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right but could not make him hear me. graph is still limited by some strange We started at once to look for the Nelson idiosyncrasies. One of these is recogbut I was unable to make her operator nized by the U. S. statute which requires hear me although I called him a great that wireless telegraph apparatus on many times. About 8:30 p. m. the shipboard shall be capable of sending operator on the steamer Queen came on and receiving messages over a distance duty, the Queen then being near Point of at least a hundred miles by day as Arena, and much to my surprise made well as by night, for the radio-telegraph the Nelson hear him right away." seems to be as fond of darkness as evil
Thereupon King gave the Queen a deeds are alleged to be. Only half as message he had just received from San much power is required to send a mesFrancisco for the Nelson. Thereafter sage on the Atlantic after dark as is the Carlos took messages from San required during daylight hours, while Francisco which were passed on to the on the Pacific only a fourth as much Queen which in turn handed them on to power is used in sending a night message the Nelson and transmitted messages as is needed while the sun is shining. from the latter to the Carlos, relayed This strange difference between atmosthem to San Francisco until the dis- pheric conditions on the two oceans is tressed vessel was definitely located and very marked, for it takes five kilowatts assured that help would reach her to do on the Atlantic that for which two promptly.
kilowatts will suffice on the Pacific. Not the least wonderful thing about Morning and evening are times that try the radio-telegraph is the distance its the patience of the wireless operators, messages are conveyed. Last summer for when darkness extends only part way the wireless station near Hamburg kept across the ocean it is sometimes imposup constant communication with a sible to get signals through at all. steamer all the way from Hamburg to Marconi explains the greater difficulty Kamerun, German West Africa, a dis- of telegraphing in daylight by saying tance of four thousand miles. To reach that the electric waves are absorbed by their destination the wireless waves had the ionization of the gaseous molecules to pass over the Alps, the Algerian table- of the air by the ultra-violet rays which land and the Adamana mountains. An emanate from the sun and which are exchange of messages between Key largely absorbed in the upper atmosWest and Norfolk November 22, 1910, phere. He thinks it probable that this was overheard at Mare Island Navy atmosphere, which is facing the sun, conYard, near San Francisco, a distance of tains more electrons than the portion in 3,889 miles. On the thirteenth of the the dark, and therefore the illumined same month Marconi himself succeeded and ionized air absorbs some of the in establishing communication between energy of the electric waves. Apparently Coltano, Italy, and Glace Bay, Nova the length of the waves and the ampliScotia, 4,500 miles distant. Early in tude of the electric oscillations have October Marconi received messages at much to do with this phenomenon, long the wireless station at Punta del Este, waves and small amplitudes being less near Buenos Ayres, from Glace Bay and influenced by daylight than short waves from Clifden, Ireland, distances of ap- and larger amplitudes. For comparproximately 5,600 miles. These long atively short waves, such as are used for distance tests were preliminary to the ship telegraphs, clear sunlight and blue opening of the great wireless station at skies act as a kind of fog to these electric Coltano, through which communication waves. Mountains are no impediment is to be maintained with Buenos Ayres, to the radio-telegraph at night, but in a distance of more than six thousand the day time they greatly reduce the miles. This great distance has been range of communication. bridged at an outlay of $500,000 for two It is unfortunate that so valuable an wireless stations, which is but a fifth of invention as the wireless telegraph what a cable between the same points should be adopted by the unscrupulous would cost.
as a new lure in the world-old process The usefulness of the wireless tele- of separating the fool and his money. At the end of 1909, there were no fewer railroad. About seventy years ago, after than thirty-six wireless telegraph com- the railroad had given some indications panies with the preposterous capitaliza- of its capacity for future usefulness, tion of $132,560,000.· The greater part England went stark, staring mad over of this vast issue of stock, much of speculation in railroad shares. Hundreds which is worth no more than the pre- of wildly impracticable schemes together vailing rate for waste paper, has been with quite as many downright frauds, exchanged for the hard earned savings were floated as fast as the printing of small investors. So successful were presses could turn out the stocks. It the operations of promoters of this kind seemed as if the savings of the entire of stocks that the postoffice department nation were poured into these schemes. was obliged to interfere. One raid last Certainly a great many million dollars November was upon the offices of a were thus thrown away. Then the bubble wireless combination capitalized at $14,- burst and the ruined dupes went to work 000,000. The assets of the concern were again to earn more money for the next so trilling that the stock of one con- plausible swindler that came along. stituent company was turned into the It is not likely that the operations of treasury at 20 cents a share. Yet this the dishonest will do any more real harm same stock was unloaded on the gullible to the wireless telegraph than they did at $10 a share. Within a radius of five to the railroad. But at least the exhundred miles of Cincinnati half a mil- posures of last summer should serve as lion dollars had been invested in this a warning to all who long for sudden kind of stock before the raid.
wealth to exercise self-denial in the purIn this particular the wireless tele- chase of temptingly offered wireless graph is but repeating the history of the telegraph stock.
Song on May Morning
Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,
ANADA is bent upon having and M. Fitzmaurice, of London, with the world's biggest bridge, Alfred Noble, of New York, and H. no matter if it does come Holgate, of Montreal, as consulting enhigh. The Quebec bridge gineers to help untangle the knotty prob
across the St. Lawrence, lems, advanced far enough with their which collapsed when half completed, on plans to allow preliminary work to be August 28, 1907, carrying seventy-four commenced a year ago on a structure of the eighty-six men on it down to which, when completed, is expected to death, cost the Dominion $7,154,987. cost somewhere near eleven million dolJust as soon as the weary round of of- lars, thus bringing the total outlay for a ficial investigations had been finished an means of getting the trains of the new international board of engineers was as transcontinental railroad across the St. sembled and told to try to design a Lawrence, up to eighteen million dollars. bridge that could stand alone, to be Still, it will be worth the money; for erected on the site of the failure. This the Canadians will be able to boast the board, consisting of H. Vautelet, of possession of a bridge the main span of Montreal, Ralph Modjeski, of Chicago, which will be 48 feet longer than the
NINE THOUSAND TONS OF STEEL, BENT AND TWISTED INTO INDESCRIBABLE CONFUSION,
WHICH HAD TO BE CLEARED AWAY.
cantilever spans of the famous Firth of span is to be 1,758 feet long as compared Forth bridge, and 162 feet longer than with 1,710 feet, the length of each of the the Brooklyn bridge. Let them make two cantilever spans of the Scotch the most of it, for when New York gets bridge. Lest the Canadians should bearound to bridging the Hudson the come unduly puffed up over this prodigQuebec affair will look like a mere cul- ious span they should remember that vert by comparison. Indeed, New York that is nothing at all to what the engiCity already has bridges that cost a neers could do if they wanted to, acgreat deal more than the Quebec struc- cording to their own story. A commisture, thanks to the highly developed sion of army engineers appointed by the Tammany art of making three dollars Secretary of War in 1894 to investigate do the work of one. In mere height the practicability of bridging the Hudson above the water, too, the Quel or builge at New York City with a span of 3,100 is far excelled by a number of bridges feet, reported that under certain condiscattered over the world. One of these tions the practicable limit of length in a is the St. Giustina bridge in the Tyrol, bridge span was 4,335 feet. Not to be which is 460 feet above the water ; that outdone, Gustav Lindenthal, an Ameriis, from the surface of the water to the can engineer who had not been consulted top of the rail, as compared with a beg- about it, in commenting upon this report garly 150 feet at Quebec. The Fades declared in a magazine article, under his bridge in France is 435 feet above the own signature, his firm conviction that a water, the Garabit bridge in France 406 bridge with a span of 6,000 feet long feet, the Zambesi bridge in South Africa could be built on which trains could run 420 feet, not to mention a number of with safety at express speed. So far others that are more than three hundred no one has ventured to outtalk Mr. Linfeet high. Mere height above the water denthal on bridge building. and cost, or rather expenditure, how- However, the Quebec structure will ever, do not count in bridges; it is the be a very fair sort of bridge, considerlength of the span that confers distinc- ing. The tops of the main posts will be tion.
448 feet above the water as compared The new Quebec bridge is to be only with 361 feet in the Forth bridge. The 3,232 feet long over all as compared with latter only carries two railroad tracks, a total length of 8,296 feet of the Firth while the Quebec bridge will have two of Forth bridge; but its central cantilever railroad tracks, two street railway tracks,
ONE MILE DISTANT.
two horse and motor roadways and, 500 tons each, while the posts themselves finally, two sidewalks.
will weigh 900 tons each. The total The new Quebec bridge is propor- weight of the bridge according to the tioned for a load twice as great as the official plans, will be 145,000,000 pounds one which collapsed was designed to as compared with the Forth bridge's carry, while its bottom chords will have weight of 114,000,000 pounds. five times the strength of those in the One of the difficulties confronting the old one. Designed for a load 2.98 times board of engineers was that the actual that of the Forth bridge, or 13,340 strength of steel members of great size pounds per lineal foot as compared to is unknown. Such definite knowledge of 4,480 pounds, it will weigh 2.3 times as steel as is available has been obtained by much per lineal foot. The heaviest bot- testing small pieces. Calculations for tom chord will weigh 160 tons, the larger sections were based on these pedestals, upon which the main posts' known facts. But evidently there is a will rest will be 19 feet high and weigh big difference between the theoretical