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The revolutionary change from a go-

1908 1910

as-you-please policy to a strict enforce-
Fines from passengers on docks, etc....$ 33.162 $121,318 ment of the law as indicated by the fore-
Fines from mail importations....... 12.460
Sale of seized merchandise, net proceeds 4.604

15:673 going figures naturally caused some Sale of seizures under decree of court... 11.782 13.449 Fines, court cases..

commotion, which has by no means

2.578 67.400 Accepted offers in compromise.

100.902 657.454 been soothed by the discovery of the Totals.......

.$165,491 $882.250
sugar trust customs frauds that netted

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ably they would not have paid duty if hobble skirts had not been in vogue last fall. It is hard enough to walk in a hobble skirt, as anyone who has tried it can testify. But when in addition to hobble skirts one's freedom of movement is still further hampered by a huge muff drawn up over each 1-well, the inspectors lined up on the pier actually laughed out loud when the Western ladies essayed the passage of the gang plank. The Brutes!

Not to linger over the harrowing details, the two westerners were politely invited back to their staterooms by some women inspectors. When it was all over those muffs had cost their owners just four times what they could have been purchased for in the home market.

This unfortunate affair of the sable muffs was not the only attempt on record to evade the payment of duties by guileful passengers. Bless your heart, no!


the customs inspectors STATE ROOMS.

gathered in five hundred

thousand dollars' worth of the Government three millions, by the jewelry from amateur smugglers, more indictment of a member of the sacred

than half of whom were women. executive committee of Tammany Hall, Contemplating the matter calmly it and the arrest and indictment of some of seems incredible that any one should try the biggest art dealers on Fifth Avenue, to smuggle since the custom house has New York, for swindling the Govern- been reorganized. Detection is about as ment out of millions in duties, not to certain as anything can be in this unmention hosts of smaller smugglers. certain world, and as those who are Upon the whole, there is no wonder the caught are always caught literally with custom house and everybody connected the goods on, there is nothing for it but with it is very unpopular just now in to take one's medicine. It is only fair certain circles having some degree of to say, however, that the customs offiskill in vocalizing their unhappiness.

are as charitable to the amateur Two ladies from the West now cher- smugglers as is consistent with their ish particularly uncomplimentary opin- duty. When they find a trunk full of ions of the New York customs officers. dutiable articles not declared they genEach bought two splendid sable muffs in erally give the owner a chance to amend Europe last summer, and it did seem a his declaration. Only in the more pity to have to pay duty on them. Prob- flagrant cases do they shut the gates of



mercy on the culprit, and, to change the found rings, brooches, chains, watches, figure, exact the pound of flesh.

et cetera, enough to stock a jewelry Attempts at smuggling seem still more store. The whole outfit was seized and foolish when it is remembered that all sold. important sales of jewelry abroad are On the same ship was a wealthy carpet registered and that the books are open manufacturer of Yonkers. He, at least, , to the inspection of representatives of should have been familiar with the tariff, this Government. Jewelers in this coun- because it was the tariff that made him try, who are naturally affected by smug- rich. And yet he wrote in his declaration gling, have their own agents on the look- that his six trunks contained nothing out and they pay well for information dutiable. This statement he repeated on leading to the arrest and conviction of the dock. Yet an inspector found two smugglers. Added to all this, hosts of thousand dollars' worth of dutiable artihonest Americans seem to find peculiar cles there. This mistake cost the carpet pleasure in giving information of pros- manufacturer a painful day at the Cuspective attempts at smuggling. Finally, tom House and $4,960 in cash. Yet he there is a stereotyped list of tricks and counted himself lucky because he escaped schemes outside of which the smuggler criminal prosecution. never ventures. As the customs officers Earlier in the year a society matron have these by heart, they never make any from Poughkeepsie, whose husband is a mistakes. In nine cases out of ten they rich manufacturer, arriving from Europe know in advance just whom to look out with her daughter and the latter's for, and so they go straight for their chaperon declared but $385 in dutiable quarry with unerring precision.

articles in the party's seven trunks and In view of all this the kind of people five pieces of hand baggage. As the cuscaught in the customs net is certainly toms officers knew she had purchased a amazing. One of them was a former very fine necklace in Paris they asked governor of New Hampshire. When he her three several times to amend her arrived on the Lusitania last May he de- declaration. When she refused they clared nothing but one fur coat valued asked her in plain words for the necklace. at $800. When his baggage was Not until she was threatened with arrest amined dutiable articles worth several did she finally drag it from its hiding thousand dollars were found. He was place in her hat. She tore up a letter given an opportunity to amend his dec- from the jewelers confirming the sale laration and thus to escape with only the and scattered the pieces on the floor ; but payment of duties. As he refused he the inspectors gathered up the pieces was arrested and indicted by the Fed- and put them together. Her husband eral Grand Jury. He pleaded guilty had a great deal to say about the brutalwhen arraigned and was fined $2,000. ity of the customs examination until the Besides this he had to pay $3,400 as the necklace and the letter were produced. foreign value of the goods and on top of It cost him a fine of $5,000 and the value all this was piled the regular duty. of the necklace plus 60 per cent duty,

Nor was this an exceptional A making a total of $17.000. prominent doctor from Chicago whose A society leader from a Boston suburb declaration listed but $300 worth of who tried to smuggle in a $30,000 neckdutiable goods seemed rather bulky for lace in 1909, was tried and convicted and a fashionably dressed man when he ar- fined $5,000. She also had to pay the rived on the Kronprinzessin Cecilie last government the cost of the necklace with September. Tim Donohue, a customs

customs duty added, making the total $39.000. sleuth, struck so many knobs and pro- Adding the original cost of the necklace tuberances when he stumbled against the and lawyers' fees, court costs, and other doctor that the latter was invited back expenses, that necklace represents a to his stateroom. There the searchers grand total outlay of $75,000.










T is only within a comparatively series of experiments with what is known short time that the public has been as the Jacobs-Shupert Firebox. aroused to the fact that the steam The most common cause for boiler boiler is one of the most prolific explosion is low water. The gauges may

sources of destruction with which become stopped so that they do not propwe have to deal. Lack of knowledge on erly indicate the height of the water in the part of many intrusted with its care, the boiler; the proper amount of water and oftentimes willful neglect are the may not be fed to the boiler because of causes of a large per cent of the acci- the clogging of the pipes; or, through dents, and because of this fact engineers neglect, the water is allowed to fall below have given up warning the public and the level of the roof of the firebox, or have set about “making the thing fool- crownsheet, as it is more properly called.

When this occurs with a hot fire beneath, One feels that some effort along this the crownsheet becomes red hot and conline is due when it is realized that to all sequently soft, and unable to retain the intents and purposes, the construction of pressure of steam within. the common steam boiler is the same to- The result is a terrific explosion day that it was seventy-five years ago.

which sometimes carries the boiler a long Probably the most progressive step in distance from the scene, leaving death this direction recently taken has been by and destruction in its wake. The scatthe officials of the Atchison, Topeka & tered fire is as much a menace to life Santa Fe Railway, who have begun a . and property as the flying debris, and




with the danger of falling walls added, a more dreadful catastrophe can hardly be imagined

With the usual form of boiler construction this is almost unavoidable. The

. crownsheet is usually supported from the roof of the boiler by a large number of iron rods called “stay bolts,” riveted on the inside of the firebox where their heads are constantly subjected to the most intense heat. When red heat is attained in the crownsheet through lack of water, the heads of the stay bolts are the first parts to be affected, and under pressure from within, pull through


OF WATER. and leave the sheets un

The crownsheet bas been torn away, leaving the stay bolts. supported and at the mercy of the terrific stored energy.

by vertical plates running in retreat from As far as the external appearance is the fire. The plates are perforated with concerned the Jacobs-Shupert firebox large holes to permit the free circulation does not differ greatly from others, the of water and steam. unique features being within the boiler It is hardly necessary to state that this itself. One need only to glance at the construction will withstand much more photographs of the partly constructed overheating than the common type of firebox to realize the immensely superior boiler. strength it possesses over the old type.

What we

are all most interested to The top and sides instead of being made know is whether our lives will be safer of single sheets as in the old design are on a train behind an engine equipped constructed in U shaped sections a few with such a boiler, and so a brief descripinches in width, formed to the arch of tion of the test to which it was recently the box, riveted together and reinforced subjected may be of interest.

On September 26th last, in the presence of many engineers from various cities and two representatives of the Interstate Commerce Commission, the above mentioned railway officials subjected a boiler equipped with a firebox of this design to a low-water test. This boiler was taken from one of the company's highest grade locomotives and set up in a large vacant tract of land in the neighborhood of their shops. The firebox was equipped to burn oil. The boiler was fitted with two steam gauges, one to verify the other, and two water glasses, one to show the height of the water above the crownsheet, the other, the distance it might fall below during the test.

A pump was also set up at a distance to FIREBOX PARTLY CONSTRUCTED, SHOWING SECTIONS

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