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a sense of color but that the gray snapper is similarly equipped. The scientific squad played a mean trick on the gray snappers which the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals would do well to look into. The snappers were tempted into developing a taste for sardines dyed red. When this Lad been accomplished some sardines were loaded by placing tentacles of the medusa in their mouths.
"Stung again," exclaimed the snappers as they dropped the loaded sardines. Thereafter the snappers would not touch a red sardine, no matter how hungry they were, thus showing that they knew a thing or two.
On the other hand, all colors look alike to the ghost crab, though it readily perceives moving objects and is sensitive to large differences in the intensity of light. But it is deaf as a post, its so-called "auditory organs" being in reality organs of equilibration. In spite of its handicaps the ghost crab has memory and, like the gray snapper, can profit by experience, which is more than some people can do.
Prof. John B. Watson, making his headquarters at the marine biological station, was able to pry into the domestic affairs of the noddy and sooty tern on Bird Key. He reared the young birds and found that they could learn to find their way through a maze to their food.
The adults could also learn to overcome obstacles in seeking to sit upon the egg. The noddy builds its nest in bushes, and in doing so is quite shy; but if an egg be placed in the nest it loses all shyness and sits upon the egg as if it were its own. Both male and female build the nest, but the male alone procures food for both during this period, the female constantly guarding the nest. After the egg is laid male and female fly away to fish, taking their turns at brooding the egg at intervals of about two hours. The egg hatches after thirty-two to thirty-five days of incubation. The noddy does not recognize its own egg but will cheerfully incubate anything that looks somewhat like an egg. It recognizes the locality of its nest and returns to the old locality if the nest be moved, but it will accept an artificial nest placed in the old locality without hesitation. The sooty tern nests upon the ground and recognizes the exact locality of its nest; if the nest be raised vertically, the bird readily alights upon it; then if, after an interval, the nest is lowered the bird attempts to alight in the air in the place where the nest was formerly. A slight horizontal movement of the nest causes great confusion to the bird.
Birds taken from Bird Key to Cape Hatteras, eight hundred and fifty miles away, and liberated, returned in five days, although it is believed that they flew along shore and not by an air line, which would make the distance at least a thousand and eighty-one miles.
A number of other sojourners at Tortugas station have found out various things which they have set forth at length in the publications of the Carnegie Institution, not one of which has yet appeared in the list of the six best sellers. However, what the publications of the Carnegie Institution lack in popularity they more than make up in quantity. Although the Institution was organized only nine years ago its publications in book form already aggregate 167 volumes, having more than forty thousand pages, or upwards of twenty million words of printed matter, while twentyfive volumes more are already in press, not to mention some twelve hundred articles a year contributed to scientific periodicals.
In the presence of such an inky deluge it does seem as if the wilderness of interrogation marks in which mankind has been wandering since the other deluge must inevitably be swept away. No
doubt it will be, unless the truth itself should also be submerged.
But anyhow the spectacular quest of knowledge so prodigally endowed by Andrew Carnegie is worth the watching, for there was never anything like it in the history of the world. Until last January when the founder added $10,000,000 to his previous endowment of $15,000,000 the Carnegie Institution had an income of more than six hundred thousand dollars a year. Its permanent plant already includes a handsome administration building in Washington and fifty-eight other buildings, including two astronomical observatories and five laboratories, thirteen parcels of land and a fleet of ten vessels. Upwards of twelve hundred individuals have contributed in one way or another to the promotion of the researches and the publications undertaken by the Institution, while during each of the past five years about five hundred individuals have thus collaborated. With such an outfit and such an army of workers investigations have been carried on during the past year in more than thirty different fields of research, extending to more than forty different countries scattered over every continent, not to mention the oceans and interstellar space.
A SHIP BUILT WITHOUT A SINGLE SCRAP OF IRON. The Carnegie, used in the magnetic survey. Copper and brass were the only metals employed in her construction.
Ten independent departments of research, together with divisions of administration and publication, each with its staff and assistants, have been organized and established within the Institution itself. In addition to these larger departments of work, numerous special researches, in aid of which upwards of seven hundred grants of money have been made, have been carried on by research associates and other individual investigators.
It is not to be understood from the
foregoing that the Carnegie Institution is in a hurry to find out all there is to know ; for President Woodward has suggested that in estimating the work of departments the decade instead of the year should be the unit of time. Indeed, the peculiar worth of the Institution lies in its ability to pursue with absolute thoroughness, regardless of time or expense, whatever it undertakes. Yet while working for posterity quite as much as for the present generation the Carnegie Institution is accomplishing practical results of immediate importance.
For example, the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism was organized to find, if possible, the answer to the questions, what is magnetism, and why is the earth magnetic? This is a pretty big contract, for the carrying out of which the largest, most comprehensive, and perhaps most expensive investigation ever undertaken in the name of science was begun. The first step was to organize a magnetic survey of the whole world, by sea and by land. This survey has been going on ever since 1905. While its ultimate object is the solution of a scientific problem the practical benefits of which can better be determined after it has
been accomplished, results of the utmost immediate importance are being achieved while the work goes on.
Frequent magnetic surveys are necessary to keep tab on the compass, which is the main reliance of the navigator. The compass is popularly supposed to point straight to the place where Dr. Cook didn't go, with an unfaltering fidelity that has become proverbial; but as a matter of fact the compass is as flighty and uncertain as a girl with two beaux. For instance, the compass on a liner leaving New York for Europe points ten degrees west of north; in mid-ocean the needle yaws thirty degrees west of where it should be, while at Southampton it is only seventeen degrees west of its proper place.
The north magnetic pole, by the way. is a different thing from the geographic north pole, for it is situated in latitude seventy degrees north and longitude ninety-seven degrees west, while the south magnetic pole is approximately in latitude seventy-three degrees south and
longitude 156 degrees east. A straight line drawn through the earth from one magnetic pole to the other would pass about seven hundred and fifty miles to one side of the center.
It would be bad enough if the compass varied from place to place; but, not satisfied with that, it must also vary from time to time. Just when you think you have the compass it is most likely that you haven't* as many an unfortunate mariner has found too late to keep his ship off the rocks. In order to make such an eccentric instrument available for navigation it is necessary that the amount of variation at any given point should be known so that any given compass reading may be corrected to give the true direction. Compass variations are checked up from time to time by magnetic surveys made by various governments, the results of which are plotted on charts for the guidance of the navigator.
The Carnegie Institution began its magnetic survey of the Pacific Ocean in August, 1905, with the Galilee, a wooden brigantine of six hundred tons, from which as much iron and steel as possible had been removed to render the vessel as nearly non-magnetic as practicable. The Galilee covered sixty-five thousand miles of salt water in a course which, as plotted on the chart, looks as if it might have been laid out by a beetle with the blind staggers, for the Galilee crossed her own trail whenever practicable to check up observations. The results were important, for errors of one to three degrees were found on existing charts between San Francisco and Honolulu and errors of from three to five degrees elsewhere.
In order to attain a still greater degree of accuracy a non-magnetic ship which was christened the Carnegie was launched in June, 1909, at a cost of $115,000, to be used in the magnetic survey. On the very first voyage from Long Island Sound by way of St. Johns to Falmouth, England, errors of importance to navigators were found. In one instance the amount of compass variation at a certain spot in the ocean was given differently by each of the three standard charts published by the British Admiralty, the German Admiralty and the United States Hydrographic Office, and the Carnegie proved that all of them were wrong. Along the track followed by the Atlantic liners from England to a point off Newfoundland the present magnetic charts show too large a westerly declination by nearly a degree. From there to Long Island the charts give too small a westerly declination by about a degree and a half. The effect of these errors is always to set a vessel toward Sable Island or Newfoundland, where the facilities for a first-class shipwreck are unequaled. Cruising around the
Azores the Carnegie gathered proof that the Slavonia, which was wrecked on a reef in 1909, though the four hundred persons on board were rescued through the help of the wireless telegraph, was in her proper course according to the Admiralty charts, but that there was an error in the charts of between two and three degrees or about a hundred and fifty miles.
The Carnegie is now at sea on a three years' cruise that will take her around the world. While the ocean survey is going on, field parties are busy with the magnetic survey in British North America, Central America, West Indies, Colombia, Ecuador, British, French, and Dutch Guiana, Africa, Persia. Turkey, Asia Minor, Southern Asiatic Russia, and China. All these parties send their observations to headquarters at Washington where they are reduced and prepared for publication.
No Chicago packer works up his byproducts more carefully than the Carnegie Institution. The main purpose of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, as already indicated, is a magnetic survey of the earth. But it has been found that with a very small additional
WINGLESS CHICKENS HAVE BEEN PRODUCED HKRE. This is not done as a pastime, but as a most serious effort to peep into the mysteries of the Darwinian theory. Station for Experimental Evolution. Cold Spring Harbor. New York.