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ameter would have to be erected, and under these circumstances an irregular octagonal structure to conform with the foundation surface available had to be built. The lowest portion is of Portland cement placed inside of wrought-iron molds. The tower is fixed to the rock by heavy iron bars driven into the granite to secure a firm foundation, and steel beams are built in at frequent points to consolidate the structure and to secure greater rigidity where tension is most likely to be imposed upon the fabric. The upper part of the tower is wrought in concrete.
At the height of 46 feet above low water the tower is entered by a door. Up to this level the structure is solid, and the entrance is gained by a ladder up the
SPIDERS THAT FLY
DR. W. H. ALBRIGHT
FLYING spiders is the name given to a number of species of spiders that use their web as an aerovehicle to convey them to other feeding grounds. Their webs are seen during the warm autumn days floating in countless numbers through the air, and even then we see but a small per cent of the real number as those we see represent only the failures of attempts to get into the air, the webs having caught on some obstruction. It is estimated that on uncultivated grass land there are upwards of fifty million of these spiders to the square mile, and they represent ninetenths of all the spiders found in the temperate zone.
There are many varieties of spiders, but their numbers are few compared with the numbers of flying spiders.
I have studied the habits of these spiders for upwards of twenty years and the accom
• n 'Found From Maine To
panying photo silhouettes rep- The Rockies."
resent, as far as I have been able to determine, nearly all the spiders that migrate, and only three of these are especially good fliers ; the other one, a "Lycosid" or "wolf" spider—the largest of the four—enjoys a trip occasionally but is not in it with the other three.
The family of "Thomisid" or "crab" is an ugly specimen looking as much like a louse or tick as a spider. It can travel backward, sidewise, or diagonally with equal facility, which is decidedly snaillike; but he is a good aviator and I have seen full-size spiders of this variety take flight with apparent ease. It is understood that, as a rule, only the smallest of spiders, seldom larger than a pin, are fliers, and to see these fat, ugly gourmands enjoy such a sport makes us think that we as beings of super intelligence, are unquestionably slow.
Tibellus oblongus, and Pardosa, are found in nearly
equal numbers from Maine to the Rockies. They are both very active and excellent fliers even to the youngest specimens. Full-grown ones, however, are seldom, if ever, found in flight.
When we know that, were it not for spiders, hardly a blade of grass or a tree leaf could survive the onslaught of the larval horde that would sweep over the earth, it should be the aim of agriculturists to handle their work in a manner to preserve these creatures. We believe that subsoiling and surface work could take the place of deep plowing with better results both in crops and in the destruction of pests. It is found that many crops like onions are grown more successfully without the annual plowing, and as we cannot domesticate spiders and raise them in hatcheries we should make some provision for allowing them to escape the plow. We know that a large part of the United States is now under the plow and that there are com
OLD METHOD OF TRANSPORTING COAL-BY CAMEL,
REMARKABLE CHINESE CABLEWAY
DR. ALFRED GRADENWITZ
TO the west of Pekin there extends for some distance a mountain range rising to ever greater heights, and which in the Liao-ou-tai Chan reaches to approximately 10,000 feet.
In these mountains are found many ancient monuments and temples, as well as Imperial castles inhabited only in summer, and these heights afford a welcome refuge to European residents of Pekin, anxious to escape the heat and dust of the plains in order to enjoy some fresh air, at least in the evenings. The PekinHan-Kevu Railway, with a branch line to To-Ii at the foot of the mountains and on the banks of the Liou-li-Ho, leads in this direction. The Liou-li-Ho comes from the western part of these mountains traversing a valley full of the most variegated landscapes, cut deeply into the
high mountain range. This valley is worth coming far to see.
The horseman proceeding uphill will meet on his way thousands of camels, mules and donkeys carrying heavy loads of coal sacks from the coal mines to the railway station of To-li. The narrow path is taken up by an endless file of beasts of burden among which the camels stalking majestically behind one another produce an especially odd impression. Each camel driver guides six to ten camels, the front one being connected for simplicity's sake by ropes with the noses of those following behind so that the driver may confine his attention to the first camel. This in conjunction with the mud and dust, and the swarms of flies attracted by the enormous heat, makes the transport of coal a torture to those poor beasts.
THE TERMINAL OF THE CABLEWAY AT NANTZIOU.
This pitiable state of affairs will, however, soon disappear, as the Chinese coal miners and merchants have united with a view to increasing their production and sales at Pekin by the aid of improved means of transport, and the cableway recently constructed will do away with all previous drawbacks. As the narrow valley with its many sinuosities did not allow of the installation of any ordinary railway, a cableway freely suspended above valleys and heights obviously was the only solution of the problem.
About six hours' ride up the mountains commences the coal district, where many villages are spread over the more or less precipitous valleys. The coal mining is carried out on a system quite novel to western travelers. Whereas in Western countries large mining companies are formed which, in order to get at the veins, have to sink expensive shafts hundreds of feet deep, keeping an army of miners at work below ground, the anthracite in the rocky valley of the Liou-li-Ho comes to the surface, so that
each peasant is able to carry on his mining separately with the assistance of his sons, by furrowing tiny mole-like galleries into the mountains. The coal is mined in a most primitive manner without any working funds or machinery, being taken to the surface on sledges with wooden runners. As a rule, four to eight men are found working alternately in the same gallery, the coal being accumulated in large heaps, whence formerly were loaded the camels and mules transporting it to the railway station. Here now begins the cableway which extends down to the valley city.
While the means of transport have now become thoroughly modernized it will be long before any up-to-date methods may be introduced into the exploitation of these coal mines as foreigners are not so far allowed any share in the mining business of the interior of China. The fact that European engineers have at last, for the first time, been admitted into these secluded districts is significant of the new spirit in China.