken with a view of establishing the principles

on which peaceful international intercourse may be established in Europe. FEDORTCHOUK, Y. Memorandum on the Ukrainian Question in its National

Aspect. London, 1914.

Sets forth the claims of Ukrainians.
FERNAU, HERMANN. The Coming Democracy. London, Constable, 1917.

The translation of a brief by a German liberal for the overthrow of the dynasty in his

country as the only means of insuring the success of German democracy. FIORE, PASQUALE. Delle aggregazioni legittime secondo il Diritto internazionale.

Torino, 1879.

A philosopico-legal study by an able Italian. FORBES, NEVILL. The Balkans. A History of Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, Ru

mania, Turkey. By Nevill Forbes, Arnold J. Toynbee, D. Mitrany, D. G. Hɔgarth. Oxford, 1915

Essential topics in the history of Balkan nations.
FREEMAN, E. A. The Historical Geography of Europe. London, 1903.

Divides Europe into geographical groups and deals with the history of each. FRESHFIELD, D. W. The Southern Frontiers of Austria. Geogr. Journ., Dec., 1915.

Carefully describes the contested zone between Austria and Italy. FRIEDERICHSEN, MAX. Die Grenzmarken des Europäischen Russlands. Ham

burg, 1915.

A study from the German standpoint of Russia's northwestern provinces.
GASPAROTTO. Il Principio di Nazionalità. Torino, 1898.

A scientific study.
GASSELIN, L. La Question du Schleswig-Holstein. Paris, 1909.

A historical account of German policy in these provinces since their annexation. GAYDA, V. Modem Austria, Her Racial and Social Problems. New York, 1915.

Discloses fundamental incompatibilities among the elements of the population. GJERSET, K. History of the Norwegian People. New York, 1915.

A comprehensive history.

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