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others working on a big bridge. The work was going slowly, so he told the foreman that the flag of the nationality making the best record would be floated from the highest part of the structure. The Swedes put forth their best efforts and soon their pride of country was gratified by the flying of the Swedish flag above the workers. The Russians then bent to the work and soon their flag displaced that of the Swedes. For some time the record of the Irishmen was low, but, with dogged determination, they set to work to raise it and finally did so;
and when their big green banner, with its harp emblem, floated high above the bridge their foreman swelled out his chest and broke forth in this piece of Irish sunburstry:
"Ah, me b'ys! There's the flag of Erin. Keep up yer licks and don't let onny domned Protestant pull it down!"
And they didn't. Mr. Gilbreth uses the flag system in gang work on houses. Where several houses are being built at once a flag is raised on one to show that the gang on that house made the best record on the previous day. He offers prizes to his men for suggestions as to the best manner of doing a given job.
Efficiency experts declare that in their scheme of standardizing and subdividing the work after carefully planning it out the responsibility does not rest merely upon the man in charge, but in the same ratio down to the poorest paid worker. They say that the planning should be done by the highest intelligence, and that the workmen should not only be provided with every facility for actual production, but that he should be made to think, too. They keep a sharp lookout all the while to see that the man fits the job in each case. In a textile plant where efficiency methods were being introduced the expert found that the output of the room in which repairs were made to faulty bolts of cloth was altogether too small. He discovered that a trucker named O'Brien was paid $1.10 a day for gathering up the bolts needing such repairs and taking them to the repair room. O'Brien was in the habit of tumbling these bolts upon the floor in a heap, after which he would go daydreaming about the place. When a girl ran out of work she had to go to the pile and pull over the bolts until she found one of the kind upon which she was operating. All the girls did this and it wasted their time.
METHOD OF HEATING COMPLETE SET OF TIRES AT ONE TIME WITH CRUDE OIL BURNER. This is the new method. Formerly a piece of red-hot gas pipe was placed around the tire to expand it. It was a slower process.
"I want a five-dollar man to take the place of Trucker O'Brien," said the efficiency man to the superintendent.
"What!" cried that official, aghast at the request. "A five dollar man to do trucking?"
"That's exactly what I want," said the expert, in a matter-of-fact way. "The intelligence of everybody in the room is subjected to the O'Brien intelligence. We need a fivedollar intelligence that can sort out the bolts and de
liver them quickly and properly to the girls."
The five-dollar man was put in the place and the change resulted in a great saving to the factory.
IMPROVED APPARATUS. FOR REMOVING AND REPLACING LOCOMOTIVE TIRES.
SET UP FOR USE.
"I think I have found the reason for the very great inefficiency that exists in American plants,"' said Harrington Emerson, who since leaving the Santa Fe has been working to reduce cost and improve labor conditions in several industrial concerns. "It is the cumulative effect of small inefficiencies on an end
result. For instance, you have a printing press and a poor operator on it on black work turning out 800 good sheets out of a possible thousand and the other 200 are spoiled. Now if you had a poor press capable of turning out only 800 sheets and that man was working on it, the combination of poor man and poor machine would run the result down to 600 good sheets. Then if you should invite in a scientific manager he would say: 'You have to improve your press and train that man so that he will know how to operate it, and get 900 good sheets out of his thousand.' After you have done this, say that you put your press on color work and have to print each sheet four times to get four colors. You get 90 per cent, good sheets out of each impression and the end result is that you have only 640 sheets out of the thousand. So that while the individual element for each impression represented by that ninety per cent, is very high the end would be only sixty-four per cent."
Mr. Emerson's point was that in this case the efficiency of the man and the machine should be still further increased.
Prejudice against innovation, the fixed habit and desire of master minds to do the same thing in the same old way, is the greatest obstacle to the introduction of efficiency. Charles 13. Going", who gave such valuable testimony before the Interstate Commerce Commission at its rate hearing, pointed this out when he referred to the testimony of Joseph Ramsey, Jr., justifying the extremely low average made by freight cars in the United States—
Non-stooping Scaffold With Bricks Systematically Set Up In A Corner.
twenty-one and a half miles a clay. To "prove" his point Mr. Ramsey quoted as a typical case the coal shipments passing through St. Louis, in which it regularly took thirteen days to move a car seventyfive miles—proof, one would think, of appallingly wasteful methods.
APPARATUS USING CRUDE OIL IN PLACING AND REMOVING TIRES.
efficiency engineer would be if it took this time something must be wrong." And of course something was wrong. But railroad men of settled views are hard to convince and so are the heads of many industrial plants. They see nothing in the new system but "theory" and are against it because of that and because it does not provide a means for driving men. And the old-timer who thinks he is sufficiently successful is nearly always a man-driver.
But these hard heads are being won over and every day adds to the list of "Mr Ramsey's argument," said Mr. big activities in which the new science Going," was, that as it took this time this of business and industrial efficiency is time was necessary. The argument of the being introduced.
When In Disgrace
When in disgrace with fortune and men's eyes,
I all alone beweep my outcast state,
And look upon myself and curse my fate.
Featur'd like him, like him with friends possess'd,
With what I most enjoy contented least;
Haply I think on thee and then my state.
From sullen earth, sings hymns at heaven's gate;
That then I scorn to change my state with kings.
The Non-stooping Scaffold. The low-priced man lifts the bricks two feet, so that the high-priced man does not have to waste time in bending to pick them up.