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and the actual strength of large mem- were warned that they must clearly unbers, for otherwise the original structure derstand that they must be prepared to would not have collapsed.
undertake the entire responsibility, not In order to afford the engineers a only for the materials and construction, more substantial basis of facts upon but also for the design, calculations, which to build their calculations Parlia- plans and specifications and for the sufment appropriated $30,000 to pay for a ficiency of the bridge for the loads speciseries of tests of models of columns and fied. girders. These models, some of which It was a strange task which confronted weighed as much as 6,850 pounds, were the contractor who undertook to remove placed in a testing machine, having a ca- the wreckage of the collapsed bridge. pacity of 2,800,000 pounds, at Phoenix- Nine thousand tons of steel, bent and ville, Pennsylvania, in which they were twisted into indescribable confusion, lay slowly crushed while a squad of engi- between the shore and deep water. neers looked on, took measurements and There was no place to begin, for there made notes. Armed with the data thus were no loose ends. So well had the obtained the Board of Engineers worked steel makers done their work that but a out its design with some assurance that single eyebar was broken in the collapse. it would stand the test of time. The of- Starting in January, 1910, the contractor ficial plans call for a cantilever struc- was allowed until May 1, 1911, a period ture; but the contractors who submit of less than sixteen months, in which to bids are invited to offer suggestions for clear away the wreckage, including all any changes they think will be improve that showed in the river at low water. ments. If they meet the approval of the Two months were spent in experiengineers the changes in the official plans menting, trying to find a vulnerable spot can be made, but the contractors must in the wreck and some efficient method of take all the risks. Prospective bidders cutting up the ponderous members of
would water. Worked parengin
the bridge into bits that could be han- the caisson, a solid block of concrete 150 dled. These experiments brought out feet long, 49 feet wide and 25 feet deep. the fact that there were just two means This is to be pieced out by an L-shaped at hand, one being dynamite, the other extension to be formed of two caissons, the oxy-acetylene flame. Each was one 25 by 31 feet, the other 31 by 85 peculiarly adapted to certain conditions, feet, which are to be sunk to the same so that each supplemented the other. depth as the old one this spring. On Together they have performed feats not top of the extended foundation a third matched in the annals of engineering. caisson 180 by 79 feet and 27 feet high,
Dynamite worked particularly well to be of solid concrete strongly reunder water. One stick of the explosive inforced with steel, will be built, upon would break a plate half an inch thick, which the masonry will be erected. while to break a plate an inch thick two As the river span is to be shortened sticks were required. In order to cut forty-two feet, the north main pier will one of the great girders, sticks of dyna- be nearer the river and entirely clear of mite were placed end to end across it, the old. For the foundation of this pier usually tied to a stick of wood or placed a caisson of unusual size was built. Some in a piece of cheap rubber hose. If the idea of the magnitude of the undertaking cut was to be done on the water the ex- may be gathered from the fact that two plosive was placed in position at low hundred thousand dollars were expended tide. Then the workmen waited until on a plant for building the great caisson the tide rose, thus affording a water and the smaller ones for the south pier. tamping. Above high water the charge The north caisson, 180 by 55 feet, was was covered with a few inches of earth. built of timbers 12 inches square and Extra precautions had to be taken in solidly braced by dividing the interior seeking shelter when a charge was to be into eighteen working chambers, each fired, for pieces of steel were thrown 20 by 25 feet, with heavy timber walls. great distances. One piece was thrown By the time the outer walls had been across the river. Twelve tons of dyna- built up to a height of 21 feet 9 inches mite were used in breaking up the south and the total weight was 1,700 tons it anchor arm.
was deemed ready for launching. The Oxy-acetylene gave remarkable re- remainder of its 68 feet in height was sults. It was used to greatest advantage to be built up as sinking proceeded. in cutting the heavy chords and posts. The launching took place July 7, 1910, into pieces. The flame cut very rapidly, and the big box was towed three miles leaving a narrow, sharply defined slot up the river to the bridge site. Unfornot wider than a saw would make. A tunately it sprung a leak after the work square inch of steel could be cut through of sinking had begun and the pumps in 558 seconds with 0.4 of a foot of gas breaking down, it filled and sank on the costing 1.2 cents. An eyebar 2 inches big boulders in the river bottom in such thick and 10 inches wide was cut through a position that it was strained. So it had in one minute and fifty seconds with the to be laboriously floated and towed to a flame. This method proved very con- dry dock for repairs. To gain time a hole venient, for as the torch weighs but a twenty feet deep was dredged on the few pounds it could be carried around pier site, leaving just that much less anywhere. When ten of the sixteen excavating to be done under compressed months had elapsed but half the wreck- air in the caisson. A boiler plant of six age had been removed. The contractor, hundred horse-power was required to who gets $45,000 and the scrap, doubt- furnish steam to run the compressors less feels that he is earning his money.. in sinking this caisson.
As the new bridge is to be wider, If everything goes as it has been shorter and heavier than the old, the planned the masonry work on the piers original piers could not be used, although will be finished by November 1, so that the masonry was unharmed. The foun- the erection of the superstructure may dation of the old south main pier, how- begin as soon as the weather will permit ever, was all right so far as it went. So in the spring of 1912. By 1915 trains the masonry was stripped off down to will be crossing, it is hoped.
IN Palestine the native horseshoer, latter protrude about half an inch or a
known as a “betar,” not only shoes little more. The inside ones are cut off, but also treats sick animals, corre- turned over and clinched into the hoof, sponding in this latter respect to our while the outside ones are curled around
veterinary surgeon. His shop is in- and around by being lightly tapped with variably a very small concern, unlike a hammer. anything found in the Occident. In the In a dry and stony country like Pales-first place, there is no blacksmith work tine native shoes have these advantages done of any kind, hence, no fire or forge. over European ones: stones cannot get Two methods of shoeing are followed into them, while the hoof being pracone known as the native and the other tically entirely covered keeps moist and as the European. The native shoes are much softer, making the liability of solid plates, covering the entire hoof, cracked hoofs quite remote. with a small air-hole in the middle, and The native shoes are made from thick curving outwards at the back. Those sheet iron and also from wrought iron. known as European are very similar to They are finished very roughly and reour American shoes.
quire a good deal of hammering before The assistant holds the animal's leg they are ready for use. up when the farrier, or shoer, in a half- The European shoes are finished ready kneeling position, removes the old shoes to be put on. In Jerusalem there are with a pair of large pincers, the jaws of only two European blacksmith shops which are very dull. The trimming or doing European shoeing. One is run by cutting of the hoof is done with a draw Germans and the other by an Armenian, knife, the blade of which is six inches who learned the trade from the Germans. long and four inches wide, very sharp They are mostly patronized by foreignand thin.
ers. The natives have a prejudice against The shoes are fitted cold, and as soon burning the hoofs with the shoe. Less as they are placed upon the feet, a than half a century ago European-shaped curious little wooden block is brought shoes were entirely unknown in Palesinto play. Upon this the animal is. tine. The first horse shod in this manner made to place one foot at a time while was that belonging to the Russian conthe farrier drives home the nails. These sul some thirty-nine years ago.
Not Boastful "I was in a Missouri town two years ago," said a local dramatic producer, "trying to get up a show. The landlord of the chief and only hotel seemed half-way intelligent, and I interviewed him, as a preliminary. “Your town boasts a band, does it not?' I asked. “Well, no, stranger,' he responded. “We've got a band, but we don't boast of it. We jest endure it.'”—Boston Traveler,
"Dearest, you have ceased to love me."
"No, I haven't,” he replied, “but I must breathe.”—Ladies' Home Journal.
A Crusher GERALD—“My dog knows as much as I do."
GERALDINE-"Why don't you get an intelligent dog?”—Chicago Record-Herald.
Of Such Stuff Are Heroes "Now then, men,” cried the gallant captain, "fight like heroes till your powder is done, then run for your lives. I'm a little lame, so I'll start now."—W'asp.
Fruitless Struggle "I UNDERSTAND that, after waiting twenty years, she married a struggling man."
"Yes, poor chap. He struggled the best he knew how, but she landed him."-Brooklyn Life
Minute Specialization A YOUNG medical student was being quizzed by one of his teachers: "In what will you specialize?” he was asked. “Diseases of the nostril,” replied the student. “Good,” said the professor, enthusiastically. "Which nostril?” -Success.
Up Against It SHE—“Lizzie's bloke calls 'er 'is peach and the apple of 'is eye. Why can't you call me things like that?".
HE—“Yus, that's all very well; but 'e's in the vegetable business. I'm in the fish trade, remember.”—Punch.