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characters in any system of shorthandthe dots and dashes, big and little circles, long and short characters, the curved and straight lines, and the light and shaded lines—accurately and while going at any speed requires months and often years.

And then there is the serious question, already referred to, of legibility in transcribing these characters after they are once made; for often the same character will

will mean different things when above, below or on a line, different things when shaded, and still other things when lengthened or shortened.

The dictating machine is said to do away with this question of legibility entirely, since it writes in plain type-letters, so that no matter how fast one writes the letters are always properly executed.

. For this reason one person can read what another has written just as easily as he can his own work, a thing which is practically impossible in shorthand. It also leaves a permanent record, which THE COPY HOLDER, FROM WHICH THE TYPIST READS

HER MACHINE-MADE NOTES. can be transcribed at any time; and this is another advantage over shorthand, for

still be writing almost four times as every stenographer knows that the

many words as the latter, and more than longer the time that elapses between the

twice as many as the average stenogtaking of shorthand dictation and its

rapher can take down in shorthand in transcription, the more difficult the task

the same length of time. becomes.

The most remarkable feature of this It is possible for an expert user of the typewriter to take-slow dictation directly only twenty keys. All of the missing

machine is the keyboard, which contains on the machine, the average speed in this connection being about sixty words per combining certain other letters. These

letters on the keyboard are secured by minute, which means that the typewriter combinations form what is called a code, is given about four hundred strokes, in

and it comprises the entire brain work cluding spacing, in this length of time.

in connection with the machine. The As the new dictating machine is designed code is so small—there are only eight to write over a word a stroke, the spac

combinations for letters and ten for ing being done automatically, it will be seen that even if it is struck only half figures—that it can be memorized in a

couple of hours. It has been figured, the number of times that is required in


however, that the average boy or girl, ordinary use on the typewriter, it will just out of school, can memorize it and

read fluently in a week or two any matter that may be written on the machine.

The keys are built to fit the fingers, and as each finger has but two keys to operate, the keyboard is always under immediate control. At the top of the machine is a bar, which may be struck in conjunction with the top row of letters and with any finger. This is called the figure bar and prints an asterisk in the centre of the piece of paper on which

the writing is done. The code tells that are printed on the same line with the is taking dictation, thus having mail asterisk, they become figures instead of ready for the dictator to sign almost as letters.


fast as the dictation is finished. It has Another interesting feature of the ma- been figured that four operators on the chine is the rewinder, which automatic- dictating machine can do the work of ally rewinds the paper as fast as it leaves five in shorthand-a clear saving of the keys. The power generated by strik- twenty per cent. And time is money. ing the keys, or any set of keys, is also Consider what this would mean in offices the power that operates the rewinder. where from twenty to a hundred, and The paper is wound upon a spool, which sometimes even as many as three hunis removable for the purpose of placing dred stenographers are employed. on the copy holder. The copy holder The dictating machine should also be is a separate contrivance designed to the means of reducing the cost of tuition facilitate the transcription of notes. By to students of shorthand very materially. pressing a key on one side of the copy Probably a quarter of a million of new holder the paper is fed forward page students are turned out the shorthand by page, so to speak, as fast as may be schools of this country each year. As desired.

the time required to learn to use the In business offices where speed is an dictating machine should not exceed two essential factor the dictating machine weeks, while a course in shorthand may should result in a great saving of time. run anywhere from as many months to One person can transcribe while another a year-well, figure it out for yourself.


HEREAFTER the phonographic discs ture upon the screen. The latter is a

of popular songs will be accom- hoop of about 16-inch diameter over panied by picture-discs to illustrate them, which a piece of thin, white cloth is when the device of a California inventor drawn taut. It is attached to the flare is placed on the market. The song illus- of the horn by an adjustable bracket so trator is a very ingenious device which that the screen hangs in front of the can be attached to an ordinary talking large opening. machine and its principles may be briefly The machine shown in the accompanyexplained as follows: a disc about the ing illustration is equipped with a 16 size of a song record contains sixteen candle-power electric light and is delantern slides which are set in small cir- signed for parlor entertainment, but by cular openings near the circumference. using a more powerful light the pictures This picture-disc is adjusted so that the can be projected on a much larger screen motor of the phonograph causes it to at a distance, thus serving for use in a revolve, a couple of

hall or auditorium. inches or so at a

By using a larger time, stopping for

song-disc, fifty or a brief interval as

more slides can be each picture is

set at the circumbrought before the

ference, and it lens. The lens

would serve for adand light which are

vertising purposes. designed the

This ingenious deprinciple of the

vice is the invenstereopticon, can

tion of a clerk in be adjusted to the

a Los Angeles ordinary type of

music store, Mr. horn, and electric

Harry Clubb, who ity, gas or kero

has spent two years sene may be used

in perfecting his into project the picTALKING MACHINE WHICH WILL ACCOMPANY






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HE West is supposed to look prairie. Along this path he scraped two
to the East for new ideas, but bare streaks, and that completed his
occasionally the coldly prac- road.
tical minds of Westerners From the beginning the line was a

evolve an idea far ahead of success. Traveling people saved both what is considered within the range of money and time as well as having one possibilities to the Eastern minds. For of the oddest trips to be had in this instance, five years ago, the East did country. Nine hours were consumed in not consider the automobile a practical making the hundred mile run and the utility, yet away down in the Southwest machines never broke down. Finally an a little, grey-eyed man sank all of his agitation was started for the route to available funds in machines and estab- carry the mail. It took as long for a a lished an auto route to compete with one letter to go to Kansas City as for one of the greatest railroad systems on earth. to go to Albuquerque, and the daily His line was a success and now he not papers were two days coming through. only carries passengers but holds the The railroad naturally opposed the move, mail contract as well.

but in the fall of 1905 the mail contract It was in the summer of 1905 when a was taken from the Santa Fe and given doctor brought the first auto into the to the Roswell Auto Company. As the Pecos Valley. At Roswell, a hotel man, line connected at Torrance with the J. W. Stockard, became interested in the Rock Island and the Santa Fe Central possibilities of the machines and bought this brought the mail from the East as one. After running it around some, he well as from the West. conceived the idea of an auto line be- In July, 1910, the Santa Fe finished tween Roswell and Torrance, New Mexico. At that time, in order to get from Albuquerque to Roswell, you had to go north to Trinidad, Colorado, then to Amarilla, Texas, and there you could get a train into Roswell. But by driving overland to Torránce, a hundred and five miles, you could mal-a far better connections. Stockard figured he could make money with a regular auto between the two points, Roswell and Torrance. Instead of taking the regular wagon road he set out one day with a compass and a camping outfit and staked a new

JT THE HALFWAY HOUSE. WHERE NEW Driver And Car ENTER FOR path across the rolling




their great Belen Cutoff between Belen They can make the trip between Vaughn and Clovis, and to facilitate handling and Roswell in nine hours if necessary, mail the route was changed to Vaughn and said so. Stockard said he could beat where the Santa Fe crosses the Rock nine hours so the Government did a Island. The distance was about the little figuring and called on him to make same but Stockard had to build an en- the trip in five hours flat, if he wanted tirely new road. This was easy, for by the new contract. He ran one of the this time his inventive mind had evolved cars through and set four and a half a patent road drag which broke, hours as the new schedule time. This smoothed and

means an average rolled a new road

of between twentyall in one oper

five and thirty ation.

miles an hour, The cars which

counting out the were bought when

time necessarily the line started

consumed in the were two-cylinder

slow driving in chain-drive cars of

town and on bad about twenty horse

places. However, power, and were

the cars have no used continuously

trouble making it on the line till this

though it is hard fall when three

on the drivers as new cars of the

the strain is so consame make but far

stant. The automore powerful,

mail driver cannot four cylinder, and

loll back occasioncarrying seven pas

ally as

his sengers

brother in the enbought and put ONE OF THE SPECIAL AUTO BRIDGES IN THE DESERT.

gine-cab, for one into operation. The

second's relaxation old cars had each run a little over 130,- might mean a bad “smash.” So the 000 miles on the line, and are still in drivers and cars are changed at a lonely use around Roswell, one being the "am- ranch in the middle of the desert, thus bulance” car at the garage.

each driver makes the round trip every With the change to Vaughn came an three days. This plan too, prevents any increase in the amount of mail

, in fact possibility of a passenger having to “lay so great a quantity had to be carried as out” all night in case of accident for if to necessitate the use of an extra car on a car becomes overdue at any point on many occasions.

When no extra was the line the reserve car goes out to get run there was no room for passengers. it. No passenger has ever had to lay So Stockard retired to think and in due out, but there have been occasions when course the “dingle” wagon was built. the mail could not get through on acThis is a little rubber-tired canvas cov- count of the deep snow. A storm which ered wagon which is hitched to the ties


the auto line also blocks the railback of the motor car with a patent road and often a storm which blocks the connection (to make it track) and in railroad does not bother the autos much which the mail and baggage is carried. for cars are running back and forth all The big machines have no trouble the time and the road is kept fairly clear. hauling this car when it carries up In the narrow washes or "arroyos” to a thousand pounds of mail, and the snow will occasionally pile up and can easily make the whole trip on the then a big home 'made car called the high gear.

"Yellow Kid" is used to buck the drifts As there is something like $9,000.00 a till a way is broken through. Last winyear paid for the hauling of the mail, ter one of the drivers rammed the Kid the railroad again tried to get the con- into a drift and it took two weeks to pull





The south entrance to the diversion tunnel of the great irrigation project in southern Idaho.


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AST volcanic eruptions have located in four sections of the state, the

resulted in a very large area of largest tract aggregating 55,000 acres. southern Idaho being covered To conserve the water necessary to with a deposit of what is insure permanent and adequate irriga

known as volcanic ash. This tion it was necessary to form a barrier material is known for its richness when across a gorge through which the main properly irrigated, as is shown in the river flows. The formation at this point Hood River valley in Oregon, lying be- is of such a character that it would be tween the extinct volcanoes of Mount impossible to erect a masonry dam. The Baker and Mount Hood. Here orchards distance from the nearest railway transproduce some of the finest fruit grown in portation, twenty-five miles, also entered America, especially apples.

into the problem. The natural course of The portion of Idaho covered with the river is over a bottom which is comvolcanic ash caused plans to be consid- posed of sand, some clay and strewn ered with a view to irrigating a part of with bolders and rock fragments which it from what are known as the Bigwood have fallen from the canyon sides, and River and Littlewood River which rise have been washed down by flood curin the ranges of the Smoke and Saw- rents. The depth of this material has tooth Mountains. The water shed serv- been found to be as great as sixty feet ing these rivers is estimated as sufficient lying above the foundation of hard rock. to irrigate fully 150,000 acres which are On each side of the canyon the forma

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