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southern end of the salt water harbor. some trip for a big vessel, he will tell This will add another twenty-four miles you and therefore, the future trade of to Seattle's water frontage.
the Orient will be handled through the But this isn't all that Seattle proposes port of Seattle. to do to the corporations. It is proposed As to the Panama Canal trade he will to bring the entire harbor under the con- point out arguments similar to those of trol of a harbor commission, consisting other cities, with the additional point in of perhaps three members. This board Seattle's favor of a fresh water harbor will be a government within itself and and closeness to the markets of the will have absolute charge of the water Pacific northwest. frontage, docks, warehouses and every- To the landlubber the real value of a thing that is connected with the com fresh water harbor is not apparent. One merce of the port. Ultimately it is pro- advantage is that salt water animal life posed to establish a belt line railroad cannot live in fresh water. An example under control of this harbor board. At of what this means to shipping is shown this time Seattle has no municipal or by the fact that six hundred tons of state piers or docking facilities.
barnacles were scraped from the bottom No true Seattleite admits that his har- of the armored cruiser South Dakota bor will not be the largest and best in before it made a recent voyage to the the world when completed. If you ask Orient. It is necessary to dock and scrape a Seattle man how he figures his port ocean going vessels at frequent periods will capture the lion's share of the in order that the sea growth and foulOriental commerce, he immediately will ness may be removed. By entering fresh lead you to a globe. He cannot figure water this growth is removed without out his arguments on a flat map of the the aid of man. With a fresh water world's surface. After carefully leading harbor thousands of dollars would be you up to the globe he will prove to you saved annually by the shipping interests that as the earth is smaller around as of the Pacific. you go north, the path across the north- Tacoma, on Puget Sound, has voted a ern Pacific Ocean from Puget Sound to bond issue of half a million for a muthe Japanese ports is at least 1,000 miles nicipal pier and harbor improvements shorter than it is from California. He and is preparing to take the first step in also will tell you that boats sailing to throwing off the yoke of the railroads. the Orient from the southern part of the This port with its closeness to the grain coast go almost directly north until about growing regions is one of the big wheat opposite Puget Sound and then take a handling ports of the coast and expects westerly course out past the end of the to participate in the benefits of the Aleutian Islands. A thousand miles is Panama Canal. Tacoma harbor has
HOW SEATTLE IS STRIKING AT THE RAILROADS FOR OCEAN TRADE. The corporations having gobbled up the salt water frontage. Seattle is putting through a fresh water canal. Lakes
Washington and Union are links in this canal.
plenty of deep water, but its citizens. feel returning steamships carry merchandise they must be up and doing in order to for the western coast. handle the increased shipping expected. Figuring even on the present com
To the ordinary individual the gigantic mercial conditions of the section of counproportions of the Panama trade are not try surrounding Los Angeles only, $20,apparent. But when it is known that 000,000 in freight rates on non-perisheighty-two million dollars' worth of able goods alone will be saved in a year merchandise, originating in the United when the canal is completed. It is estiStates crossed the Isthmuses of Panama mated conservatively that a million tons and Tehuantepec last year, some idea of of non-perishable freight moves between the enormous trade that will be opened the eastern states and the Los Angeles by the canal may be gained. Most of territory. The present rate is $26 a ton, this merchandise was moved across the while the all-water route will make the isthmuses for the mere purpose of trans- rate less than $6, thus effecting the enorferring it from one section of the United mous saving. A saving of $6,000,000 States to another; from the eastern to to the orange growers of southern Calithe western coast or from the western fornia will be made. coast and Pacific islands to the Atlantic When the canal is finished Pacific seaboard. Fifty million dollars' worth ports will be within twelve to fourteen of this total originated on the eastern days of New York in eighteen-knot vescoast and moved westwardly across the sels. This is figuring that it takes twelve isthmuses, four-fifths of it then passing hours to get through the canal. Between northward to the Pacific Coast of the the Pacific Coast and European ports United States, the other fifth being dis- the trip should be made in three weeks tributed along the coast of Mexico, Cen- in eighteen-knot ships. This is a comtral and South America.
paratively short trip for the modern Thirty-two million dollars' worth of vessel. So the Pacific Coast folks do not goods went eastwardly, two-thirds of it feel that they will be extravagant in originating in Hawaii and the remainder spending one hundred millions of dollars along the western coast of the United in improving their harbors. They figure States. The Hawaiian sugar which for- that with the canal trade in full swing merly went around the Horn, now passes the hundred million could be saved in a over the isthmus by railroad and is trans- year or so, in the reduction of freight ferred to boats and taken to the refineries rates. Besides, it's worth it to get this of Philadelphia and New York. The hearty swipe at the railroads.
LIKE PARENT LIKE CHILD
N the basement of a large stone build- race of men produced by scientific maring at Forest Hills, Massachusetts, riage would do would be to smash the there are several thousand mice and system of scientific marriage, it is fair to rats. Fortunately for the other oc- argue that the fundamental principles of
cupants of the building they are all heredity revealed in the color of a flower in wire cages. Unlike ordinary rats and or of a guinea pig exist also in the more mice in ordinary basements, they are complicated cases of human inheritance. cheerfully fed and nicely taken care of. If study of guinea pigs can throw light And to complete this extraordinary situ- on human inheritance, knowledge of the ation the same basement contains several mysterious world we live in is advanced hundred rabbits and guinea pigs.
in proportion. The "reversion to type,” The stone building is the Bussey In- for example, that every now and then stitution, the headquarters of the agri- produces a human being surprisingly uncultural department of Harvard Univer- like either of his parents has its analogy sity, and the basement is occupied by the when a yellow rabbit is mated with a animals used by Dr. William Ernest black rabbit and the result is just such a Castle, of the Harvard Zoological De- little gray rabbit as runs wild in the partment, as material for a continuous woods. Black rabbit or yellow, each parseries of important scientific experiments. ent contained a different element of the Without going so far as to consider this ancestral gray condition from which they host of guinea pigs, rabbits, rats, and had descended. And the combination of mice literal representatives of the human these two elements reproduced the gray race they nevertheless pass their lives in color of the little rabbit, just as oxygen affording material for the study of phe- and hydrogen when brought together nomena upon which the continuance of produce water. And this, moreover, the human race, at its progressively happened in accordance with a wellhighest level, is obviously dependent. established law of heredity. The law The problems in which they are the living was discovered fifty years ago by an factors in the equation are those of Austrian monk studying the flowers in heredity—the transmission of traits from his cloister garden; and it has been parents to offspring and the possibility proved just as true of animals as of of determining in advance the character- plants by such experiments as those of istics that will appear from the mating Dr. Castle with his scientific menagerie of individuals with whose own character in the Bussey Institute basement. istics the investigator is already familiar. Mendel's Law of Heredity, as this Despite the occasional startling an- principle is known to scientists, was the nouncements of sensational journalism, result of a series of experiments in the however, men of science generally admit cultivation of garden flowers. The good that human beings are more complicated monk, Gregor Mendel, having leisure, than guinea pigs; and students of hered- curiosity, and a scientific mind, crossed ity in the lower animals turn their prac- different varieties of ordinary garden tical attention rather to improving live peas and carefully noted what happened. stock than to improving its owners. Long continued experiment showed that
Granting all this, and at the same time under certain conditions certain results remembering Mr. Gilbert Chesterton's would follow with sufficient uniformity remark that the first thing the perfect to establish a law. If a pea with yellow
ALBINO FEMALE GUINEA PIG WHOSE DESCENDANTS
ALBINO MALE GUINEA PIG WITH WHOM THE Would NORMALLY BE WHITE.
ALBINO GUINEA PIG WAS MATED. The ovaries of the black guinea pig were transplanted into the body of the albino.
crossing, but this color characteristic
did not become viscotyledons—as bot
ible until two of anists call the seed
the peas in which leaves of young
it was latent were peas—was crossed
brought together; with one having
and in every four green cotyledons
descendants from all the peas that
this second crossgrew from this
ing only one indicrossing would BLACK FEMALE GUINEA PIG THREE WEEKS OLD.
vidual showed the have yellow coty
inherited green ledons. Appar
seed leaf color. ently what had happened was the ex- Yellow, in short, was dominant, in that tinction of the green characteristic, and it was most likely to perpetuate itself and if these peas were crossed with other green was recessive because it could be peas that had yellow seed leaves, yellow expected to appear visibly only in a miwas still the characteristic seed leaf color nority of the peas that inherited it. But in the immediate descendants. But if the when it did appear visibly, the result of peas descended from the first crossing a union between two of these peas was were self-pollinated, or crossed with each a continuation of the characteristic green other, the result was an average of one color in the whole family of descendgreen seeded pea for every three yellow ants. ones; and if these green seeded peas Mendel's Law of Heredity divides were separated and self-pollinated the transmissible characteristics into these resulting peas were all green seeded. two kinds—dominant and recessive. A
In other words, each of these little peas recessive characteristic will be invisible had inherited a characteristic—the green in all descendants of the first generation, color of the seed leaf—from the first but will reappear, usually in the propor
THE DESCENDANTS OF THE TWO ALBINO GUINEA PIGS. black color of these little pigs shows that black was the dominant color characteristic and was contributed by the transplanted ovaries of the black guinea pig. In other words, although born of albino guinea pig No. 2. these little guinea pigs are apparently the descendants of black pig No. 1 and albino pig No. 3.
tion of one to three, whenever the offspring of this first generation are mated together; and the recessive characteristic will then breed true or perpetuate only itself. The definite proportion of one to three is said by those scientists who devote themselves to heredity to be “as fundamental to a right understanding of heredity as the law of definite proportions in chemistry.” It applies to guinea pigs, mice, rats, and rabbits as uniformly as it applies to the garden flowers. And one of the results of scientific observation of the development of hereditary traits in these little animals points to an explanation which would undoubtedly have deeply interested the Austrian pioneer in his flower garden. The characteristic of color, green or yellow, in the peas with which he was experimenting was resident not in the flowers themselves but in the germinal material which formed the seed leaves of these flowers; and the germinal material of a yellow seed
SKULLS OF THREE RABBITS. leaf, could it have been transplanted into the body of a flower whose seed leaves were normally green, might have gone on producing yellow there are a considerable number of useful seed leaves in its descendants just as if it differences. There are albino guinea had never been transplanted. In the pigs; black guinea pigs; guinea pigs that case of the animals at the Bussey Insti- are only part albino; guinea pigs with tute it has been shown that a surgical long hair like an angora kitten; and yet operation can make a white guinea pig other guinea pigs that are “rosetted”—a capable of bearing black offspring. word that describes them when their hair
To say that science watches and re- grows in such fashion that they look as cords the development of hereditary if they were always out in windy weather peculiarities in these lower animals has and the wind blowing from every point perhaps already set the reader wonder- of the compass. Rabbits have been so ing how these characteristics can be de- long bred as pets that the fanciers have tected. To most of us one guinea pig or developed many characteristics that are rabbit looks very much like another, and immediately useful in tracing heredity. one mouse or rat very much like another Rats and mice in bewildering variety mouse or rat. Fortunately for science, have also been produced by the hit-or
Size usually expresses itself as a blending of maternal and paternal characteristics. The maternal skulls are on the right; the paternal on the left. The skulls of the descendants are the intermediate ones, in the middle.