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was very little blowing off. At the end of engine.

engine. The first part is a mechanical the trip the fire was in such good con- coal heaver on the tender which by means dition that the engine could have gone. of bucket on endless chains elevates the back over the division without having coal from the tender to a trough six the fire cleaned.

feet above the floor. A worm conveyor The Erie Railroad has been experi- in this trough delivers the coal into a menting with two stokers, the Black and hopper on the stoker proper. A slide the Hayden. The former delivers coal operated by hand lets the coal from the from the tender by means of a worm hopper on to a shelf 5 inches wide and conveyor into a hopper above the firebox 2 feet long inside the firebox. Intermitdoor from which it falls on a shelf. Two tent steam blasts from five radially difour-bladed wheels running at 250 revo- rected nozzles blow the coal off the shelf lutions per minute spray the coal over the into all parts of the firebox. The interfire over a tilting shelf which directs the mittent blasts are regulated by twin enspray of coal to any part of the grate. gines with cylinders 1.5 by 1.5 inches

The Hayden stoker, which has been turning a small gear wheel on which is tried on six Erie locomotives, is in two a striking pin with beveled head which separate parts, each driven by its own strikes the end of a bell crank lever


This stoker is of the scatter type, in which crushed coal is driven into the firebox by steam jets.

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which lifts an auxiliary valve, which in buckets traveling in pipes and driven by turn admits steam to a piston valve open- a small engine. The coal falls through a ing a passage to the nozzles. There is

There is hopper into three distributors, one in a peephole through which the fireman the center and one on each side above can watch his fire, and if everything is the door from which it is blown over the not going right he can help out with the grate by intermittent steam jets. A disscoop, as the stoker does not interfere charge regulator enables any part of the with the regular fire door. This stoker fire to be built up at the discretion of the has often fired eighteen or twenty tons fireman. Complete round trips over a of coal on a division 140 miles long, division of a hundred miles have been though it uses more coal than a good made without opening the door. fireman would.

D. F. Crawford, Superintendent of The Street stoker, which has been Motive Power of the Pennsylvania Lines used experimentally on the Lake Shore West of Pittsburg, has developed an unsince May, 1909, consists of crusher, derfeed stoker which promises to produce with swinging jaws to break up the great results when all the minor details larger lumps of coal, an elevator consist- have been perfected through tests in ing of a double endless chain with service. He started out with the proposition that the stoker must do all the occupy the areas between the troughs work all the time, that it must be a part and between the troughs and the sides of of the locomotive and not an attachment the firebox. A nearly uniform bed is to be thrown aside at will, that it must be maintained over the whole area and the saving of coal and that it must produce whole upper surface is kept aglow. As no smoke. These requirements seemed the green coal comes up under the glowto bar all forms of overfeed stokers. ing coal the gases are consumed so that

All the various styles of underfeed the engine is practically smokeless. The stokers for stationary plants were tried whole apparatus is worked by rocker and failed. Then, after a series of ex- arms and rods driven by the steam cylperiments extending through years, an inder mentioned. Each stroke of the underfeed stoker that would work on a plungers delivers about twenty-eight locomotive was produced. There is pounds of coal to the fire. The speed is nothing in the cab and nothing visible regulated by a valve so that the fireman anywhere except a large cylinder bolted · has entire control. There is a peep hole to the back end of the frames on the fire- protected by blue glass so that he can man's side, which might be mistaken for watch the fire. In a series of 81 trips bea brake cylinder. The apparatus in the tween Columbus and Denison there were tender includes a plunger which breaks but 18 trips in which the stoker failed up the larger lumps of coal before it to do all the work and but 3 in which drops into a trough in the floor of the it did less than 90 per cent of the firing. tender. Two bars on each side of the In case of accident, however, the engine trough are connected at intervals by cross can be immediately fired by hand without bars on each of which

six any changes being made, for there is no fingers. These longitudinal bars have a obstruction in the cab. This experimenreciprocating motion. As they move back tal stoker has fired 5,200 pounds of coal they rise so the fingers drag back over the top of the coal. On the forward From all this it may be gathered that stroke they dig into the coal and drag the automatic stoker is far advanced on it forward. The coal falls out of the the way toward the . practicable stage. front end of the trough into two troughs With the automatic stoker in general use 9 inches wide placed 27 inches apart it will be possible to introduce locomofrom center to center and at equal dis- tives of the largest type wherever traffic tances on either side of the firebox. is heavy enough to require them and to These troughs extend the length of the work them to the limit of their capacity. grates, slopinġ up from a depth of 18 By this means the capacity of existing inches at the back to nothing at the lines can be very greatly increased, for front. In the bottom of the troughs are the big engines working at their maxithree plungers in succession working in mum power will not only haul much square recesses. The back plunger is heavier trains, but they will be able to the largest, the next is smaller and the make better speed. While the fuel bill front one is the smallest. This arrange- of the railroads, already $337,000,000 a ment of plungers distributes the coal year, will be increased, other economies evenly under the grates. As it is worked made possible will wipe out this increase forward by the plungers the coal rises and leave a handsome margin of saving and falls over on to the grates, which besides.


per hour.

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T is quite possible that anyone who but the inference that they were escaped might happen to be stranded in the lunatics, if natural under the circumcanyons of the High Sierras of stances, would be altogether wrong. The California, any time between Christ- . “Bug House” is the name commonly

mas and Easter, might stumble upon applied to the California State Insectary two or three young men whose actions at Sacramento; and the methods dein those almost inaccessible solitudes scribed are those employed by the field would look very mysterious. He would agents of the Insectary on expeditions see them gather up great masses of dead for the collection of ladybird beetles. leaves and rubbish in places where the These breed in the canyons of the snow had melted, sift the finer material Sierras, where they are collected while into burlap sacks, throw the leaves and still dormant in the winter time. Tens sticks away, and then hasten on to a new of millions of them are shipped to the location. If he were curious enough to Insectary, where they are kept in cold follow the mysterious strangers, he storage until the melon aphis makes its would find that as soon as the bags were appearance in the cantaloupe and cucumfilled they were loaded upon the back of ber fields of the Imperial Valley, or until a patient mule, taken to

the peach and apple aphids the nearest railroad sta

are reported in the ortion, and shipped to Sacra

chards. Then they are mento.

shipped to the endangered Inquiry would probably

region, in whatever quanelicit the statement that

tities may be required to the young men were from

meet the emergency; and the "State Bug-House,"

when this has been done,

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the doom of the aphid pests is considered then, was established for the purpose of sealed.

collecting, propagating and distributing These ladybird cohorts, directed and beneficial insects in sufficient numbers to controlled by the parasitologists of the be of commercial value. It is in charge State Insectary, probably saved the ex- of scientists of exceptional attainments, tensive melon growing industry of the and of more than national reputation, Imperial Valley from entire destruction, upon whom is laid the task of translating and have prevented the loss of orchard pure science into a commercial comfruits worth millions of dollars in many modity, for the benefit of California widely separated districts throughout the agriculturists and horticulturists. It is State. This, however, is simply an illus- a subdivision of the State Horticultural tration of the sort of work the para- Commission, which keeps an explorer in sitologists of the Insectary are doing. As the field, who traverses every country on an institution, the State "Bug House, the globe in search of beneficial insects, as it is usually called—for of course sending such as he thinks likely to prove anything in the nature of an insect is a serviceable to the Insectary. There they "bug" in the popular mind-is absolutely are bred, studied and observed, and, if unique, and without a peer in the world. proved to be valuable, an effort is made Superintendent Carnes, and his coadju- to breed them in sufficient numbers to tor, Acting Superintendent Maskew, do meet all legitimate demands. Insects not antagonize spraying, dipping, wash- whose good offices have been conclusively ing, and fumigating as methods of rid- demonstrated are for free distribution in ding fields, orchards and gardens of in- the State, to persons having need of sect pests; but they keep up an unceas- their services; and demonstrations are ing search for something better—in given in the orchards, gardens and truck other words for natural checks that will farms, showing the farmer just what render these makeshift expedients un- sort of help he is justified in expecting necessary. Never since men began to from his insect allies, and just how he practice agriculture and horticulture must co-operate with them in order to have mechanical means brought under secure the best results. “Larger crops permanent subjection and control a of cleaner fruit at a less cost of producsingle pest of this nature. The orchard tion," is the slogan of the department, that has been sprayed

as stated epigrammaticor fumigated, and the

ally to the writer, by field that has been

Acting Superintendent treated with Paris

Maskew. green or other insecti

One statement made cide, this year, must be

to the writer by Mr. similarly treated next

Maskew, at first season, and so on for

thought appears startall time to come. These

ling. It is this: "In all operations are expen

the world there is a sive, and never result in

permanent surplus of more than a temporary

but one thing: that is victory for the horticul

life itself.” So superturist. The basic idea

abundant is life that of the new science of

nature takes almost as parasitology, then, is to

elaborate precautions to employ bugs to fight

insure its destruction as bugs: to pit predaceous

to secure its reproducor parasitic insects

tion; so that for every against those that de

form of life there is stroy the crops, in the

one or

other absolute certainty that

forms to prey upon it, nature never created a

and prevent it fron pest without an efficient

becoming redundant." A SACKFUL-AND A "FEW EXTRAS." check. The Insectary, Ladybirds collected in the Sierras.

By this interminable



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