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and when their big green banner, with its harp emblem, floated high above the bridge their foreman swelled out his chest and broke forth in this piece of Irish sunburstry:

“Ah, me b’ys! There's the flag of Erin. Keep up yer licks and don't let onny domned Protestant pull it down!”

And they didn't. Mr. Gilbreth uses the flag system in gang work on houses. Where several

houses are being built at The Best METHOD, UP TO DATE, FOR HANDLING BRICK.

once a flag is raised on one This barrow holds 216 bricks as against the usual 60.

to show that the gang on that house made the best record on the previous day. He offers prizes to his men for suggestions as to the best manner of doing a given job.

Efficiency experts declare that in their scheme of standardizing and subdividing the work after carefully planning it out the responsibility does not rest merely upon the man in charge, but in the same ratio down to the poorest paid worker. They say that the planning should be done by the highest intelligence, and that the workmen should not only be provided with every facility for actual production, but that he should be made to think, too. They

keep a sharp lookout all others working on a big bridge. The the while to see that the man fits the job work was going slowly, so he told the in each case. In a textile plant where foreman that the flag of the nationality efficiency methods were being introduced making the best record would be floated the expert found that the output of the from the highest part of the structure. room in which repairs were made to The Swedes put forth their best efforts faulty bolts of cloth was altogether too and soon their pride of country was small. He discovered that a trucker gratified by the flying of the Swedish named O'Brien was paid $1.10 a day flag above the workers. The Russians for gathering up the bolts needing such then bent to the work and soon their flag repairs and taking them to the repair displaced that of the Swedes. For some room. O'Brien was in the habit of time the record of the Irishmen was low, tumbling these bolts upon the floor in a . but, with dogged determination, they set heap, after which he would go dayto work to raise it and finally did so; dreaming about the place. When a girl

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THE IMPROVED BARROW IS EASILY PUSHED. Too

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METHOD OF HEATING COMPLETE SET OF TIRES AT ONE TIME WITH CRUDE OIL BURNER. This is the new method. Formerly a piece of red-hot gas pipe was placed around the tire

to expand it. It was a slower process.

ran out of work she had to go to the liver them quickly and properly to the pile and pull over the bolts until she girls." found one of the kind upon which she The five-dollar man was put in the was operating. All the girls did this place and the change resulted in a great and it wasted their time.

saving to the factory. "I want a five-dollar man to take the place of Trucker O'Brien," said the efficiency man to the superintendent.

"What !" cried that official, aghast at the request. "A five dollar man to do trucking ?”

"That's exactly what I want,” said the expert, in a matter-of-fact way. “The intelligence of everybody in the room is subjected to the O'Brien intel. ligence. We need a fivedollar intelligence that can

PITTING THE FOREIGNERS AGAINST ONE ANOTHER.

The gang that has the highest score or lowest unit of cost in bricklaying sort out the bolts and de

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flies its country's flag.

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IMPROVED APPARATUS. FOR REMOVING AND REPLACING LOCOMOTIVE TIRES,

SET UP FOR USE.

"I think I have found the reason for the very great inefficiency that exists in American plants," said Harrington Emerson, who since leaving the Santa Fé has been working to reduce cost and improve labor conditions in several industrial concerns. “It is the cumulative effect of small inefficiencies on an end

result. For instance, you have a printing press and a poor operator on it on black work turning out 800 good sheets out of a possible thousand and the other 200 are spoiled. Now if you had a poor press capable of turning out only 800 sheets and that man was working on it, the combination of poor man and poor

machine would run the result down to 600 good sheets. Then if you should invite in a scientific manager he would say: ‘You have to improve your press and train that man so that he will know how to operate it, and get 900 good sheets out of his thousand.' After you have done this, say that you put your press on color work and have to print each sheet four times to get four colors. You get 90 per cent. good sheets out of each impression and the

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MASONS FINISHING A WALL ON A NON-STOOPING SCAFFOLD.

end result is that you have only 640 sheets out of the thousand. So that while the individual element for each impression represented by that ninety per cent. is very high the end would be only sixty-four per cent.”

Mr. Emerson's point was that in this case the efficiency of the man and the machine should be still further increased.

Prejudice against innovation, the fixed habit and desire of master minds to do the same thing in the same old way, is the greatest obstacle to the introduction of efficiency. Charles B. Going, who gave such valuable testi- twenty-one and a half miles a day. To mony before the Interstate Commerce "prove” his point Mr. Ramsey quoted as Commission at its rate hearing, pointed a typical case the coal shipments passing this out when he referred to the testi- through St. Louis, in which it regularly mony of Joseph Ramsey, Jr., justifying took thirteen days to move a car seventythe extremely low average made by five miles—proof, one would think, of freight cars in the United States, appallingly wasteful methods.

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NON-STOOPING SCAFFOLD WITH BRICKS SYSTEMATICALLY SET UP

IN A CORNER,

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APPARATUS USING CRUDE OIL IN PLACING AND REMOVING TIRES.

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efficiency engineer would be if it took this time something must be wrong." And of course something was wrong. But railroad men of settled views are hard to convince and so are the heads of many industrial plants. They see nothing in the new system but "theory” and are against it because of that and because it does not provide a means for driving men. And the old-timer who thinks he is

sufficiently successful is THE NON-STOOPING SCAFFOLD.

nearly always a man-driver. The low-priced man lifts the bricks two feet, so that the high-priced man does not have to waste time in bending

But these hard heads are to pick them up.

being won over and every

day adds to the list of "Mr Ramsey's argument,” said Mr. big activities in which the new science Going," was, that as it took this time this of business and industrial efficiency is time was necessary. The argument of the being introduced.

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When in disgrace with fortune and men's eyes,

I all alone beweep my outcast state,
And trouble deaf heaven with my bootless cries,

And look upon myself and curse my fate,
Wishing me like to one more rich in hope,

Featur'd like him, like him with friends possessid,
Desiring this man's art and that man's scope,

With what I most enjoy contented least;
Yet in these thoughts myself almost despising,

Haply I think on thee and then my state,
Like to the lark at break of day arising,

From sullen earth, sings hymns at heaven's gate ;
For thy sweet love remember'd such wealth brings

That then I scorn to change my state with kings.

-SHAKESPEARE,

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