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water getting underneath. Outside the the main dynamos which are in use on power house there is already consider- the job. able depression in the rock, but the plan Beneath the floor of the power house is to deepen and widen this depression will be a series of forty-seven passages so as to get rid of the water quickly as conducting the water to the turbines. it passes under the power house and These passages will be all formed in solid through the wheels.

concrete, constructed so as to offer the The long power house will be divided least obstruction to the water. Each into alleys forty-five and thirty-seven generator and turbine is arranged to be feet wide, respectively. Forty feet over- cut off by steel head-gates, which close head in the alley facing the Keokuk side the openings for the water, and allow of the river will be thirty ton cranes, sup

them to be inspected. Heavy screens, ported on the walls, for the handling of consisting of iron bars, will stand in

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the heavy machinery. In the alley near- front of each turbine opening, to prevent est the river will be ten ton cranes for the entrance of sticks and stones, which lifting the heavy screens guarding the would injure the blade of the turbines. entrances to the turbines and for the The maximum head of water on the handling of the headgates for shutting wheels will be at low water and will off the water. There will be forty-seven amount to thirty feet. At extreme high immense generators of 4,500 horse- water the head is expected to be twentypower each, working on a vertical shaft one feet. At high water, therefore, the like the generators at Niagara. These plan is to use all three turbines to drive generators will be twelve feet in diam- the generator, when the head is least, but eter. On the same vertical shaft will be the flow is abundant; at low water, when three different turbines, one

over the

the head is large, two, or even one, of other, about nine feet in diameter, all the turbines in action will be sufficient. working together to drive the generator. The turbines will be made so they can Besides the big 4,500 horse-power gen

be discontinued when not in use. erators, provision is made for three The dam will impound the waters until exciter generators, which are intended to a lake will be formed which will overflow furnish current to excite the magnets of the lowlands along the Iowa and Illinois

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shores for a distance of approximately Keokuk. When entirely completed the forty miles above Keokuk. Immediately project calls for 250,000 horse-power, adjacent to Keokuk the river is lined although it is expected that 200,000 will with high, limestone bluffs so that there be nearer the amount developed for some will be little change in the contour there- years to come. St. Louis, 167 miles disabouts, the main alteration being the tant, is in the market for a large share submerging of the narrow lowland shelf of the power, which can be sold there now occupied by the tracks of the Bur- at $18 per horse-power per year. Steam lington railroad and their removal to a power within 250 miles of Keokuk now ledge of the bluffs or cliffs. On the Illi- averages about $55 a horse-power per nois shore, however, immediately ad- year, so that the saving from the electric jacent to Hamilton, there will be hun- power is going to be great. dreds of acres of lowlands, now annu- But Keokuk is not expecting to build ally planted to grain, which will be sub- this immense engineering project and merged. The Keokuk and Hamilton then transmit the power to other cities, Water Power Company, which is build- to grow at its expense. Known in the ing the dam, has already purchased old historic trail and waterways days as three-fourths of the property which will the Gate City of the West, Keokuk lies be submerged and has options on prac- at the convergence of three great states: tically all the rest. It is estimated that Iowa—which leads the nation in the proapproximately $1,500,000 has been or duction of oats-Illinois—which leads in will be paid out for riparian rights before corn—and Missouri—which leads in the dam is completed.

hogs. Iowa has never figured very The initial installation is expected to prominently as a manufacturing state, be 100,000 horse-power, of which 60,000 being content to rest on its laurels as an has already been contracted for by the agricultural state. The same is true of Union Electric Light and Power, the Missouri and western Illinois. But the Laclede Gas, and the United Railways awakening has come and now these three companies of St. Louis, leaving only 40,- states are looking forward to a time in 000 to be disposed of in and around the near future when their home-grown raw materials shall be converted into the become a rival to Niagara Falls in very finished products of commerce and when truth. Already plans are being laid to they shall dominate the manufacturing divert to Keokuk the shipments of bauxworld as they long have the agricultural. ite, the clay used in the manufacture of Iowa has numerous cereal mills, one of aluminum, from Niagara Falls, where it the largest being located in Keokuk. But is shipped by rail from Arkansas. Keoits farmers have been obliged to send kuk argues, and with apparent reason, to Ohio and Indiana for their imple- that bauxite might far better come to a ments and machines. With cheap power cheap water power by a cheap water available in immense quantities and with route. Negotiations are also in progthe Mississippi flowing unchecked at its ress for the establishment of a factory feet, furnishing a cheap means of trans- for the conversion of the limestone, with portation to the north and south and east, which the community abounds, into comKeokuk looks forward to the day when mercial fertilizer by electrolysis. factories will line the bluffs and the city The man who is building the dam, DAMMING THE MISSISSIPPI









Mr. Hugh L. Cooper, engineered the ers were at work, each of them capable work on the wing dam in the Horseshoe of crushing 130 tons an hour into threerapids of Niagara, building out 800 feet inch stone. A sand pump brought 15,000 into a millrace moving seventeen miles yards of sand from the river bottom an hour and ranging from twenty-two to every ten hours. The cement fixers fell twenty-six feet in depth. Another feat on this material and fed it into the mixof Mr. Cooper's was putting in the Mc- ing machines, capable of producing 1,200 Call Ferry dann in the Susquehanna cubic yards a day. With the concrete river, 3,100 feet long, sixty feet high, and ready for the piers and abutments, the developing 135,000 water-power. The carriers, shovels, and miscellaneous Keokuk dam presents no new or difficult equipment went chugging back and forth engineering problems, immense as it is. over the improvised track and the great One of the things which makes the her- dam began to appear; slowly, it is true, culean task easier is the fact that the but surely, which is the main thing. building materials exist in almost After a year's work on the Illinois shore, limitless quantity right at hand. The a new gang of men was brought over to Mississippi is lined for

more miles the Iowa shore. The cement storehouse than any man knows with bed upon bed on the Illinois shore, holding 10,000 barof limestone. It is necessary only to un- rels, gave up 2,000 barrels of its stock cover the surface strata of dirt and blast daily, while train loads of new cenient the rock into movable chunks for the kept the stock replenished day after day. huge crushers. Sand, also, is there in During the first year of construction the limitless quantity. Before the work was daily demand was for ten carloads of many months under way two rock crush- cement and three carloads of coal.

A Sea Song

Oh, for a soft and gentle wind!

I heard a fair one cry;
But give to me the snoring breeze

And white waves heaving high.
And white waves heaving high, my boys!

The good ship tight and free;
The world of waters is our home,

And merry men are we.
There's tempest in yon horned moon,

And lightning in yon cloud;
And hark the music, mariners !

The wind is piping loud;
The wind is piping loud, my boys,

The lightning flashing free
While the hollow oak our palace is
Our heritage the sea.


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MERICAN electrical engineers with the danger a problem, a danger

must study in the immediate which the men in control of the roads future as vast and vital a rail- must very soon consider, and a problem way problem as any which has which they must hand over to the very

taxed the abilities of experts best engineers for solution. in the whole history of the development There are in the world today about of the transportation system of the 1,300 miles of railroads upon which United States. "Electrification is bound electricity is used for heavy service. Far to come”—that is the well-considered the greater part of this mileage is in the opinion of the president of one of the United States. In addition there are 435 great railroad systems of the country, a miles of electric elevated and subway man who in a statesmanlike way is lead

lines in the cities of Boston, Chicago, ing the railway development of the time. Philadelphia, and New York. But the Indeed, electrification is coming and it is systems of electrification which are used coming fast. But the fact that various upon these lines are not uniform. railways are employing various systems For example, the New York, New of electrification brings a danger and Haven and I lartford has twenty-one



Single-phase clectrification overhead is the triangular or older form of construction.

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