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gcance. In the course of a few days, he was restored to home and his former personality, and said in explanation that a compelling' craving for a simple life had caused the trouble. It would seem from this instance, that mental labor alone is not sufficient for the needs of many brain-workers, and that if those who employ their mentality only, would resort daily to some simple manual work. Nature would not make such violent demands when these needs are ignored. Manual work is the essence of the simple life, and the brain-worker, of any, can least afford to overlook this fact.
The incidents or accidents leading up to double-personality, cause the manifestation by '"letting loose" the secondego, or "other self," which lies sleeping in all of us. To all intents and purposes, this second personality is as sane and healthy as the first, but—it is entirely different. Intellectually, this secondpersonality is often keener; morally, it is on a lower plane.
Within the past year, the son of a merchant was thrown from a wagon, owing to the horses running away. He was only sixteen years old, a handsome and manly young fellow, as promising a son in every way as any one could wish. He lay at home for weeks, hovering between life and death, as a result of his injuries. In the course of some months he had apparently fully recovered, and was physically as robust as ever. Mentally lie was exceedingly brilliant, and astonished his parents and friends with his scintillations of wit and depth of philosophical
thought. His parents, particularly, felt a strangeness while in his presence they had never felt before. And then strange stories reached their ears of petty thefts committed by him; of carousals beyond their comprehension; of waywardness and delinquencies which seemed wholly foreign to his former character and habits. Finally a daring burglary was committed, and the youth apprehended as the offender. It was the final blow to the sorrowing parents. Extenuating circumstances were set forth, and the case never came to trial. Instead, the son was taken to a hospital, an opening was made in the skull, and a piece of bone, which had been causing pressure on the brain, removed. He was soon out again, and up to his newly-acquired offenses. The operation had proved a failure. Not long after, in the midst of a drunken revel, he put an end to himself with a common poison. This pitiful tragedy of a young life was due to an injury of the head, an injury not considered, as to its bearing on the future, at the time it occurred.
Today, through a better understanding of these unfortunates, and other victims of delinquency, many of them are cared for in psychic institutions, where they properly belong; and, thanks to Victor Horsley, of London, who made the first experiments in brain surgery on monkeys, many of these saddest of cases in the annals of the curiosities of lost-identity, can be completely cured by operative interference as practiced by the skilful hands of skilful surgeons.
AN OBJECT LESSON OF THE UNITED STATES OFFICE OF PUBLIC ROADS. AT MONROE, LA.
The old highway to the left, and the new.
FORTY million dollars were wasted on the public roads of the United States through ignorance, incompetence, and indifference in 1904. As the same amount was wasted in the same way in 1910, the American people would seem to be holding their own nobly.
But these statistics present only half a truth which, like other half truths, is misleading. In 1904 the expenditures on public highways aggregated $79,000,000, while in 1910 they had increased to $100,000,000. That is to say, instead of wasting half the hard earned money devoted to road improvement we have become so enlightened that we only waste forty cents out of every dollar. Truly, we may plume ourselves on such a record.
Still, this is but the preface to that great National joke, the public road: for the direct waste which may be charged to the lack of suitable highways, according to Logan Waller Page, Director of the United States Office of Public. Roads,
foots up the neat little sum of $290,000.000. The way Mr. Page figures it out, the annual loss due to incorrect, and inadequate methods in the construction, maintenance, and administration of public roads may be set down at $40,000,000, while the burden imposed through excessive cost of transportation from the farm to the railroad station reaches the impressive sum of $250,000,000.
The latter item is based upon statistics gathered by the-Government, which show that the aggregate weight of crops hauled to market annually is more than two hundred and fifty million tons. The average haul is 9.4 miles, and the average cost 23 cents per ton per mile. This makes the total cost amount to $540,500,000. In Europe, where good roads are the rule rather than the exception, the cost of hauling is much less than half what it is here. Hauling on the famous highways of France, for example, costs but 10 cents per ton per mile; in England, the same; while Belgium reduces this low rate half a cent, and Germany
pretty near to supplying the whole nation with adequate roads.
It would be a most profitable undertaking to borrow the money on bonds for bu.. .ing highways, for the whole indictment against bad roads has not yet been recited.
Still another way in which American roads waste money is in the unnecessary amount of ground they occupy. The average highway here is four rods, or sixty-six feet wide. In the middle Western States much of the ground given up to highways is worth a hundred dollars an acre. Only a small part of this space is actually needed for a roadway, the rest being devoted to weed cultu'r e. These weeds furnish an inexhaustible supply of seeds with w h i c h adjacent farms are stocked without effort on the part of their owners, causing either a heavy outlay for labor to keep the weeds down or a still greater loss from
''amaged crops. In Europe they think too much of their land to waste it so foolishly. They find there that a roadway from twenty to thirty feet wide is ample for traffic a hundred fold heavier than traverses the lonely highways of the prairie States. Robert J. Thompson, U. S. Consul at Hanover, who has been investigating the subject, estimates that in thirteen of the agricultural States of the middle West there are seven hundred thousand miles of country roads. Ry reducing their width from sixty-six to thirty-six feet, 2,500.000 acres of generally tillable land would be restored to cultivation, which, valued at $100 an acre, would foot up the staggering total of $250,000,000. When so many thrifty farmers are giving up then- homes in these States to seek lands in Canada, it does seem as if a form of waste equivalent to furnishing 15,625 of them with a
quarter section each might be worth a little earnest consideration.
Even this is not all the story, by any means. Rack of it all are the still greater losses of the farmers who are unable on account of bad roads to Irani their crops to market when prices are highest. In a paper read before the American Road Builders Association at Indianapolis last December, Mr. Page bruised the pocket nerves of every fanner in Indiana by reminding them that in 1909 prices of wheat in Chicago ranged from 99l/l cents to $1.60 per bushel, the lowest price being reached in August when the roads were at their best, while the top prices were attained when the roads were practically impassable; that the State's wheat crop that year being 33,124,000 bushels, every advance of one cent per bushel meant a gain in the value of the crop of $331,240, while an advance of one cent a bushel on the corn crop aggregated $1,965,200. Thus they could see what they lost by not having roads upon which they could haul a load to market at any time.
Indeed, if all the indirect losses were counted in, it is not unlikely that the grand total properly chargeable to a lack of suitable roads would be somewhere near a half billion dollars a year. Nor is this all. Aside from any question of money is the isolation imposed by bad roads. Churches, entertainments, and agreeable neighbors count for naught if one is separated from them by a mile or two of impassable mudholes. Good roads mean more to the children than to the grown members of the farmer's family, for they may spell the difference between an education and the lack of one. It has been found that in communities provided with good roads the average school attendance the year round is over eighty per cent, while with bad roads the attendance rarely exceeds seventy per cent, while it may be as low as thirty per cent. The best schools are always situated on good roads, the worst schools on bad roads.
But better things are now in sight. Energetic efforts are everywhere being made to still further increase the annual expenditure for roads, and more especially to reduce the percentage of waste.
As an earnest that the first purpose will be accomplished there are now thirty-two States which have adopted some form of State aid or supervision for road construction and maintenance. New York led the van with an expenditure from State funds in 1910 of $2,500.000, while Pennsylvania was second with an outlay of $1,000,000. Massachusetts spent $750,000 of State money on her roads, Maryland, $350,000, New Hampshire, New Jersey, and Rhode Island $300,000 each, Washington $375,000, Vermont $175,000, Virginia $250,000. West Virginia $120,000. and other States various amounts. California, which at the last election ratified a proposal to
issue bonds for $18,000,000 to construct a trunk highway system, will soon rank next to New York in the extent of her useful roads. In the South they are not spending so much in cash but they are getting good roads by employing convicts to build them. Of the fifteen thousand miles of highways built in the twelve southeastern States between 1904 and 1910 the greater part was accomplished by the use of convict labor. Georgia keeps 4.500 convicts at work on her public roads the year around.
Indeed, no fewer than thirty-three States have laws favorable to the employment of convicts in road building. Unfortunately, though, the laws in many cases are vague, and in still others narrow; so that the plan is actually followed in but eighteen States, though in several others convicts are employed in quarrying, cutting, and crushing stone for use in road building. It has been found that a convict will do practically as much work in a day as a free laborer and that the cost of guarding and maintenance on the highways is actually less than the cost of maintenance and guarding in jail.