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PHOTOGRAPHERS CALL THIS A POOR PICTURE. The camera cannot work well in such a light. Consider the necessarily evil effects upon the eye-sight of these children,

stant and serious abuse—and this, too, That the adjustment of the pupil of the among children who have no means of eye to changing intensities of light is not self-protection-we do not wonder that instantaneous, is well known. In rooms the percentage of spectacled people is in- lighted by side windows there are creasing so alarmingly.

marked differences of light-intensity It is common experience that strong since the walls, absorbing much, reflect light, shining directly into the eyes soon a soft light, while the glare from the produces exhaustion and sleepiness. Yet side windows is unabated. As the head there is scarcely one schoolroom in all turns from side to side and the eye is met this broad land in which a large propor- by widely varying light intensities, the tion of the children are not forced to slow-adjusting pupil is hopelessly unable endure this strain. On the other hand to protect the sensitive retina. Vision a soft, steady and well-diffused light is therefore obscured and nervous energy from overhead enables one to continue needlessly and harmfully wasted. visual effort for a great length of time One of our illustrations shows a modwithout fatigue. The explanation is ern schoolroom—one that has always simple. The pupil of the eye soon ad- been considered well-lighted. The justs itself to this steady, well-distributed camera shows that part of the children light, and no readjustment is necessary are suffering from too little light and the as the head is turned from side to side. others from too much, that the room is Consequently vision is perfect, the retina very unevenly lighted and that nearly all protected and nervous energy conserved. are subjected to severe eye-strain beIn like manner, when one is out of doors cause of the great volume of rays burstthe field of vision is illuminated by a ing upon the faces of the children. steady, perfectly-diffused light and the Nature's provision-deep eye-sockets. pupil of the eye adapts itself to this un- eye-brows and eye-lashes—prove totally changing intensity once for all and no inadequate protection against this overharm done.

whelming light in front.

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This illustration shows a room in the new sky.lighted school in River Forest.

Nothing reveals the exact lighting of as a further aid in diffusion. One illusa room so perfectly as a camera. By tration shows a room in the new skyplacing the instrument in various posi- lighted school in River Forest. This tions in order to take the four walls of picture was taken on a cloudy day in the room, a fine test is made. The December with all side window shades camera is as delicately sensitive to light closely drawn. The regular practice here as is the human eye, after which it is is to keep all shades drawn to the horipatterned.

zontal line, thus ensuring entrance of When the writer asked his photog- light from above only. rapher to place the camera in the posi- The pupils and teachers in this buildtion required the latter demurred, declar- ing report better spirits and less weariing that it would spoil the picture. ness when the day is over than they ever Photographers well know that the experienced before.

experienced before. Here is a soft, thorcamera requires an even light, that it oughly diffused and perfectly distributed cannot work well amid two different in- light; no dark corners, glaring windows tensities at the same time. But this is nor squinting eyes. Artificial light is exactly the position in which the school never needed in this sky-lighted building children are placed five hours each day. even on the darkest winter days.

If the health of our children is of To illuminate school rooms by means primal importance, as we all admit, then of skylights necessitates one-story buildit is high time the educational world ings with fat roofs. Flat roofs of tar should be considering the question of and gravel cost far less than the high light.

gable roof even after including the exThe only way to secure a well-dis- pense of the skylights. tributed light is from overhead. For One-story schools may be made quite thorough diffusion it should pass through acceptable in the hands of competent ribbed or prism glass. The walls of a architects. It is necessary to extend the room should always be of a light color parapet walls a few feet higher in order



The south slope is covered with tin, the north is of reinforced ribbed glass. Thus a steady north light is assured.

to mask the lights. The four-room Elm necessitate the enlargement of the Street School of River Forest, Illinois, ground plan of the entire building, which was completed in November, 1910, at a adds enormously to the cost without corcost of $19,000. It is strictly modern, responding increase in the number of having, besides top-lighting, a superior

superior classrooms. The costly stairways, the ventilating system of a novel type.

heavier walls and foundations needed for Still another of our illustrations shows a two-story structure, overbalance the the saw-tooth skylights, which are par- added cost for excavation and roofing allel ridges running east and west, the of one-story buildings. Moreover, in the south slope of which is covered with tin latter, the partition walls need not be of so as to exclude sun-rays, while the north brick. slope is of reinforced ribbed glass. Thus One-story schools require much more is assured a steady north light with no space, however, and where land values interference from sunshine. The ceiling are very high such construction may be glass of the classrooms is also of ribbed impossible. But for smaller cities, vilglass which has proved to be the best lages and suburbs there are no obstacles light diffuser.

to this novel type of school architecture. Contrary to the prevailing idea, one- Boards of education ought to consider story buildings cost no more per room well before burdening future generations than two-story structures! The large with ill-lighted school buildings that may halls required to make room for the have to be torn down to make room for stairways in the latter and to accom- an intelligent progress based on scientific modate the numbers using the same exit, investigation.


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HE decision of the Turkish parallel to the River Jordan, and almost government to extend the identical with the old caravan route, the famous Hedjaz Railroad by railroad traverses a district as full of carrying the metals of this interest for the Christian as for the Mo

line across the desert from hammedan. Decayed ruins of past civiliMedina to Mecca calls attention to what zations and silent monuments of longis undoubtedly one of the most daring departed prosperity are visible on all railroad enterprises of the age.

sides. This railroad is unique in its claim of So the journey continues until El Ula being the only railroad built for the pur- is reached, 609 miles from Damascus and pose of carrying pilgrims. Indeed, known 210 from Medina. Beyond El Ula none as "The Railroad of the Pilgrims," it is but Mohammedans may go, even the being used for the transportation of engineer-in-chief, who is a German, had Mohammedan pilgrims to Medina, the to relegate to a Mohammedan assistant burial place of their prophet. Starting the carrying of the metals into Medina. from Damascus it runs almost due south The railroad is now to be extended to through wild and sterile country for Mecca, the birthplace of Mohammed, but more than 820 miles to Medina. A short to accomplish this, 285 miles of track distance from the terminus is Daraa, now yet to be laid across the desert. This quite an imposing and important station, is now being rapidly done and construcwhere the line joins that coming up tion trains carrying the necessary mafrom Haifa round the southern shores of terial have proceeded south from Dathe Sea of Galilee.

mascus with Turkish soldiers who will From Daraa the line gradually ascends build the line under the direction of a the undulating slopes of a plateau as far Mohammedan engineer. It is interestas Zerka, where it drops into a deeping here to note that when the Bagdad valley, and climbs out again by a wind- Railroad has progressed another 200 ing belt. As the line proceeds south- miles and the Bosphorus is spanned by a wards, signs of civilization become fewer bridge, the sacred city of Mecca will be and fewer, and the sense of desolation in direct railroad communication with more pronounced. Pursuing a course Constantinople.

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