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Secured Efficiency In A Hostile Shop. Harrington Emerson, whose ability was promptly recognized by President Ripley of the Santa F6.
higher wages and with higher wages comes higher cost of production, involving another increase of prices, and the cycle thus repeats itself.
This same Gantt, whose economic philosophy I have boiled down into the foregoing language, is in himself a walking cyclopedia of efficiency methods. Not long ago he was engaged by the president of a cotton mill company to solve the problem of making its labor more efficient. He put in trained observers with stop watches to stand by the most skillful weavers and study all their motions in detail, a practice recommended by Taylor. The observer learned just how the skilled weaver started and stopped his loom, how he removed the
empty bobbin from the shuttle and put in a new one and how he tied the knot. This study resulted in fixing as a standard task the number of picks a loom should throw, eliminating all unnecessary delays. A substantial bonus was offered for the accomplishment of this number on eacli loom. This stimulated individual activity. Those weavers who could not make a good showing were taught by the best operators, and in a short time there was an average increase of output from the looms of eighty per cent! The average wages were increased forty per cent., while the actual wage cost for each piece of cloth produced was only sixty per cent, of the former wage cost.
In a pillow case factory where Gantt introduced his methods of efficiency and his bonus plan, similar results were obtained and, better still, it was found that in twenty-eight cases of goods furnished before efficiency work was begun the average number of imperfections to each case was A7l/i. In eleven cases after the efficiency work was started the average number of imperfections found in each case was less than one! This great improvement was made in a few weeks after Gantt went into the factory.
Like results were obtained by this master of efficiency in a packing-box factory, in a bleachery and in other industrial plants.
Going back to Taylor and his steel work, let me quote a few paragraphs from a report of Assistant Superintend7 ent R. J. Snyder of the Bethlehem Steel Company:
"One of the best results has been the moral effect upon the men. They have had it placed in their power to earn a very substantial increase in wages by a corresponding increase in their production capacity, and this has given them the feeling that the company is quite willing to reward the increased effort. They display a willingness to work right up to their capacity, with the knowledge that they are not given impossibilities to perform.
"The percentage of errors in machinery has been very materially reduced, which is unquestionably due to the fact that in order to earn his bonus a man must utilize his brains and faculties to the fullest extent. He has thus no time for dreaming, which was no doubt, the cause of many errors.
"Breakdowns are less frequent. The men work up to their capacity and now obtain from the machines the product they are capable of turning out."
In the matter of yard labor Mr. Taylor saved the Bethlehem Company fifty per cent, of the cost of the removal of material and made manv other savings.
Frank B. Gilbreth is now considered one of New York's foremost efficiency experts. He takes contracts for the construction of bridges and other structures and produces marvelous results from his methods of labor management, based on what he calls his "m o t i o n studies," made in his own actual experience in various trades he has learned and also from accurate observations of the work of others. Mr. Gilbreth uses stereoscopic views of various operations showing the men how the work should be done. Beside these he has books of details for them to study.
"On one occasion," he says, "I had to drive a lot of piles in quicksand. I wanted to get the work done as rapidly as possible. I raised the pay of all the men 25 cents a day, from $1.75 to $2, with the understanding that in -return they were to do the work in the manner I described to them. Then I employed a boy at $11 a week to stand on the bank with a stop watch and a pencil to keep a record of the work done by each gang. Where the work had previously required 4.28 minutes for each trip of the bucket out of the hole, after I had standardized the method in this manner, it required only 2.21 minutes, or a reduction of almost one-half.
health of men
scientific efficiency has demonstrated many things. For instance, it has been found that in one kind of labor in order to be most efficient a man must have 27 units of rest for every 100 that he works. I tell my men when there is nothing for them to do, to sit down and rest. It has been found that the most efficient load for a shovel is 2\y2 pounds, and that in carrying weights. 92 pounds is the proper amount. This was the weight which I set for brick carriers to handle and had "packets" designed to carry this weight.
"In wall work I use what I call non-stooping scaffolds for the bricklayers. I find that a man will do better and quicker work where he is not compelled to stoop over to lay brick. Also I have my brick "packet" placed in a handy position by a cheap : man, so that the bricklayer need waste no time. I have taught men how to pick up brick and mortar with both hands at the same time instead of using one at a time as most of them formerly did.
"The care of the has been one of my studies. I don't believe in the old driving and sweating system. I believe in the new non-perspiring way, advocated by Taylor, of whom I am a close disciple. The drive or military system is going out. Instead of that we are introducing the more humane, the more practical and the more economical method of rewarding a man for good work and not making a shirking, cringing time-server of him. Yes, men must be well-fed and wellrested. I find it cheaper to feed them free rather than to let them eat at boarding-houses." .
Mr. Gilbreth stimulates the ambition of his men in various ways. Once he others working on a big bridge. The work was going slowly, so he told the foreman that the flag of the nationality making the best record would be floated from the highest part of the structure. The Swedes put forth their best efforts and soon their pride of country was gratified by the flying of the Swedish flag above the workers. The Russians then bent to the work and soon their flag displaced that of the Swedes. For some time the record of the Irishmen was low, but, with dogged determination, they set to work to raise it and finally did so;
"The study which has been given to had a lot of Swedes. Russians, Irish and
and when their big green banner, with its harp emblem, floated high above the bridge their foreman swelled out his chest and broke forth in this piece of Irish sunburstry:
"Ah, me b'ys! There's the flag of Erin. Keep up yer licks and don't let onny domned Protestant pull it down!"
And they didn't. Mr. Gilbreth uses the flag system in gang work on houses. Where several houses are being built at once a flag is raised on one to show that the gang on that house made the best record on the previous day. He offers prizes to his men for suggestions as to the best manner of doing a given job.
Efficiency experts declare that in their scheme of standardizing and subdividing the work after carefully planning it out the responsibility does not rest merely upon the man in charge, but in the same ratio down to the poorest paid worker. They say that the planning should be done by the highest intelligence, and that the workmen should not only be provided with every facility for actual production, but that he should be made to think, too. They keep a sharp lookout all the while to see that the man fits the job in each case. In a textile plant where efficiency methods were being introduced the expert found that the output of the room in which repairs were made to faulty bolts of cloth was altogether too small. He discovered that a trucker named O'Brien was paid $1.10 a day for gathering up the bolts needing such repairs and taking them to the repair room. O'Brien was in the habit of tumbling these bolts upon the floor in a heap, after which he would go daydreaming about the place. When a girl ran out of work she had to go to the pile and pull over the bolts until she found one of the kind upon which she was operating. All the girls did this and it wasted their time.
METHOD OF HEATING COMPLETE SET OF TIRES AT ONE TIME WITH CRUDE OIL BURNER. This is the new method. Formerly a piece of red-hot gas pipe was placed around the tire to expand it. It was a slower process.
"I want a five-dollar man to take the place of Trucker O'Brien," said the efficiency man to the superintendent.
"What!" cried that official, aghast at the request. "A five dollar man to do trucking?"
"That's exactly what I want," said the expert, in a matter-of-fact way. "The intelligence of everybody in the room is subjected to the O'Brien intelligence. We need a fivedollar intelligence that can sort out the bolts and de
liver them quickly and properly to the girls."
The five-dollar man was put in the place and the change resulted in a great saving to the factory.
IMPROVED APPARATUS. FOR REMOVING AND REPLACING LOCOMOTIVE TIRES.
SET UP FOR USE.
"I think I have found the reason for the very great inefficiency that exists in American plants,"' said Harrington Emerson, who since leaving the Santa Fe has been working to reduce cost and improve labor conditions in several industrial concerns. "It is the cumulative effect of small inefficiencies on an end
result. For instance, you have a printing press and a poor operator on it on black work turning out 800 good sheets out of a possible thousand and the other 200 are spoiled. Now if you had a poor press capable of turning out only 800 sheets and that man was working on it, the combination of poor man and poor machine would run the result down to 600 good sheets. Then if you should invite in a scientific manager he would say: 'You have to improve your press and train that man so that he will know how to operate it, and get 900 good sheets out of his thousand.' After you have done this, say that you put your press on color work and have to print each sheet four times to get four colors. You get 90 per cent, good sheets out of each impression and the