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THE SOLAR TOWER

IN connection with the observatory on * Mount Wilson, California, a one hundred and fifty foot tower has been erected which is of great interest to astronomers. It is to be used with the spectro-heliograph, to photograph sun spots without waiting for an eclipse. When it is installed at the base of the 150-foot tower on Mount Wilson the sun will be photographed by means of reflections from the top of the tower.

"The elements of light reflected into the spectrograph are diffused through prisms. A spectrum of the sun's spots is taken and the plates are compared to ascertain by scientific means the relative amount of gases or other substances contained in the elements photographed. Each streak or spot on the plate, according to its prominence, furnishes data for scientific deductions according to known formulas."

AUTOMATIC WATER FINDER

T^HE hazel twig as a water finder has * been supplanted by a remarkable invention consisting of a simple apparatus. The principle on which the instrument works is the measuring of the strength of the air currents which flow between the earth and the atmosphere. These are always strongest in the vicinity of subterranean water courses, the flowing waters of which are charged with electricity to a certain degree. The apparatus takes the form of a box-shaped instrument fixed on a tripod, with a dial on which a needle is used to indicate the presence of water. If the needle remains stationary it may be taken for granted that no subterranean spring exists; the spot where the greatest movement of the needle is obtained is that where well-boring operations should be made. The water finder is an English invention and is manufactured in Liverpool.

SAFETY BALANCE FOR AEROS

""THE many accidents to aeroplanes *■ have pointed to the fact that the safety problem will have to be attacked

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from entirely new lines, and at present, the "gyropter," the invention of Mr. Davidson, an Englishman, is nearing completion. This new flying machine has two gyropters which are declared to secure absolute safety in balance, and the complete machine will excel in speed the present system of aviation.

One was tried in America, with a diameter of 27 feet, to lift 3 tons at 55 revolutions per minute. It worked quite successfully.

The gyropter now nearing completion is worked by a Stanley engine. On either side of the engine room is a gyropter—wheel—containing 60 large blades—10 feet long—and 60 small blades—5 feet long—and each gyropter will make 60 revolutions per minute and

the ends of the blades are held together by a kind of band—which is braced into position.

The machine, when completed, will weigh 6 tons with a lifting capacity of 10 tons. The shed in which the new flying machine is building is arranged in halves. When the machine is finished for trial, the two halves of the shed, being on wheels can travel apart and the machine, which is of large dimensions, can then be taken in and out quite easily.

If Mr. Davidson's device should work successfully it would be of the greatest service in the field of aeronautics, obviating the majority, if not all, of fatal accidents of the sort that stirred the world the past year.

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ROASTING COPPER ORE ON A GIGANTIC SCALE AT JEROME. ARIZONA.

ROASTING COPPER ORE

TTHE burning mountain shown in this *■ photograph is the outdoor "roaster" at Jerome, Arizona, where one of the world's largest copper mines is operated. The ores contain a great excess of sulphur and before they can be economically smelted it is necessary to burn out the greater part of the sulphur. This is called heap roasting, the ore being heaped with cord wood and allowed to burn from five to nine weeks. About 500 tons of ore form a heap, so that the enormous quantity shown in the photograph may be estimated. The ore for roasting is trammed through a tunnel 1,300 feet in length, which leads from the 500 foot level of the shaft, and when roasted and ready for the smelter it is sent back into the mine and hoisted to the mouth of the shaft, as the country is so rugged that there is no other way of reaching the smelter.

Owing to the exceeding richness of sulphur, 15 to 32 per cent., there is great danger of mine fires from soontaneous combustion. One very serious fire was

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CATS AS ACROBATS.

Cats arc exceedingly difficult to train, having an unusually developed aversion to doing things they don't like, yet here is a photograph of three of them doing "stunts" on a horizontal bar. These pets are owned and trained by a California photographer who finds much amusement and some profit also in taking their pictures in strange poses.

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THE GIANT OF EUROPE

""THE giant floating steam crane which
* is shown is the identical crane which
was used a little time ago in the salving
operations on the submarine U J, which
sank near Keil. The German nation
boasts of some of the most remarkable
floating cranes in the world, and the one
shown here is probably the most power-
ful in Europe. The gigantic size of the
hooks and pulleys—capable of receiving
200 tons—shown in one of the illustra-
tions, may be realized by comparing
them with the man at their side. The
arm of the crane is pivoted on its base,
and the counter-balance weights are con-
trolled by machinery. A monster of such
power may well be regarded as one of
the modern wonders of the mechanical
world.

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