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mercy on the culprit, and, to change the figure, exact the pound of flesh.
Attempts at smuggling seem still more foolish when it is remembered that all important sales of jewelry abroad are registered and that the books are open to the inspection of representatives of this Government. Jewelers in this country, who are naturally affected by smuggling, have their own agents on the lookout and they pay well for information leading to the arrest and conviction of smugglers. Added to all this, hosts of honest Americans seem to find peculiar • pleasure in giving information of prospective attempts at smuggling. Finally, there is a stereotyped list of tricks and schemes outside of which the smuggler never ventures. As the customs officers have these by heart, they never make any mistakes. In nine cases out of ten they know- in advance just whom to look out for, and so they go straight for their quarry with unerring precision.
In view of all this the kind of people caught in the customs net is certainly amazing. One of them was a former governor of New Hampshire. When he arrived on the Lusitauia last May he declared nothing but one fur coat valued at $800. When his baggage was examined dutiable articles worth several thousand dollars were found. He was given an opportunity to amend his declaration and thus to escape with only the payment of duties. As he refused he was arrested and indicted by the Federal Grand Jury. He pleaded guilty when arraigned and was fined $2,000. Besides this" he had to pay $3,400 as the foreign value of the goods and on top of all this was piled the regular duty.
Nor was this an exceptional case. A prominent doctor from Chicago whose declaration listed but $300 worth of dutiable goods seemed rather bulky for a fashionably dressed man when he arrived on the Kronpriiizessin Cecilie last September. Tim Donohue, a customs sleuth, struck so many knobs and protuberances when he stumbled against the doctor that the latter was invited back to his stateroom. There the searchers
found rings, brooches, chains, watches, et cetera, enough to stock a jewelry store. The whole outfit was seized and sold.
On the same ship was a wealthy carpel manufacturer of Yonkers. He, at least, should have been familiar with the tariff, because it was the tariff that made him rich. And yet he wrote in his declaration that his six trunks contained nothing dutiable. This statement he repeated on the dock. Yet an inspector found two thousand dollars' worth of'dutiable articles there. This mistake cost the carpet manufacturer a painful day at the Custom House and $4,960 in cash. Yet he counted himself lucky because he escaped criminal prosecution.
Earlier in the year a society matron from Poughkeepsie, whose husband is a rich manufacturer, arriving from Europe with her daughter and the latter's chaperon declared but $385 in dutiable articles in the party's seven trunks and five pieces of hand baggage. As the customs officers knew she had purchased a very fine necklace in Paris they asked her three several times to amend her declaration. When she refused they asked her in plain words for the necklace. Not until she was threatened with arrest did she finally drag it from its hiding place in her hat. She tore up a letter from the jewelers confirming the sale and scattered the pieces on the floor; but the inspectors gathered up the pieces and put them together. Her husband had a great deal to say about the brutality of. the customs examination until the necklace and the letter were produced. It cost him a fine of $5,000 and the value of the necklace plus 60 per cent duty, making a total of $17,000.
A society leader from a Boston suburb who tried to smuggle in a $30,000 necklace in 1909, was tried and convicted and fined $5,000. She also had to pay the government the cost of the necklace with duty added, making the total $3°,000. Adding the original cost of the necklace and lawyers' fees, court costs, and other expenses, that necklace represents a grand total outlay of $75,000.
AN ENGINEER MADE RECORDS OF THE TEST FROM THE INTERIOR OF A FIREBOX CHAINED TO A FLAT CAR A SHORT DISTANCE FROM THE BOILER.
M. M. HUNTING
IT is only within a comparatively short time that the public has been aroused to the fact that the steam boiler is one of the most prolific sources of destruction with which we have to deal. Lack of knowledge on the part of many intrusted with its care, and oftentimes willful neglect are the causes of a large per cent of the accidents, and because of this fact engineers have given up warning the public and have set about "making the thing foolproof."
One feels that some effort along this line is due when it is realized that to all intents and purposes, the construction of the common steam boiler is the same today that it was seventy-five years ago.
Probably the most progressive step in this direction recently taken has been by the officials of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway, who have begun a •
series of experiments with what is known as the Jacobs-Shupert Firebox.
The most common cause for boiler explosion is low water. The gauges may become stopped so that they do not properly indicate the height of the water in the boiler; the proper amount of water may not be fed to the boiler because of the clogging of the pipes; or, through neglect, the water is allowed to fall below the level of the roof of the firebox, or crownsheet, as it is more properly called. When this occurs with a hot fire beneath, the crownsheet becomes red hot and consequently soft, and unable to retain the pressure of steam within.
The result is a terrific explosion which sometimes carries the boiler a long distance from the scene, leaving death and destruction in its wake. The scattered fire is as much a menace to life and property as the flying debris, and with the danger of falling walls added, a more dreadful catastrophe can hardly be imagined.
With the usual form of boiler construction this is almost unavoidable. The crownsheet is usually supported from the roof of the boiler by a large number of iron rods called "stay bolts," riveted on the inside of the firebox where their heads are constantly subjected to the most intense heat. When red heat is attained in the crownsheet through lack of water, the heads of the stay bolts are the first parts to be affected, and under pressure from within, pull through and leave the sheets unsupported and at the mercy of the terrific stored energy.
As far as the external appearance is concerned the Jacobs-Shupert firebox does not differ greatly from others, the unique features being within the boiler itself. One need only to glance at the photographs of the partly constructed firebox to realize the immensely superior strength it possesses over the old type. The top and sides instead of being made of single sheets as in the old design are constructed in U shaped sections a few inches in width, formed to the arch of the box, riveted together and reinforced
by vertical plates running in retreat from the fire. The plates are perforated with large holes to permit the free circulation of water and steam.
It is hardly necessary to state that this construction will withstand much more overheating than the common type of boiler.
What we are all most interested to know is whether our lives will be safer on a train behind an engine equipped with such a boiler, and so a brief description of the test to which it was recently subjected may be of interest.
On September 26th last, in the presence of many engineers from various cities and two representatives of the Interstate Commerce Commission, the above mentioned railway officials subjected a boiler equipped with a firebox of this design to a low-water test. This boiler was taken from one of the company's highest grade locomotives and set up in a large vacant tract of land in the neighborhood of their shops. The firebox was equipped to burn oil. The boiler was fitted with two steam gauges, one to verify the other, and two water glasses, one to show the height of the water above the crownsheet, the other, the distance it might fall below during the test. A pump was also set up at a distance to supply water during the experiment.
fallen about five inches below the crownsheet and a temperature of 1,125 degrees in the firebox was recorded by a pyrometer. In other words, the crownsheet had attained a good working heat. At this point the fire was shut off and cold water turned in the boiler until the steam pressure was somewhat reduced. In spite of this terrific treatment, and the fact that at the time the crownsheet was red hot, the boiler withheld a pressure of 230 pounds to the square inch, and showed no Mil effects further than a few trifling leaks due to expansion of the plates
under the intense heat applied during the test.
The pressure gauges, height of water, and records of temperature were observed by an engineer in a steel firebox chained to a flat car a short distance from the boiler. The remainder of the audience witnessed the proceedings through a telescope from a safe distance.
Statistics of the test are of little interest, but the trial is the most severe that has ever been given any boiler and one which the common type could not have withstood. It further demonstrates that a boiler so equipped could not, under the common conditions which cause explosions, create a disaster such as we so often read of in the daily papers. Because of the reinforcement of the firebox, little or no damage could result even if a blowout should take place in one of the sections, as it would be so small as to amount practically to the opening of a valve for the relief of the unusual pressure.
It is greatly to be hoped, if this form of boiler construction solves the explosion problem, that it may be adopted throughout the world, wherever boilers arc in use.
DAMMING THE MISSISSIPPI
F. G. MOORHEAD
NOT far from the spot where Jim Bludsoe ran the Prairie Belle aground and "held her nozzle agin the bank till the last galoot was ashore,'' a mile-wide dam is being built which will completely change the contour and topography of the Mississippi River and the historic land thereabouts. Incidentally a steamboat canal, nine miles long, built forty years ago at a cost of $8,000,000, is to be completely drowned out, with not a stick or a stone left to show where it once made possible the passage of the treacherous Des Moines rapids.
The sons of the men who damned the Mississippi a generation ago are now busily engaged in damming it. The work will occupy two years more, but already
a thousand men are working, beaver like, 'to throw across the mighty river a structure of cement and stone which shall hold the rushing waters in check and subserviently render up to its master 250,000 horse-power with which to run the factories, mills, and workshops of the very heart of the grain belt. Already, on both sides of the Mississippi, the dam has begun to assume shape. Two gangs of men are throwing out abutments and creeping toward each other across a watery path. Twenty million dollars will be spent before the two gangs meet, but the investment is considered a good one by some of the shrewdest financiers of the country.
For over sixty years Keokuk has dreamed of harnessing the turbulent