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old Fort Pitt—it was easily estimated monton?" I asked. If you look at the that the trader took in $40,000 of sup- map you will see that Edmonton is the plies a year, and sent out $125,000 of jumping off place to three of the greatfurs; but it is not all so profitable and est fur fields of North America-down easy as it sounds. Comes the hard year MacKenzie River to the Arctic, up when the pest sweeps off the rabbits or Peace River to the mountain hinterland drought dries out old marshes—which between the Columbia and the Yukon, latter is very seldom owing to the sup- east through Athabasca Lake to the ply of moisture from the winter's heavy wild Barren Land inland from Churchill snow—and the Indian hunters, who never and Hudson Bay. save, demand advances on credit from “Well, we can easily calculate that. I the trader. If he refuses, they will never know about how much is brought in to again bring him a pelt. To hold their each of the traders there." good will he advances flour, tea and per- I took pencil while he gave me the haps some clothes. When the good years names. It totalled up to $600,000 worth come again, he finds that the Indian for 1908. When you consider that in its owes a prior debt to some other trader. palmiest old days of exclusive monopoly, If the banks will not carry him past this The Company never sold more than half second into a third season, the free trad- a million dollars worth of furs a year, er goes bankrupt. At the first post $600,000 total for Edmonton alone does where we stopped in the swamp or musk- not sound like a scarcity of furs. rat country north east of the Saskatch- The question may be asked, do not ewan, we met a free trader, who had these large figures presage the hunting bought 32,000 muskrat his first year and to extinction of fur bearing animals? I cleaned up a tidy profit; but his second do not think so; and my knowledge of year in order to hold trade, he extended the West is not gained from the windows too much credit. Winter set in early and of a Pullman car as much expert knowlasted late. The muskrat hunt was poor. ledge of the Northwest is. Two years The Indians could not pay their debts ago a very flamboyant article came out and the trader sold out to The Company accusing a circle of writers on the North-The Company standing for only one west—myself among the number—of firm in the Northwest—the H. B. C. gross misstatement of facts. “Canadian which old-timers irreverently translate, fakirs," was I believe the phrase. Among "Here B. C.”
other questions, it was asked with that “How much fur comes yearly to Ed- mock indignation so comic with sparse
isn't. When you go seventy miles north of Saskatchewan River (barring Peace River in sections) you are in a climate that will grow wheat all rightsplendid wheat, the hardest and finest in the world. That is, twenty hours. of sunlight—not day light but sun light-force growth rapidly enough to escape late spring and early fall frosts; but the plain fact of the matter is, wheat land does not exist north of the
Saskatchewan except in Fur BUYERS AT EDMONTON.
sections along Peace River.
What does exist? Catarknowledge, how these writers dare refer acts countless—Churchill River is one to "blood-hounds” in a country where no succession of cataracts; vast rivers ; dog exists but the husky; or call travel · lakes unmapped, links and chains of difficult in a land where “fur traders lakes by which you can go from the Sascould as easily go from Edmonton to katchewan to the Arctic without once Klondike as a postman could go his daily lifting your canoe ; quaking muskegsrounds in an Eastern town.” At the areas of amber stagnant water full of time that article appeared, I was camp- what the Indians call mermaid's hair, ing in the fur country storm stead at lined by ridges of moss and sand overCumberland Lake, and had to hang my grown with coarse goose grass and “the boots on my tent post to keep them from reed that grows like a tree" muskrat being eaten at night not by huskies— reed, a tasseled corn-like tufted growth huskies have much better manners—but sixteen feet high-areas of such mus. by the mongrel packs locally known as keg mile upon mile. I traversed one "the string band," half wolf-hound half such region above Cumberland Lake sevbloodhound bred by the fur traders for enty miles wide by three hundred long length and speed of limb in the traces, where you could not find solid ground to which rove Northern woods in ravening camp the size of your foot. What did we hordes. My guide, camped down at the do? That is where the uses of a really big beached canoe, happened to be the expert guide came in: moored our canoe man whom the Government had selected among the willows, cut willows enough to pilot a path from Edmonton to Klon- to keep feet from sinking, spread oil dike. Not a man alive ever went through cloth and rugs over this, erected the to the gold field that way. He happened tents over all, tying the guy ropes to the to be one of the men who came back canoe thwarts and willows, as the ground alive. Most of the others didn't. So would not hold the tent pegs. much for Pullman car expert knowledge It doesn't sound as if such regions on the West.
would ever be over-run by settlementTake a map of the Northern fur coun- does it? Now look at your map, seventy try. Take a good look at it—not just a miles north of Saskatchewan. From the Pullman car glance. The Canadian Gov- north-west corner up by Klondike to the ernment, to whom I am proud to owe south-east corner down in Labrador is a allegiance and have more than once con- distance of more than 3,000 miles. From tributed facts for their official publica- the South to North is a distance of altions, have again and again advertised most 2,000 miles. I once asked a guide thousands, hundreds of thousands, mil- with a truly city air—it might almost lions of acres of free land. Latitudinally, have been a Harvard air—if these disthat is perfectly true. Wheat-wise, it tances were “as the crow flies." He gave me a look that I would not like to going to exterminate the game very fast? have a guide give me too often—he Remember the climate of the North takes might maroon a fool on one of those care of her own. White men can stand swamp areas.
only so many years of that lonely cold, "There ain't no distances as the crow and they have to come out; or they flies in this country," he answered. “You dwarf and degenerate. got to travel 'cording as the waters col- Take a single section of this great lect or the ice goes out.”
Northern fur preserve-Labrador, which Well, here is your country, 3,000 by I visited some years ago. In area, Labra2,000 miles, a great fur preserve. What dor is 530,000 square miles, two and a exists in it? Very little wood, and that half times the size of France, twice the small. Undoubtedly some minerals. I size of Germany, twice the size of Ausmyself saw brought by an Indian from tria-Hungary. Statistical books set the some unknown mine on Churchill River population down at 4,000; but the Mora piece of pure natural copper the size avian missionaries there told me that inof a man's hand. What else exists? A cluding the Eskimo who come down the very sparse population of Indians, whose coast in summer and the fisherman who census no man knows, for it has never come up the coast in summer the total been taken; but when the total Indian population was probably 17,000. Now population of Canada is only 100,000, Labrador is one of the finest game preand you deduct from the total those on serves in the world. On its rocky hills reserves and those on the Pacific Coast, and watery upper barrens where settleit is a pretty safe guess to say there are ment can never come are to be found not 20,000 Indians all told in the North silver fox—the finest in the world, so fur country. I put this guess tentatively fine that the Revillons have established and should be glad of information from a fur trading post for silver fox on one any one in a position to guess closer. I of the islands—cross fox almost as fine have asked the Hudson's Bay Company as silver, black and red fox, the best and I have asked Revillons how many otter in the world, the finest marten in white hunters and traders they think are America, bear of every variety, very fine in the fur country of the North. I have Norway lynx, fine ermine, rabbit or never met any one, who placed the num, hare galore, very fine wolverine, fisher, ber in the North at more than 2,000. muskrat, coarse harp seal, wolf, cariboo, Spread 2,000 white hunters with 10,000 beaver, a few mink. Is it common sense Indians— for of the total Indian popula- to think the population of a few thoustion half are women and children over ands can hunt out a fur empire here the an area the size of two-thirds of Europe size of two Germanies ? -I ask you frankly, do you think they are (Concluded in May number.)
"I invite attention to the very serious injury caused to all those who are engaged in the manufacture of phosphorus matches. The diseases incident to this are frightful, and as matches can be made from other materials entirely innocuous, I believe that the injurious manufacture could be discouraged and ought to be discouraged by the imposition of a heavy Federal tax. I recommend the adoption of this method of stamping out a very serious abuse ". - William Howard Taft, December 6th, 1910.
HESE few lines in the Presi- ease so repulsive that even experienced dent's message inspired this physicians turn sick while examining the article. Mr. Taft is conserva unhappy creatures who are afflicted with tive. When he uses such it, and dread the duty that calls them
words as "frightful” and “a to attend such cases. Leprosy itself is very serious abuse” you may depend no more horrible than phosphorus upon it that there is something wrong necrosis, popularly known as “phossy somewhere. And so the writer investi- jaw." gated, and the result is the startling dis- In all American match factories the covery that several thousands of Ameri- head of the ordinary parlor match is can men, women, and children are made by dipping the end of the wooden exposed to a loathsome disease—a dis- splint into a paste containing white phos
phorus,-a most deadly poison. The out, and several inches of the jaw-bone fumes and particles of phosphorus attack is bare, 'and in irdescribably horrible the bones of the workers, but more espe- condition. cially their teeth. If the factory worker The physicians, in an effort to prehappens to have a decayed tooth, the serve the contour of her face and to poison.enters the cavity, setting up an avoid leaving unsightly scars, attempted inflammation which, if not quickly ar- to operate on the inside. In this case rested, extends along the jaw, killing the the dead bone does not form a sequesteeth and bones. The gums become trum or separated portion which might swollen and purple, the teeth loosen and easily be removed from the living bone drop out, and the jaw-bones slowly de- beneath. It simply continues to die and compose and pass away, the horrible to dispose of itself in the most nauseproduct sometimes breaking through the ating and dangerous manner, poisoning neck in the form of an abscess, or if not the entire system. almost continually cared for, finding its The poison first manifested itself way to the stomach. Here is the brief eight years ago, shortly after Mary Wilhistory of one case among hundreds : son's marriage. She has a boy six years
Nine years ago, at twenty-one years old, a little girl of four, and a baby but of age, Mary Wilson, tall, strong and two years old. She says that the two full of the joy of life, married Henry older children are well and strong, but Welsh. She had worked for several that “the baby seems to have trouble in years as a "packer" in the match factory, its blood.” and continued to work there after her “The doctors say perhaps they could marriage. But two months later she cure me," she says, “by cutting out my commenced to have trouble with her teeth. Dr. Afirst treated her, beginning with the first operation November 15th, 1901. He performed a second operation August 11th, 1903, removing several large splinters of bone from her jaw She grew no better, and through Dentist Bshe secured daily treatments at her home.
Finally, as the trouble continued, she went to Doctors C - and Dfor further medical aid, and is receiving medical attention from them at the present time. Three years ago an abscess opened through the right side of her jaw, and one year ago another opened on the left. Both require constant bandaging. When seen recently she was scarcely able to open her lips enough to speak and could not separate her upper from her six remaining lower teeth. All of her lower teeth except