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THE WHITE PHOSPHORUS HORROR
of Labor. These gentle-
THESE MATCHES permit the use of this pat
DO NOT CONTAIN
PHOSPHORUS ented formula on whatever
A NEW terms they might consider
DISCOVERY just. As even this extraordinary step was not suffi
"HEADS DON'T FLY" cient to satisfy some people,
MADE BY THE DIAMOND MATOK the owners of the patent finally, on January 28th, cancelled their proprietary
Box OF Matches MADE AT WISCONSIN FACTORY Sıx YEARS AGO.
These matches were made without poisonous phosphorus, and they strike rights in order that “phossy
perfectly on all rough surfaces. On account of slight increase
in cost the manufacturers discontinued using the jaw” might be abolished
harmless substitute. without delay.
The only excuse remaining, therefore, subject, which was introduced in Confor the continuance of white phosphorus gress by Representative John Esch of and the resultant "phossy jaw" is one of
La Crosse, Wisconsin, on December dollars and cents, the match companies 19th, 1910. This bill now in the hands using the poison having an unfair ad- of the Committee on Ways and Means vantage over those using the slightly provides for a tax upon all manufacmore expensive substitute. However, turers of white phosphorus matches of companies producing in the aggregate one thousand dollars a year, and a furover ninety per cent. of the total product ther tax of one cent upon every hundred have promised to discontinue the use of white phosphorus matches, which must the poison as soon as a uniform pro- be put up in special packages bearing hibitive regulation can be secured. The Internal Revenue stamps. next move of the Association for Labor The objectionable match would thus Legislation was therefore to prepare a be taxed out of existence, and the harmbill securing national legislation on the less substitute, costing less than five per
cent. more than the present match, would lively as could be all Monday, and slept come into general use.
well Monday night, except towards One match superintendent, the father morning, when she got real fussy, so I of a family, spoke feelingly to Dr. An- took her in bed with me, and it seemed drews of the possibilities of the harmless so hard to warm her, she was so cold, match, and expressed great regret that and when I did succeed in getting her it had been withdrawn. "There was a warm I put her in her little bed again. great satisfaction in working without a She then slept till nine Tuesday a. m. lot of poison around," he said, "and then I dressed her and sat her on the it was worth a whole lot to know you kitchen table while I fixed her breakfast, were putting out a match with a head and when I turned to feed her she was that a baby might suck and still not die.” asleep again, but I thought nothing of it.
And that brings to me to another She kept it up all morning, falling asleep phase of the poisonous match peril—one whenever I left her, so I was alarmed that vitally affects every mother and and sent for the doctor. She wanted to father in the United States. While the be on my lap all the time, so I held her. writer was chatting to Dr. Andrews the I told
I told the doctor about her eating mail carrier brought him a letter. He matches, but not because I thought it read it and handed it to me. “There are was they that made her sick, but I just many like it in my desk,” he said, sadly. happened to mention it. It was then I Here it is :
was told of the other little one dying
from eating them, but it was too late to “Dr. John B. Andrews, New York.
do anything for our little one, the poison
had a deadly hold of her. She got un"Dear Sir:
conscious and slept away. The doctor It pleases me more than I can ex- did all in his power to save her. Metta, press myself to think someone in this who was only two years old, died at world has taken an interest in this most seven on Thursday a. m. We took her awful match business. I and a good to Ann Arbor to bury her. many others are ignorant of the fact that
Yours truly, they are deadly poison, that is, I was
Mrs. J. C. Morris, until my little girl ate them, and also
579 Toledo Avenue, Detroit. was my husband and so many people
P. S.--Matches were pink with white that I have spoken to about them. I do
tip. Dr. O'Connor lives on Dix Avenue, hope and pray that something can be
Detroit, Mich." done to prohibit the using of this deadly poison phosphorus. It seems that they So, you see, it isn't only the poorly can make matches without and I do hope paid wage earner who must be protected you can do something about it. One from the deadly white phosphorus other case just a few weeks before ours match, for it is also a menace to every was a Dr. O'Connor's little girl, but I American home. Almost daily the newshad not heard about it until after our papers record the death of some helpcase came up. Had I known I should less babe who, like little Metta Morris, have called a doctor at once. I was out has been attracted by the colored tips of calling on Saturday afternoon. She was the matches and has died a terrible death left with her father and baby sister one as a result. The O'Connor child referred year old, and of course was playing to in Mrs. Morris' pathetic letter was around the house, and spied the holder Margaret E. O'Connor, the twenty-three on the table that had the matches. She months' old daughter of Dr. and Mrs. ate six or eight, so far as we can find M. W. O'Connor, of 615 Dix Avenue, out, but when she was taken sick to her Detroit, who died in great agony as a stomach at night I did not think for one result of having eaten the blue and red moment it was matches that had made heads of a number of matches last Sepher sick. I thought it was her supper tember.
tember. Dr. O'Connor called in Dr. and gave her something to settle her W. A. Harper, a neighbor, and they stomach. She seemed to be all right and worked for several hours trying to save slept the rest of the night and played as the child's life. Margaret, while un
THE WHITE PHOSPHORUS HORROR
watched for a short time, went into a New York; Livonia, New York; Indibedroom, where she climbed upon a bed anapolis, Indiana, and many other points. and reached from a bookcase a tin box While it is a decided shock to discover containing the matches.
that our faithful friend the match is Then there was John Henry Acker, a capable of causing such tragedies in our boy of four, who ate the heads of twenty homes, it is comforting to realize that Black Diamond matches at Monroe, we have on hand a substitute that is in Michigan, in January, 1910, and died every way as efficient, and common sense two days afterwards; Edwin K. Woods, as well as common humanity demands Jr., two years old, son of Dr. E. K. that we should insist on the banishment Woods, of Indiana, Pennsylvania, and from our factories and homes of a poison Raymond B. McGuire, eleven months which has already caused untold sufferold, of Depew, New York, who both met ing through the efforts of a small body a similar fate in May, 1910, followed a of men to save a few paltry dollars. week or so afterwards by Carl I. Stone, And all this applies with equal force the two year old son of Frank Stone, 365 to our Canadian friends, who have alHamblin Avenue, Battle Creek, Michi- ready gone us one better by putting gan, who died through eating the white forward a bill, which will undoubtedly tips of twenty match heads. On June 2, pass the Parliament at Ottawa, abso1910, Dorothy Hartle, the two year old lutely to prohibit the manufacture and daughter of Mrs. Samuel Hartle, died importation of matches made with white at Fort Wayne, Indiana, through eating phosphorus. This bill had its first readthe heads of more than forty matches. ing on November 24th, 1910. and the Other cases have since been reported Act, by the terms of its framing, will from Birmingham, Alabama; Sidell
, come into force on the first day of Illinois ; Bronx, New York; Buffalo, January, 1912.
In the west, the weary Day
Folds its amber wings and dies;
Walks abroad in starry guise.
Rest more precious than a sleep,
Silence sweeter than a dream,-
Idle waif on idle stream.
Fainter, fainter, fainter still,
By no breath of passion crossed,
-HARRIET MCEWEN KIMBALL,
THE LOBSTER HATCHERY ESTABLISHED AT WICKFORD, RHODE ISLAND.
C. B. EDWARDS
FTER ten years of steady and results accruing from the patient work
continuous work on the part of the Wickford authorities.
Rhode Island at their Experi- ter of artificial culture has received much ment Station at Wickford, Rhode Island, impetus and the fact that the traffic in a scheme has been devised and put in the lobster fisheries of Rhode Island is operation which promises not only to of considerable financial import to the save the lobster from extinction but to state caused an immediate interest in the revolutionize the methods employed in work of the Wickford Experiment Staits artificial culture throughout the tion. It is not generally realized that world, and lobsters for three cents will the lobster requires very delicate handbe no surprising result. The work ac- ling in the early stages of growth, a pine complished, too, at the Wickford Station, shaving in a retaining jar, the presence gives a firm foundation for the future of wire netting over a bottle of larvae, raising of the lobster from the egg state may cause the death of hordes of the to maturity on a commercially practicable young crustacea. In the early stages of scale by artificial methods.
development the lobster is at the mercy This being the final goal of Superiy- of every current of water and makes tendent Earnest W. Barnes, who has been easy prey for even the smallest of fishes. connected with the station for the past Probably their greatest enemy is in the ten years, he regards the work done as cannibalistic tendency of the larvae, for simply a start in the right direction, al- all periods of life, but especially during though what has already been accom- the first three stages of life a lobster is plished is without precedent in this or eager to seize upon a weaker relative and foreign countries, the efforts of biologists devour him. both abroad and in the domestic service It is thus apparent that if much result of the United States Fish Commission is to be expected from the planting of failing to bring about anything like the lobster fry they must be reared to a
FRESH LOBSTERS FOR THREE CENTS
point of development which approaches in the nearest degree the property of self defense inherent in the adult crustacea. It is admitted that with the exception of the Wickford Hatchery the state and national lobster hatcheries fall far short of accomplishing the desired results. Indeed, in the latter mentioned hatcheries it is admitted that not over two per cent. ever live to reach the second larval stage. Furthermore, in the planting of first stage larvae in this helpless state they are poured in a cloud of countless thousands into the water and the fish, attracted by the superabundance of food, proceed to avail themselves of the young lobsters. Authorities state that it is extremely doubtful if one lobster out of every thousand. liberated in this manner ever survives.
In the method employed at Wickford the egg lobsters are purchased in the spring and confined in covered cars, their claws being plugged to prevent fighting and the resultant scraping off of egg clusters which appear on the underside
FOURTH STAGE LOBSTER. of the female adult. During the follow
Life size. ing May the lobsters that will hatch their eggs at approximately the same time a sufficiently large number of eggs are are put in compartments together. As hatched to fill the retaining bag with soon as the lobsters' eggs reach a point fry, the egg lobsters are removed to anwhere they will hatch in two or three other bag. The main feature of successhours they are transferred to flat crates ful lobster raising as practiced at Wickand allowed to float on this wooden ford is in keeping the hatched fry in structure in a large canvas bag or, as in constant circulation, thus protecting the the more recent method, the egg lobsters fry from the fungous diseases which inare placed in large wooden boxes which
fest them and minimizing the danger of are subsequently used for rearing the cannibalism. The circulation of water larvae. The hatched larvae are allowed is accomplished by large, two-bladed, thus to roam around the bag or box paddles, not unlike restaurant fans, under nearly natural conditions. When which, by slow revolutions in a box or
bag, keep the fry separated and at the same time fan the food within easy reach. The bags in which the lobsters are hatched are provided with screen windows, allowing the ingress of fresh water and the egress of the foul.
The most peculiar feature of the Wickford hatchery is the hatchery itself. It has no physical connection with the ground beneath it and is veritably built on water, for the hatchery looks like nothing so much as a large houseboat. Around it are grouped large raftlike structures supported by barrels. A main
shaft running from the houseboat proper First Stage LOBSTER.