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warnings her father had written to her formed fiends who perpetrate it, that it to be careful to include everything du seems a pity to spoil the illusion. But tiable in her declaration. Yet she de- the unpicturesque truth is that all such clared but three gowns at $364, omitting stories are ordinary lies. seven others worth $523. That omission No man who does not know how to cost her father $836. A superior young conduct himself decently can get a job in gentleman from Philadelphia who merely the customs service. Furthermore, he wrote “dutiable goods” across his dec can not begin work as an inspector until laration and then turned it in also took he has graduated with credit from a two the law seriously after a very bad quar- months' course in a school of deportment ter of an hour with the deputy surveyor. maintained in the custom house. The

The inspectors who board the ship at first and greatest lesson he is taught quarantine do not make the examinations there is that he must be a gentleman, not but merely see that the declarations are part of the time, but all the time. His duly filled out and turn them over to the next lesson teaches him how to handle supervisor in charge at the pier. Inci- costly laces and dainty lingerie. He has dentally they saunter through the de- to practice on real trunks full of things serted staterooms collecting empty jewel that travelers ordinarily have in their boxes, labels hastily ripped from foreign- baggage until he is letter perfect. Then made garments, scraps of paper, and he is permitted to try his hand on immiother rubbish that any ragpicker would grants' baggage at Ellis Island. From scorn, but which very frequently proves there he is advanced to second-class bagto be worth a good many thousands of gage arriving on the minor lines. Not dollars to the Government, for such until he has become proficient is he althings often turn out to be clues to at lowed to examine baggage at the piers tempts at smuggling.

of the important lines. There he is Upon disembarking the passenger closely watched, and if he does not do his finds lined up and waiting for duty one work properly he loses his job. If he inspector for each five first-class, and shows up with dirty hands or unkempt one for each ten second-class, passengers. clothing, unshaven or untidy, back home There are also a couple of desks for each he goes, losing his day's pay. If he is class in charge of uniformed men. impertinent or accepts bribes something Among those present, but not in uni- unpleasant happens to him. form, are a number of customs detectives Vo, the passenger who makes out his who have ways of their own of finding baggage declaration honestly and corany dutiable articles that may happen to rectly never has any trouble getting escape the regular inspectors. At regu- through the custom house. The examlar intervals along the walls is a letter of 'ination is as brief and simple as is comthe alphabet. The passenger takes up his patible with a proper performance of stand in the space corresponding to the duty. first letter of his name to wait for his The inspectors must first of all be alert baggage. When it is all assembled he and intelligent, and intelligent men are goes to a desk, and presents the num- not the sort who are either rough or disbered coupon he tore from his declara- courteous. Indeed the worst boor could tion. The latter is fished from the pile, scarce be discourteous to most of the the inspector at the head of the waiting American women who are returning line is called to escort the passenger to home. Inspectors, after all, are human another desk where the latter is shown beings. his declaration and asked if the signa- There is a reason for the sensational ture is his own. Then comes the exam- yarns circulated about the customs exination.

amination at New York, and this reason Such heart-rending pictures have been is best expressed in the four lettersdrawn by newspapers of a certain type LOEB. The explanation is to be found of the "sufferings" of delicately nurtured in these little tables showing the New ladies undergoing the tortures of the York Custom House before and after examination, alleged to be aggravated by taking William Loeb, Jr., as Collector of the boorishness and brutality of the uni- the Port.

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1910

BEFORE AFTER ITEM

LOEB LOEB

1908 Fines from passengers on docks, etc....$ 33.162 $121.318 Fines from mail importations........... 12,460 16.592 Sale of seized merchandise, net proceeds 4.604 5.675 Sale of seizures under decree of court... 11.782 13.449 Fines. court cases.......

2.578 67.400 Accepted offers in compromisc.... 100.902 657.454 Totals..

.............$165,491 $882.250

The revolutionary change from a goas-you-please policy to a strict enforcement of the law as indicated by the foregoing figures naturally caused some commotion, which has by no means been soothed by the discovery of the sugar trust customs frauds that netted

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ably they would not have paid duty if hobble skirts had not been in vogue last fall. It is hard enough to walk in a hobble skirt, as any one who has tried it can testify. But when in addition to hobble skirts one's freedom of movement is still further hampered by a huge muff drawn up over each |--well, the inspectors lined up on the pier actually laughed out loud when the Western ladies essayed the passage of the gang plank. The Brutes !

Not to linger over the harrowing details, the two westerners were politely invited back to their staterooms by some women inspectors. When it was all over those muffs had cost their owners just four times what they could have been purchased for in the home market.

This unfortunate affair of the sable muffs was not the only attempt on record to evade the payment of duties by guileful passengers. Bless your heart, no!

Why, in six weeks last fall THE STEWARDS LOOK AFTER THE STEAMER TRUNKS IN THE

the custom s inspectors gathered in five hundred

thousand dollars' worth of the Government three millions, by the jewelry from amateur smugglers, more indictment of a member of the sacred than half of whom were women. executive committee of Tammany Hall, Contemplating the matter calmly it and the arrest and indictment of some of seems incredible that any one should try the biggest art dealers on Fifth Avenue, to smuggle since the custom house has New York, for swindling the Govern- been reorganized. Detection is about as ment out of millions in duties, not to certain as anything can be in this unmention hosts of smaller smugglers. certain world, and as those who are Upon the whole, there is no wonder the caught are always caught literally with custom house and everybody connected the goods on, there is nothing for it but with it is very unpopular just now in to take one's medicine. It is only fair certain circles having some degree of to say, however, that the customs offskill in vocalizing their unhappiness. cers are as charitable to the amateur

Two ladies from the West now cher- smugglers as is consistent with their ish particularly uncomplimentary opin- duty. When they find a trunk full of ions of the New York customs officers. dutiable articles not declared they genEach bought two splendid sable muffs in erally give the owner a chance to amend Europe last summer, and it did seem a his declaration. Only in the more pity to have to pay duty on them. Prob- fagrant cases do they shut the gates of

COPYRIGHT, 1909, UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N, Y.

STATE ROOMS,

mercy on the culprit, and, to change the found rings, brooches, chains, watches, figure, exact the pound of flesh.

et cetera, enough to stock a jewelry Attempts at smuggling seem still more store. The whole outfit was seized and foolish when it is remembered that all sold. important sales of jewelry abroad are On the same ship was a wealthy carpet registered and that the books are open manufacturer of Yonkers. Hie, at least, to the inspection of representatives of should have been familiar with the tariff, this Government. Jewelers in this coun because it was the tariff that made him try, who are naturally affected by smug- rich. And yet he wrote in his declaration gling, have their own agents on the look that his six trunks contained nothing out and they pay well for information dutiable. This statement he repeated on leading to the arrest and conviction of the dock. Yet an inspector found two smugglers. Added to all this, hosts of thousand dollars' worth of dutiable artihonest Americans seem to find peculiar cles there. This mistake cost the carpet pleasure in giving information of pros- manufacturer a painful day at the Cuspective attempts at smuggling. Finally, tom House and $4,960 in cash. Yet he there is a stereotyped list of tricks and counted himself lucky because he escaped schemes outside of which the smuggler criminal prosecution. never ventures. As the customs officers Earlier in the year a society matron have these by heart, they never make any from Poughkeepsie, whose husband is a mistakes. In nine cases out of ten they rich manufacturer, arriving from Europe know in advance just whom to look out with her daughter and the latter's for, and so they go straight for their chaperon declared but $385 in dutiable quarry with unerring precision.

articles in the party's seven trunks and In view of all this the kind of people five pieces of hand baggage. As the cuscaught in the customs net is certainly toms officers knew she had purchased a amazing. One of them was a former very fine necklace in Paris they asked governor of New Hampshire. When he her three several times to amend her arrived on the Lusitania last May he de declaration. When she refused they clared nothing but one fur coat valued asked her in plain words for the necklace. at $800. When his baggage was ex Not until she was threatened with arrest amined dutiable articles worth several did she finally drag it from its hiding thousand dollars were found. He was place in her hat. She tore up a letter given an opportunity to amend his dec from the jewelers confirming the sale laration and thus to escape with only the and scattered the pieces on the floor ; but payment of duties. As he refused he the inspectors gathered up the pieces was arrested and indicted by the Fed- and put them together. Her husband eral Grand Jury. He pleaded guilty had a great deal to say about the brutalwhen arraigned and was fined $2,000. ity of the customs examination until the Besides this he had to pay $3,400 as the necklace and the letter were produced. foreign value of the goods and on top of It cost him a fine of $5,000 and the value all this was piled the regular duty. of the necklace plus 60 per cent duty,

Nor was this an exceptional case. A making a total of $17,000. prominent doctor from Chicago whose A society leader from a Boston suburb declaration listed but $300 worth of who tried to smuggle in a $30,000 neckdutiable goods seemed rather bulky for lace in 1909, was tried and convicted and a fashionably dressed man when he ar- fined $5,000. She also had to pay the rived on the Kronprinzessin Cecilie last government the cost of the necklace with September. Tim Donohue, a customs duty added, making the total $39,000. sleuth, struck so many knobs and pro- Adding the original cost of the necklace tuberances when he stumbled against the and lawyers' fees, court costs, and other doctor that the latter was invited back expenses, that necklace represents a to his stateroom. There the searchers grand total outlay of $75,000.

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AN ENGINEER MADE RECORDS OF THE TEST FROM THE INTERIOR OF A FIREBOX CHAINET)

TO A FLAT CAR 1 SHORT DISTANCE FROM THE BOILER.

BOILER THAT CAN'T BLOW UP

By

M. M. HUNTING

T is only within a comparatively series of experiments with what is known short time that the public has been as the Jacobs-Shupert Firebox. aroused to the fact that the steam The most common cause for boiler boiler is one of the most prolific explosion is low water. The gauges may

sources of destruction with which become stopped so that they do not propwe have to deal. Lack of knowledge on erly indicate the height of the water in the part of many intrusted with its care, the boiler; the proper amount of water and oftentimes willful neglect are the may not be fed to the boiler because of causes of a large per cent of the acci- the clogging of the pipes; or, through dents, and because of this fact engineers neglect, the water is allowed to fall below have given up warning the public and the level of the roof of the firebox, or have set about “making the thing fool crownsheet, as it is more properly called. proof.”

When this occurs with a hot fire beneath, One feels that some effort along this the crownsheet becomes red hot and conline is due when it is realized that to all sequently soft, and unable to retain the intents and purposes, the construction of pressure of steam within. the common steam boiler is the same to- The result is a terrific explosion day that it was seventy-five years ago. which sometimes carries the boiler a long

Probably the most progressive step in distance from the scene, leaving death this direction recently taken has been by and destruction in its wake. The scatthe officials of the Atchison, Topeka & tered fire is as much a menace to life Santa Fe Railway, who have begun a · and property as the flying débris, and

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