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wild grass, apparently a species of wild rye, and when under the gentle ministrations-plant lovers are always gentle handed and gentle hearted — of the Capital botanists the promise of the rye reaches fulfillment the work of distribution will be begun, and it may be that through it some of the country's waste places will come to a green redemption. Travelers

agree,

Mr. Fairchild says, that the most beautiful tree in Turkestan and perhaps one of the most beautiful in the world is the Karakatch. It

is a species of elm, the A SPECIES OF Wild CHERRY-Prunus microcorpa-CAPABLE OF RESIST- Ulmus campestris umbraING GREAT DROUGHT.

culifera, the shade bearer.

Word has come from Mr. in Geok-Tepe, Turkestan, he found a Meyer that this tree eminently is fitted smooth skinned apricot on sale. It is as for planting in large numbers in the hot, smooth as the nectarine and its color is a irrigated sections of the United States. pale yellow. It is a juicy, delicious fruit This introduction will be pushed in known locally as the Slew-abrikose. regions where trees of adequate shade Smooth apricots from the American are desired, but where experiment has grower's point of view, are things much shown in the past that many species have to be desired, and this particular fruit failed to respond to irrigation. the explorer found to possess superior From the foothills of the Himalayas qualities of flavor. He found out where has come a drought resisting species of it grew and today under care of the ex- poplar. In the arid and semi-arid regions perts in Washington the apricot is under of the western states where irrigation is "process of propagation" and ultimately not possible, or as yet has not been acit will be sent to the American apricot complished, there is a demand for shade lands where the hope is it will flourish trees for home yards and parks. Atand yield abundantly.

tempts have been made frequently to find The history of the introduction of new a promising subject. Explorer Meyer kinds of alfalfa into the United States thinks that in this poplar, the Populus with a view to proper selection and dis- pruinosa, he has found something which tribution, so that the proverbial bene- will grow and give grateful shade to the faction of making two blades of grass families living in dry regions where the grow where one grew before may be out- cold of winter is not too severe. done, has been written again and again Seeds and cuttings of scores of species in agricultural history, but the search is

of plant life have come out of the counnever over. Explorer Meyer is looking try already traversed by the American for new kinds of alfalfa, kinds which plant explorer. Perhaps if one in twenty may prove to be better adapted to the of the discoveries upon introduction into soil of some parts of the United States this country proves to be of lasting value than those which already have been tried. the results will be worth the labor, the

No grass and no grain is too humble disregard of danger, the personal devoto escape the plant hunter's attention. To tion to duty of the hunter, and the money Washington from the mountains near spent by the government which commisThe explorer of

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this country from the deserts must be

the Andes, the a botanist, but he

Himalayas, the must do much more

Gobi Desert and than is done by the

from Australia, in ordinary botanist of

all perhaps seventythe field. He must

five kinds. Experiknow what many

ments in intermen who are bot

breeding have been anists only do not

successful and the know, how to get

American alfalfa his material with

range rapidly is the germ of life

being extended. still active

From Southern across deserts,

California and countries, conti

from Arizona renents and oceans.

cently there have He cannot be sure

been sent to maralways that his col

ket five tons of lections will stand

dates, the fruit of the long journey to

palms introduced Washington from

and grown successthe point of gath

fully by the explorering. In this case

ing scientists. In frequently he

Florida the mango must send them

industry is today ahead of him to

upon a commercial the coast town

footing. Explorer from which ulti

Meyer now in the mately he intends

Himalaya Mounto take his depart

tains, some years ure, there to be

ago found in China planted and to

a puckerless and grow until he can

seedless persimregather them from

mon. He sent cutDAVID FAIRCHILD. THE AGRICULTURAL EXPLORER IN the soil to make CHARGE OF FOREIGN SEED AND PLANT INTRODUC- tings to Washing

TION, BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY. them his jealously

ton where they watched compan

were grown Sucions on the last stage of his journey. cessfully. Then they were shipped to

As soon as consignments of cuttings places in the Southern United States or seeds are received in Washington by where it was believed they could be culDavid Fairchild they are turned over to

tivated. Today ten acres of puckerless, the entomologist who examines them seedless persimmons are under cultivacarefully for insect pests. Then quickly tion in Georgia by one of the largest they are given to a pathologist who ex- fruit growers in America, a man who amines them for diseases and then if all has faith in the word of the plant finders. is well with the importations they are Out of China recently the governput into alien but kindly soil "and started ment's explorers brought a new cherry, to growing."

which was sent to Southern California The Bureau of Plant Industry for sev- where it took kindly to soil and climate eral years has been at work introducing and gave return for the work expended new and promising species of vegetation by a crop of fine, marketable fruit which into the United States. What has it was ready for the picking two weeks in done? Improved alfalfa, thick growing, advance of any species of cherry known and enriching fields to which the plant to the state. A red currant, the Ribes was a stranger, are one answer to the petraeum, brought from the Altai Mounquestion. Alfalfas have been brought to tains has proved in St. Petersburg to be a thrifty grower, and a producer holding Chili the seeds of a plant relative of the promise of a successful American future. Alligator pear with the germ of life still

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Cuttings of ten forms of olives of the in them, and five times failure came. hardiest kind known, have been sent Finally the explorer has planned to from the far east to the gardens of the swing a cradle of moss underneath the American Capital. It has been proved fruit of the tree to catch it as it falls that these olive trees will stand a tem- ripened from the stem, knowing that in perature of -2° Fahrenheit which kills this way he can be certain of an absoAmerican olives down to the ground. lutely fresh seed supply. Apples, pomegranates, wild peas and The work of David Fairchild and his hardy oranges are other introductions, fellow scientists is one of propagation some of them already acclimated, bear- and distribution. The aim is to put new ing juicy fruit, fine favored and grate- forms of plant life into the hands of the ful to the eyes of the market man and the agriculturists of the country. It is the buyer.

development of a new type of field work. Disappointment comes frequently and It is experimental of course, but no always painfully to the men of the Ex- experiment is tried without previous plorer's Division of the Bureau of Plant study to make certain that kindred conIndustry. Time after time attempts to

ditions of soil and climate exist between bring to this country living seeds and the place of the species' origin and the living shoots from places far distant place where it is to start life anew in an have failed, but the death of the plant environment which, the anxious plant does not bring death of hope. Five lover's constant prayer is, it will not find times attempts were made to secure from uncongenial.

LIGHT-PRODUCING ALLOYS

cotton wicks saturated with alcohol or using chemical preparations, fire was benzine. It was decided that this metal kindled by the use of flint stones which could be utilized for making very simple by concussion emit sparks.

lighters, by placing a piece of uranium This method of lighting inflammable in a movable support pressed by a spring materials has been restored by the use against a steel surface covered with of other metals producing, under the ac- points arranged in such a way that the tion of a shock, sparks hotter than those sparks produced would be projected into obtained with the ordinary steel and the gas jet or on the wick to be lighted. flint. Metallic uranium will ignite a This very ingenious idea which was mixture of air and fire-damp; scientists not applied because of the high price of have discovered that this mixture must uranium is now going to be realized beremain a certain length of time in contact cause of the recent utilizing of the subwith the uranium before igniting. The stance cerium. phenomenon is its delay to take fire; this In 1906 Dr. Auer of France attracted delay of 10 seconds at the temperature of attention to cerium by a patent concern650 degrees, diminishes in proportion as ing an alloy of cerique metals with iron : the temperature increases, for a delay of by this alloy small pyrophoric sticks only one second the temperature must be under slight shocks will emit very hot increased to 1,000 degrees.

sparks. The temperature of the sparks from A new alloy, the Kunheim alloy, is uranium is then above 1,000 degrees. composed of cerique metals with the ad

Sparks forced from iron whether by dition of iron and magnesia. It ignites an ordinary steel and fint or by the more readily than the preceding alloy, stroke of a miner's tool will not ignite the and may be utilized for lighting gas jets, mixture of air and fire-damp.

while the Auer metal is especially

SUBSTITUTE FOR SHORTHAND

By

ROBERT H. MOULTON

A

FEW years ago an important communicate his perplexity to the judge, law-suit was being tried in who would re-examine the witness and a court of one of our large —but just then a dramatic incident occities. A dozen witnesses, curred. The witness was seen to sway representing each side of the in the

in the chair and then topple forward, case, had been heard and their testimony dead—a victim of heart failure. duly recorded. The most important wit- This incident so unnerved the stenogness, however, and the one upon whom rapher that when he set to work a few the defense chiefly relied to support its

hours later to transcribe his notes he contentions, was reserved until the last. found more than the usual difficulty in When he finally took the stand, judge, deciphering them. Still he finished his lawyers and the other court attaches work with the consciousness that he had leaned eagerly forward in order not to performed his task well. The half dozen miss a word of what might be said, and or so of words about which he had been the official court stenographer prepared in doubt could not affect the result of the to take down his testimony. The ex- trial materially anyway—at least that is amination began, and the witness proved what the stenographer thought. But to be such a rapid talker that the stenog- when a few weeks later the case was derapher, one of the most expert in his cided by the judge, it went, very much line, was forced to exert himself to the to the surprise of all concerned, against utmost to keep pace with the questions the defense. In reading his decision the and answers that were plied back and judge dwelt with some emphasis upon forth.

certain words in the testimony of the When the examination finally was chief witness and which, he declared, concluded, the stenographer leaned back had led him to arrive at his conclusions. with a sigh and congratulated himsel The stenographer recognized in these that he had made a record for speed and particular words the very ones about

-accuracy? Well, he liad passed suc- which he was in doubt when transcribcessfully through

ing his notes, and similar experiences

he was troubled. If before and there

he had been absowas no reason why

lutely sure of himhe should feel that

self, might not the he had made any

whole

have errors in this in

been decided differstance, or doubt his

ently? But now it ability to correctly

was too late to do transcribe the

anything in the queer assortment

matter. of hieroglyphics

This is only one that covered page

of many instances after page of his

wherein the inabilnote book. Besides,

ity of stenograif there was any

phers to read their doubt in his mind,

shorthand notes THE MACHINE WHICH DOES AWAY WITH THE STENOGhe could easily RAPHER's PAD AND PENCIL.

correctly has re

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sulted in much trouble and conTh18 18

fusion. This defect in a marvelous

system of taking down the words PB

spes ( specimen 1

of a speaker verbatim is one which

numerous inventors have labored to of

correct. Mechanical aid of some the work sort seemed the only solution of the writ

problem, because there are limits (written)

beyond which even the swiftest

hand and the keenest and most ac(read) red

curate mind cannot go. So these as well as inventors set to work to perfect a to write

device that would replace short

hand. But none of the many ma(you)

chines
which patents

were
(have)
haf

claimed seemed capable of fulfilling to ( know )

all the requirements that would be

exacted of them. (fen)

fu loode) kod

There has recently been put upon (81gns) sins

the market, however, a dictating TO

machine, called the Stenotype, (read) red

which its inventor claims will do ( the se) thes

for shorthand what the typewriter words

has done for longhand. It is not

short intended to replace the typewriter, HA

hond (you)

but to be a companion machine to (have) naf

it. It is said to eliminate the (low )

greater part of brain work in taking the

dictation, and to make this work a (whole ) hol

matter of practice rather than menthing

tal strain. This claim certainly If

makes it look rosy for those who Iyou)

have heretofore found the stenoI write! writ

graphic pace too fast. Instead of short

learning stenography the student H A (you)

will only need to learn to operate I know) (how ) hou

the dictating machine. hard

Shorthand is difficult to master and many students of it never be

come proficient, while those who (read)

may be termed experts are comit

paratively few. This is proved by

the number of those who fail in ( March )

taking the Civil Service examina23 19

tions for Uncle Sam. The speed (1911)

required to pass is only eighty 1

words per minute, which probably

defines the speed limit of the avTHE NEW STENOGRAPHIC CODE AND ITS KEY.

erage experienced stenographer. EU equals 1: PH «quals M (initial): PB equals N (final); BG equals K (final): final T equals Tor D (context invariably

The trouble is that in shorthand distinguishes); S equals Is or As-in phrases inițial or final): TPH equals N (initial): TP equals F (initial). The following

there are too many mental operletters, when appearing on the same line with asterisk, become

ations to be performed—six for figures instead. as: S with the asterisk equals 1; T with the asterisk equals 2: P with the asterisk equals 3: H with the asterisk every word, in fact. It is claimed equals 4: E with the asterisk equals 5; F with the asterisk cquals 6: P with the asterisk equals 7; L with the asterisk equals 8; T

that the dictating machine will cut with the asterisk equals 9; O with the asterisk equals 0.

this in two.

The training and practice neces

T
T PR
T H

8 T

H

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