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O the west of Pekin there high mountain range. This valley is
the Liao-ou-tai Chan reaches mules and donkeys carrying heavy loads to approximately 10,000 feet.
of coal sacks from the coal mines to the In these mountains are found many railway station of To-li. The narrow ancient monuments and temples, as well path is taken up by an endless file of as Imperial castles inhabited only in sum- beasts of burden among which the camels mer, and these heights afford a welcome stalking majestically behind one another refuge to European residents of Pekin, produce an especially odd impression. anxious to escape the heat and dust of Each camel driver guides six to ten camthe plains in order to enjoy some fresh els, the front one being connected for air, at least in the evenings. The Pekin- simplicity's sake by ropes with the noses Han-Kevu Railway, with a branch line of those following behind so that the to To-li at the foot of the mountains and driver may confine his attention to the on the banks of the Liou-li-Ho, leads in first camel. This in conjunction with the this direction. The Liou-li-Ho comes mud and dust, and the swarms of flies from the western part of these moun- attracted by the enormous heat, makes tains traversing a valley full of the most the transport of coal a torture to those variegated landscapes, cut deeply into the poor beasts.
This pitiable state of affairs will, how- each peasant is able to carry on his minever, soon disappear, as the Chinese coal ing separately with the assistance of his miners and merchants have united with sons, by furrowing tiny mole-like gala view to increasing their production and leries into the mountains. The coal is sales at Pekin by the aid of improved mined in a most primitive manner withmeans of transport, and the cableway re- out any working funds or machinery, cently constructed will do away with all being taken to the surface on sledges previous drawbacks. As the narrow with wooden runners. As a rule, four to valley with its many sinuosities did not eight men are found working alternately allow of the installation of any ordinary in the same gallery, the coal being acrailway, a cableway freely suspended cumulated in large heaps, whence forabove valleys and heights obviously was merly were loaded the camels and mules the only solution of the problem.
transporting it to the railway station. About six hours' ride up the moun- Here now begins the cableway which extains commences the coal district, where tends down to the valley city. many villages are spread over the more While the means of transport have or less precipitous valleys. The coal now become thoroughly modernized it mining is carried out on a system quite will be long before any up-to-date novel to western travelers. Whereas in methods may be introduced into the exWestern countries large mining com- ploitation of these coal mines as foreignpanies are formed which, in order to get ers are not so far allowed any share in at the veins, have to sink expensive shafts the mining business of the interior of hundreds of feet deep, keeping an army China. The fact that European engineers of miners at work below ground, the have at last, for the first time, been adanthracite in the rocky valley of the mitted into these secluded districts is Liou-li-Ho comes to the surface, so that significant of the new spirit in China.
Seventeen Year Locust
URING the coming
summer the At-
to North Carolina, will suffer from the visitation of the seventeen-year locust. In countless millions the cicada will sing their shrill song and devour young fruit trees. The locust swarms, though appearing at happily long intervals, may be depended upon to arrive on schedule time. In Connecticut they have been regularly reported every seventeen years since 1724, and in New Jersey since 1775. The last appearance was in the year 1894, when scientists
made careful studies of the insect.
The appearance of the cicada in great numbers naturally causes considerable alarm for the safety of shade trees and orchards. The ac
tual damage done in the past, however, has been comparatively slight, except in the case of young orchards, and even then, by vigorous pruning after the insects have disappeared, much of the injury caused by the egg punctures can be obviated.
Ordinary repellent substances, such as kerosene emulsion or carbolic acid solutions, seem to have little effect in pre
venting the oviposition of these insects. method of protecting nurseries and Recent experiences seem to indicate that young orchards is to collect the insects trees thoroughly sprayed with Bordeaux in bags in early morning and late evenmixture or lime wash are apt to be ing, when they are somewhat torpid. avoided by the cicada, especially if there Such collections should begin with the are other trees in the neighborhood on appearance of the locust and continue which they can oviposit. The best until the swarms have disappeared.
CUBA'S FRENZIED GAMBLING GAME, JAI ALAI
TAI ALAI, the great gambling game of about one-quarter of a pound. The ball
Cuba, is unique among all other is thrown to the wall from a small curved gambling contests in, that it calls for as basket attached to the wrist of the player, high a degree of bodily skill as mental. and is caught again in the rebound by One who has seen the game describes it means of the basket. A failure to catch as “a superb display of human agility the ball on the rebound, or the throwing and high training.” The successful Jai of it outside the proscribed limits is Alai contestant must accustom himself to counted a miss, and scores one for the sustain a strain of continuous violent opposing side. The scores, as fast as exercise. “The Jai Alai player," says made, are registered in sight of the specthe same authority quoted above, “dies tators. The score runs to thirty. When young.”
it is nearing completion, the spectators In Havana, the contests are sched go into a frenzy of excitement. Some uled for every Tuesday and Thursday have gone insane on the spot from nights and Sunday afternoons. Thou- losses; others have committed suicide. sands of spectators, the most of whom It is now played under police restricare there to gamble, often witness the tions, but still many scenes of horror game at one time. The prices of admit occur. The more morally inclined Cutance range from $2.50, each person, bans have made frequent attempts to down to $1.00, according to the fame of have the game suppressed by law. In the contestants. High walls of stone a speech in the Cuban Senate some time enclose the Jai Alai court on three sides; ago, Senator Sanguilly scathingly prothe floor also being paved with stone. nounced Jai Alai "a social cancer, whose Metal markers against the wall designate results are the ruin of many persons, the the limits within which the ball must cause of commercial failures, and of the strike. The ball used is one of India suicides of fathers of families and of rubber covered with leather, and weighs youths of brilliant promise."
TO STOP AEROPLANE
AND AUTO ACCIDENTS
HENRY M. HYDE
HAT makes an automobile
speed, occurring chiefly on the curves of race tracks ?
Why is it that most of the fatal acci
dents in aeronautics have occurred just as the aeroplanes were turned into the horizontal plane, after a long sweep down from the heights on a sharply inclined plane?
In all these cases the accidents are most frequent and most dangerous just