Page images

a sense of color but that the gray snapper The adults could also learn to overcome is similarly equipped. The scientific squad obstacles in seeking to sit upon the egg. played a mean trick on the gray snap- The noddy builds its nest in bushes, and pers which the Society for the Preven- in doing so is quite shy; but if an egg tion of Cruelty to Animals would do well be placed in the nest it loses all shyness to look into. The snappers were tempted and sits upon the egg as if it were its into developing a taste for sardines dyed own. Both male and female build the red. When this lad been accomplished nest, but the male alone procures food some sardines were loaded by placing for both during this period, the female tentacles of the medusa in their mouths. constantly guarding the nest. After the

"Stung again," exclaimed the snap egg is laid male and female fly away to pers as they dropped the loaded sardines. fish, taking their turns at brooding the Thereafter the snappers would not touch egg at intervals of about two hours. The a red sardine, no matter how hungry they egg hatches after thirty-two to thirty-five were, thus showing that they knew a days of incubation. The noddy does not thing or two.

recognize its own egg but will cheerfully On the other hand, all colors look alike incubate anything that looks somewhat to the ghost crab, though it readily per like an egg. It recognizes the locality of ceives moving objects and is sensitive to its nest and returns to the old locality if large differences in the intensity of light. the nest be moved, but it will accept an But it is deaf as a post, its so-called artificial nest placed in the old locality "auditory organs” being in reality organs without hesitation. The sooty tern nests of equilibration. In spite of its handicaps upon the ground and recognizes the the ghost crab has memory and, like the exact locality of its nest; if the nest be gray snapper, can profit by experience, raised vertically, the bird readily alights which is more than some people can do. upon it; then if, after an interval, the

Prof. John B. Watson, making his nest is lowered the bird attempts to headquarters at the marine biological alight in the air in the place where the station, was able to pry into the domestic nest was formerly. A slight horizontal affairs of the noddy and sooty tern on movement of the nest causes great conBird Key. He reared the young birds fusion to the bird. and found that they could learn to find Birds taken from Bird Key to Cape their way through a maze to their food. Hatteras, eight hundred and fifty miles

[graphic][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][subsumed][ocr errors]



away, and liberated, returned in five days, doubt it will be, unless the truth itself although it is believed that they flew should also be submerged. along shore and not by an air line, which But anyhow the spectacular quest of would make the distance at least a thou- knowledge so prodigally endowed by sand and eighty-one miles.

Andrew Carnegie is worth the watching, A number of other sojourners at Tor- for there was never anything like it in tugas station have found out various the history of the world. Until last things which they have set forth at January when the founder added $10,length in the publications of the Carnegie 000,000 to his previous endowment of Institution, not one of which has yet ap- $15,000,000 the Carnegie Institution had peared in the list of the six best sellers. an income of more than six hundred However, what the publications of the thousand dollars a year. Its permanent Carnegie Institution lack in popularity plant already includes a handsome adthey more than make up in quantity. ministration building in Washington and Although the Institution was organized fifty-eight other buildings, including two only nine years ago its publications in astronomical observatories and five labbook form already aggregate 167 vol. oratories, thirteen parcels of land and a umes, having more than forty thousand fleet of ten vessels. Upwards of twelve pages, or upwards of twenty million hundred individuals have contributed in words of printed matter, while twenty- one way or another to the promotion of five volumes more are already in press, the researches and the publications unnot to mention some twelve hundred dertaken by the Institution, while during articles a year contributed to scientific each of the past five years about five periodicals.

hundred individuals have thus collabIn the presence of such an inky deluge orated. With such an outfit and such an it does seem as if the wilderness of army of workers investigations have interrogation marks in which mankind been carried on during the past year in has been wandering since the other del more than thirty different fields of reuge must inevitably be swept away. No search, extending to more than forty dif

[graphic][ocr errors][ocr errors][subsumed][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][subsumed][ocr errors]

A SHIP BUILT WITHOUT A SINGLE SCRAP OF IRON. The Carnegie, used in the magnetic survey. Copper and brass were the only metals employed in her construction,

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]


Dr. Hale, the director of this observatory, has found ways to reveal 60.000 new worlds.

ferent countries scattered over every foregoing that the Carnegie Institution continent, not to mention the oceans and is in a hurry to find out all there is to interstellar space.

know ; for President Woodward has sugTen independent departments of re- gested that in estimating the work of search, together with divisions of admin- departments the decade instead of the istration and publication, each with its year should be the unit of time. Indeed, staff and assistants, have been organized the peculiar worth of the Institution lies and established within the Institution in its ability to pursue with absolute thoritself. In addition to these larger de- oughness, regardless of time or expense, partments of work, numerous special whatever it undertakes. Yet while workresearches, in aid of which upwards of ing for posterity quite as much as for the seven hundred grants of money have present generation the Carnegie Institubeen made, have been carried on by re- tion is accomplishing practical results of search associates and other individual immediate importance. investigators

For example, the Department of TerIt is not to be understood from the restrial Magnetism was organized to

[ocr errors]


[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

find, if possible, the

longitude 156 deanswer to the ques

grees east. A tions, what is mag

straight line drawn netism, and why is

through the earth the earth mag

from one magnetic netic? This is a

pole to the other pretty big contract,

would pass about for the carrying

seven hundred and out of which the

fifty miles to one largest, most com

side of the center. prehensive, and

It would be bad perhaps most ex

enough if the compensive investiga

pass varied from tion ever under


place to place; but, taken in the name THE NUTRITION LABORATORY, AT BOSTON,

not satisfied with of science was be

that, it must also gun. The first step

vary from time to was to organize a

time. Just when magnetic survey of

you think you have the whole world,

the compass it is by sea and by land.

most likely that This survey has

you haven't as been going on ever

many an unfortusince 1905. While

nate mariner has its ultimate object

found too late to is the solution of a

keep his ship off scientific problem

the rocks. In order the practical bene

to make such an In This BUILDING SCIENTISTS ARE TRYING TO FIND fits of which can

eccentric instrubetter be deter

Geophysical Laboratory, Washington, D. C. ment available for mined after it has

navigation it is been accomplished, results of the utmost necessary that the amount of variation immediate importance are being achieved at any given point should be known so while the work goes on.

that any given compass reading may Frequent magnetic surveys are neces be corrected to give the true direction. sary to keep tab on the compass, which Compass variations are checked up from is the main reliance of the navigator. time to time by magnetic surveys made The compass is popularly supposed to by various governments, the results of point straight to the place where Dr. Cook which are plotted on charts for the guiddidn't go, with an unfaltering fidelity that ance of the navigator. has become proverbial; but as a matter The Carnegie Institution began its of fact the compass is as flighty and magnetic survey of the Pacific Ocean in uncertain as a girl with two beaux. For August, 1905, with the Galilee, a wooden instance, the compass on a liner leaving brigantine of six hundred tons, from New York for Europe points ten de- which as much iron and steel as possible grees west of north; in mid-ocean the had been removed to render the vessel needle yaws thirty degrees west of where as nearly non-magnetic as practicable. it should be, while at Southampton it is The Galilee covered sixty-five thousand only seventeen degrees west of its proper miles of salt water in a course which, place.

as plotted on the chart, looks as if it The north magnetic pole, by the way, might have been laid out by a beetle with is a different thing from the geographic the blind staggers, for the Galilee crossed north pole, for it is situated in latitude her own trail whenever practicable to seventy degrees north and longitude check up observations. The results were ninety-seven degrees west, while the important, for errors of one to three south magnetic pole is approximately in degrees were found on existing charts latitude seventy-three degrees south and between San Francisco and Honolulu and errors of from three to five degrees Azores the Carnegie gathered proof that elsewhere.



the Slavonia, which was wrecked on a In order to attain a still greater de reef in 1909, though the four hundred gree of accuracy a non-magnetic ship persons on board were rescued through which was christened the Carnegie was the help of the wireless telegraph, was launched in June, 1909, at a cost of in her proper course according to the $115,000, to be used in the magnetic Admiralty charts, but that there was an survey. On the very first voyage from error in the charts of between two and Long Island Sound by way of St. Johns three degrees or about a hundred and to Falmouth, England, errors of im- fifty miles. portance to navigators were found. In The Carnegie is now at sea on a three one instance the amount of compass years' cruise that will take her around the variation at a certain spot in the ocean world. While the ocean survey is going was given differently by each of the three on, field parties are busy with the magstandard charts published by the British netic survey in British North America, Admiralty, the German Admiralty and Central America, West Indies, Colombia, the United States Hydrographic Office, Ecuador, British, French, and Dutch and the Carnegie proved that all of them Guiana, Africa, Persia, Turkey, Asia were wrong. Along the track followed Minor, Southern Asiatic Russia, and by the Atlantic liners from England to a China. All these parties send their obpoint off Newfoundland the present mag- servations to headquarters at Washingnetic charts show too large a westerly ton where they are reduced and prepared declination by nearly a degree. From for publication. there to Long Island the charts give too No Chicago packer works up his bysmall a westerly declination by about a products more carefully than the Cardegree and a half. The effect of these negie Institution. The main purpose of errors is always to set a vessel toward the Department of Terrestrial MagnetSable Island or Newfoundland, where ism, as already indicated, is a magnetic the facilities for a first-class shipwreck survey of the earth. But it has been are unequaled. Cruising around the found that with a very small additional

[graphic][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]

WINGLESS CHICKENS HAVE BEEN PRODUCED HERE. This is not done as a pastime, but as a most serious effort to peep into the mysteries of the Darwinian theory.

« PreviousContinue »