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cancelled their proprietary rights in Order that "phossy jaw" might be abolished without delay.
The only excuse remaining, therefore, for the continuance of white phosphorus and the resultant "phossy jaw" is one of dollars and cents, the match companies using the poison having an unfair advantage over those using the slightly more expensive substitute. However, companies producing in the aggregate over ninety per cent, of the total product have promised to discontinue the use of the poison as soon as a uniform prohibitive regulation can be secured. The next move of the Association for Labor Legislation was therefore to prepare a bill securing national legislation on the
Box Of Matches Made At Wisconsin Factory Six Years Ago. These matches were made without poisonous phosphorus, and tbey strike perfectly on all rough surfaces. On account of slight increase in cost the manufacturers discontinued usin>? the harmless substitute.
subject, which was introduced in Congress by Representative John Esch of La Crosse, Wisconsin, on December 19th, 1910. This bill now in the hands of the Committee on Ways and Means provides for a tax upon all manufacturers of white phosphorus matches of one thousand dollars a year, and a further tax of one cent upon every hundred white phosphorus matches, which must be put up in special packages bearing Internal Revenue stamps.
The objectionable match would thus be taxed out of existence, and the harmless substitute, costing less than five per cent, more than the present match, would come into general use.
One match superintendent, the father of a family, spoke feelingly to Dr. Andrews of the possibilities of the harmless match, and expressed great regret that it had been withdrawn. "There was a great satisfaction in working without a lot of poison around," he said, "and then it was worth a whole lot to know you were putting out a match with a head that a baby might suck and still not die."
And that brings to me to another phase of the poisonous match peril—one that vitally affects every mother and father in the United States. While the writer was chatting to Dr. Andrews the mail carrier brought him a letter. He read it and handed it to me. "There are many like it in my desk," he said, sadly. Here it is:
'"Dr. John 1!. Andrews,
New York. "Dear Sir:
It pleases me more than I can express myself to think someone in this world has taken an interest in this most awful match business. I and a good many others are ignorant of the fact that they are deadly poison, that is, I was until my little girl ate" them, and also was my husband and so many people that I have spoken to about them. I do hope and pray that something can be done to prohibit the using of this deadly poison phosphorus. It seems that they can make matches without and I do hope you can do something about it. One other case just a few weeks before ours was a Dr. O'Connor's little girl, but I had not heard about it until after our case came up. Had I known I should have called a doctor at once. I was out calling on Saturday afternoon. She was left with her father and baby sister one year old, and of course was playing around the house, and spied the holder on the table that had the matches. She ate six or eight, so far as we can find out, but when she was taken sick to her stomach at night I did not think for one moment it was matches that had made her sick. I thought it wras her supper and gave her something to settle her stomach. She seemed to be all right and slept the rest of the night and played as
lively as could be all Monday, and slept well Monday night, except towards morning, when she got real fussy, so I took her in bed with me, and it seemed so hard to warm her, she was so cold, and when I did succeed in getting her warm I put her in her little bed again.
She then slept till nine Tuesday a. m. I dressed her and sat her on the kitchen table while I fixed her breakfast, and when I turned to feed her she was asleep again, but I thought nothing of it. She kept it up all morning, falling asleep whenever I left her, so I was alarmed and sent for the doctor. She wanted to be on my lap all the time, so I held her. I told the doctor about her eating matches, but not because I thought it was they that made her sick, but I just happened to mention it. It was then I was told of the other little one dying from eating them, but it was too late to do anything for our little one, the poison had a dcadlv hold of her. She got unconscious and slept away. The doctor did all in his power to save her. Metta, who was only two years old, died at seven on Thursday a. m. We took her to Ann Arbor to bury her. . . . Yours truly,
Mrs. J. C. Morris, 579 Toledo Avenue, Detroit.
P. S.—Matches were pink with white tip. Dr. O'Connor lives on Dix Avenue, Detroit, Mich."
So. you see, it isn't only the poorly paid wage earner who must be protected from the deadly white phosphorus match, for it is also a menace to .every American home. Almost daily the newspapers record the death of some helpless babe who, like little Metta Morris, has been attracted by the colored tips of the matches and has died a terrible death as a result. The O'Connor child referred to in Mrs. Morris' pathetic letter was Margaret E. O'Connor, the twenty-three months' old daughter of Dr. and Mrs. M. W. O'Connor, of 615 Dix Avenue, Detroit, who died in great agony as a result of having eaten the blue and red head? of a number of matches last September. Dr. O'Connor called in Dr. W. A. Harper, a neighbor, and they worked for several hours trying to save the child's life. Margaret, while unwatched for a short time, went into a bedroom, where she climbed upon a bed and reached from a bookcase a tin box containing the matches.
Then there was John Henry Acker, a boy of four, who ate the heads of twenty Black Diamond matches at Monroe, Michigan, in January, 1910, and died two days afterwards; Edwin K. Woods, Jr., two years old, son of Dr. E. K. Woods, of Indiana. Pennsylvania, and Raymond B. McGuire, eleven months old, of Depew, New York, who both met a similar fate in May, 1910, followed a week or so afterwards by Carl I. Stone, the two year old son of Frank Stone. 365 Hamblin Avenue, Battle Creek, Michigan, who died through eating the white tips of twenty, match heads. On June 2, 1910, Dorothy Hartle, the two year old daughter of Mrs. Samuel Hartle, died at Fort Wayne, Indiana, through eating the heads of more than forty matches. Other cases have since been reported from Birmingham, Alabama; Sidell, Illinois; Bronx, New York; Buffalo,
New York; Livonia, New York; Indianapolis, Indiana, and many other points.
Yv hile it is a decided shock to discover that our faithful friend the match is capable of causing such tragedies in our homes, it is comforting to realize that we have on hand a substitute that is in every way as efficient, and common sense as well as common humanity demands that we should insist on the banishment from our factories and homes of a poison which has already caused untold suffering through the efforts of a small body of men to save a few paltry dollars.
And all this applies with equal force to our Canadian friends, who have already gone us one better by putting forward a bill, which will undoubtedly pass the Parliament at Ottawa, absolutely to prohibit the manufacture and importation of matches made with white phosphorus. This bill had its first reading cn November 24th, 1910, and the Act, by the terms of its framing, will come into force on the first day of January, 1912.
In the west, the weary Day
Folds its amber wings and dies;
Night, the long delaying Night,
Rest more precious than a sleep,
These enfold me as I float.
Fainter, fainter, fainter still,
By no breath of passion crossed,
With the tide I drift and glide
—harriet Mcewf.n Kimball.
A FTER ten years of steady and l\ continuous work on the part
/ m of the Commissioners of In/ \ land Fisheries of the State of Jl 1l Rhode Island at their Experiment Station at Wickford, Rhode Island, a scheme has been devised and put in operation which promises not only to save the lobster from extinction but to revolutionize the methods employed in its artificial culture throughout the world, and lobsters for three cents will be no surprising result. The work accomplished, too, at the Wickford Station, gives a firm foundation for the future raising of the lobster from the egg state to maturity on a commercially practicable scale by artificial methods.
This being the final goal of Superiotendent Earnest W. Barnes, who has been connected with the station for the past ten years, he regards the work done as simply a start in the right direction, although what has already been accomplished is without precedent in this or foreign countries, the efforts of biologists both abroad and in the domestic service of the United States Fish Commission failing to bring about anything like the
results accruing from the patient work of the Wickford authorities.
Owing to the alarming decrease in the lobster along tne Atlantic Coast, the matter of artificial culture has received much impetus and the fact that the traffic in the lobster fisheries of Rhode Island is of considerable financial import to the state caused an immediate interest in the work of the Wickford Experiment Station. It is not generally realized that the lobster requires very delicate handling in the early stages of growth, a pine shaving in a retaining jar, the presence of wire netting over a bottle of larvae, may cause the death of hordes of the young Crustacea. In the early stages of development the lobster is at the mercy of every current of water and makes easy prey for even the smallest of fishes. Probably their greatest enemy is in the cannibalistic tendency of the larvae, for all periods of life, but especially during the first three stages of life a lobster is eager to seize upon a weaker relative and devour him.
It is thus apparent that if much result is to be expected from the planting of lobster fry they must be reared to a point of development which approaches in the nearest degree the property of self defense inherent in the adult Crustacea. It is admitted that with the exception of the Wickford Hatchery the state and national lobster hatcheries fall far short of accomplishing the desired results. Indeed, in the latter mentioned hatcheries it is admitted that not over two per cent, ever live to reach the second larval stage. Furthermore, in the planting of first stage larvae in this helpless state they are poured in a cloud of countless thousands into the water and the fish, attracted by the superabundance of food, proceed to avail themselves of the young lobsters. Authorities state that it is extremely doubtful if one lobster out of every thousand- liberated in this manner ever survives.
In the method employed at Wickford the egg lobsters are purchased in the spring and confined in covered cars, their claws being plugged to prevent fighting and the resultant scraping off of egg clusters which appear on the underside of the female adult. During the following May the lobsters that will hatch their eggs at approximately the same time are put in compartments together. As soon as the lobsters' eggs reach a point where they will hatch in two or three hours they are transferred to flat crates and allowed to float on this wooden structure in a large canvas bag or, as in the more recent method, the egg lobsters are placed in large wooden boxes which are subsequently used for rearing the larvae. The hatched larvae are allowed thus to roam around the bag or box under nearly natural conditions. When
Fourth Stack Lobster.
a sufficiently large number of eggs are hatched to fill the retaining bag with fry, the egg lobsters are removed to another bag. The main feature of successful lobster raising as practiced at Wickford is in keeping the hatched fry in constant circulation, thus protecting the fry from the fungous diseases which infest them and minimizing the danger of cannibalism. The circulation of water is accomplished by large, two-bladed, paddles, not unlike restaurant fans, which, by slow revolutions in a box or bag, keep the fry separated and at the same time fan the food within easy reach. The bags in which the lobsters are hatched are provided with screen windows, allowing the ingress of fresh water and the egress of the foul.
The most peculiar feature of the Wickford hatchery is the hatchery itself. It has no physical connection with the ground beneath it and is veritably built on water, for the hatchery looks like nothing so much as a large houseboat. Around it are grouped large raftlike structures supported by barrels. A main shaft running from the houseboat proper branches and ramifies in all directions