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end result is that you have only 640 sheets out of the thousand. So that while the individual element for each impression represented by that ninety per cent, is very high the end would be only sixty-four per cent."

Mr. Emerson's point was that in this case the efficiency of the man and the machine should be still further increased.

Prejudice against innovation, the fixed habit and desire of master minds to do the same thing in the same old way, is the greatest obstacle to the introduction of efficiency. Charles 13. Going", who gave such valuable testimony before the Interstate Commerce Commission at its rate hearing, pointed this out when he referred to the testimony of Joseph Ramsey, Jr., justifying the extremely low average made by freight cars in the United States—

Non-stooping Scaffold With Bricks Systematically Set Up In A Corner.

twenty-one and a half miles a clay. To "prove" his point Mr. Ramsey quoted as a typical case the coal shipments passing through St. Louis, in which it regularly took thirteen days to move a car seventyfive miles—proof, one would think, of appallingly wasteful methods.


Note how the hot flame is directly applied to the tire.

efficiency engineer would be if it took this time something must be wrong." And of course something was wrong. But railroad men of settled views are hard to convince and so are the heads of many industrial plants. They see nothing in the new system but "theory" and are against it because of that and because it does not provide a means for driving men. And the old-timer who thinks he is sufficiently successful is nearly always a man-driver.

But these hard heads are being won over and every day adds to the list of "Mr Ramsey's argument," said Mr. big activities in which the new science Going," was, that as it took this time this of business and industrial efficiency is time was necessary. The argument of the being introduced.


When In Disgrace

When in disgrace with fortune and men's eyes,

I all alone beweep my outcast state,
And trouble deaf heaven with my bootless cries,

And look upon myself and curse my fate.
Wishing me like to one more rich in hope,

Featur'd like him, like him with friends possess'd,
Desiring this man's art and that man's scope.

With what I most enjoy contented least;
Yet in these thoughts myself almost despising,

Haply I think on thee and then my state.
Like to the lark at break of day arising,

From sullen earth, sings hymns at heaven's gate;
For thy sweet love remember'd such wealth brings

That then I scorn to change my state with kings.



The Non-stooping Scaffold. The low-priced man lifts the bricks two feet, so that the high-priced man does not have to waste time in bending to pick them up.


Are you always sure of your own identity? What is one's self, anyway? Everybody has two personalities, — a first and second in command, so to speak. In our waking hours, the first is on watch: the second appears only in our dreams, or, in abnormal states, the result of disease or injury. There are individuals who. even in their waking hours, are influenced by this "second personality." which, in reality, has become the first in command. The instances here shown are dramatic pictures of this elusive condition. Johns Hopkins Medical School, of Baltimore has recently established a department for the study and treatment of such cases.

INQUIRY failed to throw any light on his history. Nobody seemed to care whether he had one. Yet he seemed to fill in with the ebb and How of the daily shifting life of the tidewater city of Seattle. It was not very long after the first rush of the gold-seekers to the Klondyke, and he was looked upon by the old-timers of the city as a strange atom in the flotsam and jetsam which the back-flow had left stranded on the lonely shore of failure. To the new-comer, his story carried the conviction of reality; and even the experienced did not doubt that he had at least been to the North in that mad rush for the metal which represents the world's standard. The one element of justifiable doubt was his own admission that he couldn't remember the exact location of his discovery, the richness of which, if his story could be believed, would place the possessor beyond the wildest dreams of avarice, at a time and place when dreams, especially golden ones, required something very substantial to satisfy. With his Irish humor and dashing spirit of narrative, he would hold his auditors spell-bound. It was only after questioning him that they imagined they had been victimized to the extent of the price of a drink. Finally, like all oft-repeated tales, this one became so boresome that all who met him set him down in their minds as a monomaniac, whose reason had become un

balanced as the result of hardship and the stupendous stories of gold-discovery which made the sole topic of conversation. There was an uncanny glint of mystery in his eyes, an elusive something in his own inability to place his name and identity, which caused many to shudder at his approach. Who was he? The question, one of idle curiosity to most, was soon to find a curious answer.

He was talking excitedly one night in a certain hotel-lobby, to a group of Eastern men fascinated with the glowing accounts of the new country. One of the party, who happened to be a surgeon, became especially interested, and after some moments' thought, asked permission to feel of the other's head; then passing his fingers over the unknown's skull, like a phrenologist feeling for bumps, the doctor turned to the others with a jubilant smile, and told them he had discovered something. The group was interested; a talk was held amongst them, with the result that they agreed then and there to do what _ they could to help him. As a consequence, the unknown was taken to an adjoining town, placed in a hospital, and operated on for an old fracture of the skull, due, in all probability, to some unknown injury. When he recovered consciousness, he seemed to be an entirely different personality. His memory returned sound and clear; and he was able, for the first Img. I: Looking Through Brain From The Rear.


A; Normal identity ot a normal man. B: "Second-sell " — unconscious—in a normal man.

time, to say just who he was. Then he told his story, straightforward and connected. He was an Irishman, it seems, who had come to this country with a little money in his possession, shortly before the Klondyke discoveries. Having nothing in particular to do but seek his fortune, he had left for the Alaska country on hearing of the wonderful opportunities there. Like others, he had suffered hardships, but continued on with the determination of finding gold, if any was to be found. Alone, he had wandered in his quest from the main trail, with its scattered horde of seekers: and alone he had come upon fortune and misfortune together. In swinging his pick, while prospecting, into some loose rock beneath an overhanging ledge, he had struck a lucky find at a moment when least expected, at the same time loosening a small boulder above him just enough to bring it bounding down upon him. It had struck his head, laying him unconscious with wealth within Ids grasp, and fracturing his skull, as was later discovered. The wonderful part of his story is, that after the operation he succeeded in making his way back to the very spot of his discovery-, found things just as they wrere at first, filed his claim, and afterwards sold out for many thousands of dollars. He is living today, and enjoying in comfort the fruits of his terrible, but curious and interesting experience.

This illustration from real life show> only one of the many interesting phases of lost-identity. This condition, winch may come suddenly into the life of any one, often presents characteristics more pronounced, but seldom, if ever, more dramatic. Double personality, that peculiar state of mind during which Smith may think he is Brown, or some entirely unheard of individual, and in which role he enacts most naturally and logically the newly assumed personality, forgetting that he ever was Smith, is now and

then present as an after-effect of braininjury, or as the result of disease. The manifestation of changed identity, in most instances, shows itself not so much as a deterioration of intellect, as of character and morals. A person who, previous to such a misfortune, may have been a model of virtue in his community, often becomes the most quarrelsome of mortals, a disgrace to himself and to all near and dear to him. Many are known to have changed their beliefs on the most vital subjects, developing criminal traits, and turning to thievery or worse, only to end in jail or in serving a long imprisonment.

Up in Alberta, that wide domain but recently subdued to the plow, lived an old Scotchman, widely known by his given name of Alec, who kept a general store, and had a reputation for honesty and shrewdness over a wide range of territory. He was the last man in the world to be suspected of doing the least thing contrary to the accepted standard of a desirable citizen. 1 le had prospered in business, had no enemies, and was respected and happy. One day he started out alone on horse-back, to be gone some days on a hunting-trip. The following day the horse returned alone, riderless. Evidently something serious had happened. A searching party was gotten together at once, and began to scour the country for miles around. That same

[merged small][graphic]

DIAGRAMMATIC REPRESENTATIONS OK NORMAL DRAIN AND SKULL. Figure 1—Shaded line represents seat of higher faculties. Figure 2—Injury at A causes loss of memory; at B, of speech; at C, of identity. Figure 3—A represents "seat" of the "personality" in interior of the brain; B, "second-self," existing in all brains—note relative size of the two personalities. When A is injured or "submerged," B assumes command, showing a different "identity."

night Alec turned up at his home, apparently sound and well, and spoke of the incident as nothing more than a sort of joke, with himself as victim. Me had been riding down a steep and narrow bridle-path, he said, whistling and unconcerned, when a bear from an adjoining thicket suddenly bounded into the path ahead, frightening his horse before its rider had time to realize the reason. He was thrown suddenly from the saddle, alighting on his head some fifteen feet below the side of the path. He felt all right; he looked all right, and there the story ended. But before a week had passed, those who knew him best began to note a strange change in his manner toward them. He became irritable and quarrelsome without the slightest provocation. Just about the time these changes in his disposition were becoming a topic of common conversation. Alec mysteriously disappeared. So far as could be learned, he had taken absolutely nothing with him; everything in his store, and in the living-rooms above, was in perfect order. Weeks went by, and no word or knowledge came. Search was made in all conceivable quarters, but with no success nor slightest trace of him. He had disappeared as completely as if swallowed by some terrible cataclysm. All hope of ever seeing him again was at last sadly abandoned. Some months later, news spread like wild-fire over the regions of western Montana and northern Idaho, of the appearance there of one of the most daring bandits that wild

country had ever known. He would appear and demand food at some ranch one day, and then suddenly show up, on the same quest, at another ranch some thirty miles distant the day following. Such wide leaps seemed impossible for a man on foot, but the various descriptions of him tallied exactly. These strange raids continued day after day, and though he was said to be heavily armed, no one had been hurt in any way, nor had any one the courage to resist him. Hardened frontiersmen seemed awed by his presence, and wholly incapable of coping with his subtle tactics. He would calmly walk up to a group of campers, demand food or ammunition, or whatever else he needed, keeping his finger on the rifle-trigger all the while, and then solemnly warn them to discourage from following him the numerous posses which were in hot pursuit, saying he was prepared to fight to the death. There was something in his look which always caused a shiver when he told them this. Men who had joined in man-hunting before, as gladly as if they were running a fox to earth, one by one dropped from the pursuit. There was a something in his elusiveness which bordered on the uncanny. Who he was none could guess. He became the mysterious terror of a vast wilderness. But he had harmed nobody. About the time the hunt was given up, there happened to be a hunting party from across the Canadian border encamped in western Montana They were seated around the fire one morn

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