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in large blocks of different varieties com- was affected with rot, and 91.5 with prising over 5,000 trees, while Mr. Hale's scab. 81% of the rot infection had hapforce sprayed about 7,000 trees in their pened through curculio punctures. The orchard under the supervision of the two figures themselves were very satisfactory scientists. Plats of trees were selected, to Mr. Hale but there was another cause trees counted and sprayed while next a for gratification in the increased size and sprayed plat another was left unsprayed. color and generally better merchantable Two applications of spray were made, condition of the sprayed fruit. The comone about a month after the petals drop- mercial results of the spraying were deped and again three weeks before the termined by counting the marketable fruit ripened. At picking time the entire fruit on 500 trees from each plat. The crop including dropped fruit was counted sprayed plat yielded 170 crates, the unon five average trees in each plat. On sprayed but 80.

Thus was nearly a the sprayed plat it was found that 17% quietus given to the brown-rot. The was affected with brown-rot, and that in curculio was the factor that held the door 93% of the rotting fruit infection had open. been admitted by curculio punctures.

To offset curculio injury some experiThe scab was, from the commercial ments were made in cooperation with point of view completely controlled. On Mr. A. L. Quaintance of the Bureau of the unsprayed plat 49.5% of the fruit Entomology of first spraying with

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DIFFERENCE IN BROWN-ROT DEVELOPED IN SPRAYED AND UNSPRAYED PEACHES. Two crates of Elberta peaches after six days in refrigerator car and a day in express car. The fruit on the left had

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caustic sulphids in the boiled mixture
caused the scalding of the peach leaf
and he turned as a last resort to the ex-
pedient of self-boiling as bringing into
solution a minimum percentage of sul-
phur.

The theory about the action of this
new spray is that the free lime serves
as a matrix to hold all the other ele-
ments together, that there are enough
of the sticky sulphides to bind the solid
materials to the fruit, branches and
leaves, and that the finely divided sul-

phur deals personally and correctively Gum EXUDATIONS ON YOUNG PEACHES FROM CURCULIO with the bad fungus. PUNCTURES.

While brown-rot does its worst in It is these wounds that give entrance to the brown-rot.

humid regions such as the early peach

belt of Georgia, it is to be feared in every arsenate of lead just as the calyces were peach section of the country, with the shedding, and again in about three weeks exception of the arid irrigated localities with self-boiled lime-sulphur plus lead of the west. As a general thing the disarsenate. The success was brilliant.

ease does not fall to work until the fruit Only 4.5% of the fruit showed brown

is nearly mature. rot, 6.5% had slight traces of scab, and A typical and singularly complete case about 27.5% were curculio punctured. of rot destruction occurred near Dublin, On the unsprayed plat 63% was rotted, Georgia, a few years ago. It was the 99% scabby, and 97% was wormy from year of the first full crop the orchard curculio. The sprayed block yielded 327 had borne and all went fairly until harcrates of first class fruit while the un- vest time. Figuring on his masses of sprayed block yielded but 33 crates, all large handsome fruit the owner ordered of which were poor in quality. In the crates for 40 carloads. Then came days New York market the sprayed fruit of muggy air and drizzling rain, and brought fifty cents more per crate than with them a spontaneous combustion of the unsprayed, and all of it was sold brown-rot. Out sprang the brown spots before the other, showing the impression wearing their beards of white sporemade upon the buyers by the difference bearing threads. The pickers were hurin the appearance of the two classes. ried to cull the best of what was left but

The principal reason why, until Mr. it was too late. The disease continued Scott's discovery, the disease had en- to develop in transit and an entire crop joyed immunity was that, so far as was known, there existed no spray that could be safely applied to the peach tree while in full leaf. All the peach-grower could do toward controlling the fungus was to gather the dropped infected fruit and burn them. As it was quite impossible to do this cleanly and as a few of these "mummies" overlooked was enough to infect an orchard, the laugh was generally with the "mummy."

The self-boiled lime sulphur spray in which the mixture was boiled by the slaking of the lime was a discredited spray for San Jose scale treatment. Mr. Scott after trying about all the combinations of lime and sulphur finally reached the conclusion that the excess of the

ADULT CURCULIO BEETLFS ON A Young PEACH.

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that was easily worth $20,000 was a total failure and the owner was in debt. The career of this disease had practically doomed the early peach belt of Georgia to extinction when Mr. Scott intervened.

The annual loss to the peach crop due to the ravages of brown-rot is estimated at $5,000,000. The normal output of the state of Georgia is not less than 5,000 carloads, worth about $2,500,000. In 1900 the brown-rot burned up between $500,000 and $700,000 of the peach profits of that state. A conservative estimate of the annual damage in Georgia in recent years is $1,000,000. It is good to know that peach grower now has the whip-hand of so expensive a disease.

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CHEMICAL WATCHMAN

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a bank cashier with a taste for State Bank, South Dakota, hit upon the

chemistry is due the credit of a idea that if he could place a bottle of simple yet highly efficient cash protector some strong chemical between the outer and cracksman tamer. Several years ago

and

nner doors of the vault its fumes Cashier George Clark of the Corona might retard the work of safe breakers

or perhaps frighten them away. A quart bottle of formaldehyde was immediately given a position as a silent night watchman between the doors of the vault.

For about five years the "yegg doctor" kept unobtrusive guard. Finally early in November, 1910, the test came. A couple of professional cracksmen entered the town. Two charges of nitro-glycerine were used on Cashier Clark's safe that night. The first one did little damage but the second wrecked both the outer and inner doors, tore the latter from their hinges and threw them out into the vault and against the small safe and safety deposit boxes. The "yeggmen” did not wait to wreck the inner safe, however, for at the same moment the "yegg doctor" responded to a hurry call and the fumes of a full quart of formaldehyde filled the room. Choking and gasping, with tears streaming from their eyes, the criminals scrambled out the way they had come in and left tracks down the peaceful country highway that fairly sizzled. For days after the explosion the fumes of formaldehyde were

so strong that a person could not breathe A MASTERPIECE OF ARTIFICIAL FOLIAGE. Every leaf and twis and bit of rotting wood is studied from nature and reproduced by art.

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H

OW do they reproduce the it just as it grew that would be wonderplants, the tree leaves and ful indeed. But the way they actually wild-flowers with such mar- do it is still more wonderful. Every one velous exactitude ?

of those flowers; every leaf; the stalk, We look at them in the and its branches—is the work of man's museum cases in wonder. Here are the hand! familiar fields brought to your eye just Think of the skill, the close observaas you recall them in life—myriads of tion of Nature, required to do this and grasses, dozens of daisies; every leaf, yet not make an obvious imitation! every petal and stamen as perfect as if And yet, the basis of the process is living. One usually dismisses conjecture simple enough. It is all done from life with the thought that, no doubt, they casts of the component parts. In the picked these things in the field, and pre- laboratory you will find large tables covserved or petrified them just as they were ered with boxes of various green shades by some mysterious process.

of the finest thin sheet wax, rolls of fine Here is the case of the duck hawk or oiled muslin de soie, and short lengths of peregrine falcon for instance. You may cotton-wrapped steel wire. The simpleșt recall it—a section of rock cliff nearly thing that the laboratory turns out is a fills the case and sets off, as it were, the leaf. Suppose that the group to be habitat of the falcon. In a cleft of the mounted requires for one of the "accesrock there is a tuft of grasses, and in sories” a branch of white oak. The first the midst of it grows a fairy-like colum- thing done is to secure representative bine in full blossom. How did they get specimens of white oak leaves of various it there?

ages, including buds. These are picked If they picked that delicate plant and from the tree and brought into the dipped it in a preservative that petrified laboratory.

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