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R. J. H. HALE of Georgia mixture of the usefulness of which Mr. and Connecticut, the great- Scott was then pretty well convinced. est grower of peaches in Experiments on small plats had been
the world, commanding made in 1907 and 1908. While the great
I over 1,000 acres of or- plant of the Hale company had had the chard, paid his respects to the brown-rot best of care and was otherwise in good in the following terms: “The brown- condition, it had in recent years become rot is so great a factor for evil in the so infected with brown-rot that in 1908 raising of peaches for the market that in the crop was largely lost. a few years more it would have accom- Two other enemies of the peach were plished the complete failure of my allied with the rot to encompass the ruin orchard plant in the state of Georgia of the orchard, namely, the scab and the We can master or control every other plum curculio. The former is also a enemy of the peach by up-to-date meth- fungus but of not so malignant a type ods and precautions but until now we as the brown-rot. It serves as an achave had no weapon that would touch complice to the latter by cracking and the brown-rot fungus.” And then he spotting the fruit thus giving the deadlier continued to say that, “The use of the fungus an easy entrance. The curculio self-boiled lime-sulphur spray, as a foli- beetle damages the peach by puncturing age treatment for the peach-tree, recently the fruit for the purpose of laying its discovered by Mr. W. M. Scott of the eggs within the skin. It is a troublesome U. S. Department of Agriculture, alone creature but its rate of speed as a worker would swing the future status of my of destruction is to that of the brownfortune from failure to success.”
rot as a slow-match to a prairie fire. In the spring of 1909 Mr. Hale offered Its worst crime is in making the punctthe orchard of the Hale Georgia Orchard ures that give the rot free entree. Co. at Fort Valley, Ga., as a demon- Mr. Scott and his chief assistant, Mr. stration and proving ground of this spray Willard Ayres, conducted the spraying
in large blocks of different varieties com- was affected with rot, and 91.5 with prising over 5,000 trees, while Mr. Hale's scab. 81% of the rot infection had hapforce sprayed about 7,000 trees in their pened through curculio punctures. The orchard under the supervision of the two figures themselves were very satisfactory scientists. Plats of trees were selected, to Mr. Hale but there was another cause trees counted and sprayed while next a for gratification in the increased size and sprayed plat another was left unsprayed. color and generally better merchantable Two applications of spray were made, condition of the sprayed fruit. The comone about a month after the petals drop- mercial results of the spraying were deped and again three weeks before the termined by counting the marketable fruit ripened. At picking time the entire fruit on 500 trees from each plat. The crop including dropped fruit was counted sprayed plat yielded 170 crates, the unon five average trees in each plat. On sprayed but 80. Thus was nearly a the sprayed plat it was found that 17% quietus given to the brown-rot. The was affected with brown-rot, and that in curculio was the factor that held the door 93% of the rotting fruit infection had open. been admitted by curculio punctures. To offset curculio injury some experiThe scab was, from the commercial ments were made in cooperation with point of view completely controlled. On Mr. A. L. Quaintance of the Bureau of the unsprayed plat 49.5% of the fruit Entomology of first spraying with
DIFFERENCE IN BROWN-ROT DEVELOPED IN SPRAYED AND UNSPRAYED PEACHES. Two crates of Elberta peaches after six days in refrigerator car and a day in express car. The fruit on the left had
caustic sulphids in the boiled mixture caused the scalding of the peach leaf and he turned as a last resort to the expedient of self-boiling as bringing into solution a minimum percentage of sulphur.
The theory about the action of this new spray is that the free lime serves as a matrix to hold all the other elements together, that there are enough of the sticky sulphides to bind the solid materials to the fruit, branches and leaves, and that the finely divided sul
phur deals personally and correctively GUM EXUDATIONS ON YOUNG PEACHES FROM CURCULIO with the bad fungus.
While brown-rot does its worst in It is these wounds that give entrance to the brown-rot.
humid regions such as the early peach
belt of Georgia, it is to be feared in every arsenate of lead just as the calyces were peach section of the country, with the shedding, and again in about three weeks exception of the arid irrigated localities with self-boiled lime-sulphur plus lead of the west. As a general thing the disarsenate. The success was brilliant. ease does not fall to work until the fruit Only 4.5% of the fruit showed brown- is nearly mature. rot, 6.5% had slight traces of scab, and A typical and singularly complete case about 27.5% were curculio punctured. of rot destruction occurred near Dublin, On the unsprayed plat 63% was rotted, Georgia, a few years ago. It was the 99% scabby, and 97% was wormy from year of the first full crop the orchard curculio. The sprayed block yielded 327 had borne and all went fairly until harcrates of first class fruit while the un- vest time. Figuring on his masses of sprayed block yielded but 33 crates, all large handsome fruit the owner ordered of which were poor in quality. In the crates for 40 carloads. Then came days New York market the sprayed fruit of muggy air and drizzling rain, and brought fifty cents more per crate than with them a spontaneous combustion of the unsprayed, and all of it was sold brown-rot. Out sprang the brown spots before the other, showing the impression wearing their beards of white sporemade upon the buyers by the difference bearing threads. The pickers were hurin the appearance of the two classes. ried to cull the best of what was left but
The principal reason why, until Mr. it was too late. The disease continued Scott's discovery, the disease had en- to develop in transit and an entire crop joyed immunity was that, so far as was known, there existed no spray that could be safely applied to the peach tree while in full leaf. All the peach-grower could do toward controlling the fungus was to gather the dropped infected fruit and burn them. As it was quite impossible to do this cleanly and as a few of these "mummies” overlooked was enough to infect an orchard, the laugh was generally with the “mummy."
The self-boiled lime sulphur spray in which the mixture was boiled by the slaking of the lime was a discredited spray for San Jose scale treatment. Mr. Scott after trying about all the combinations of lime and sulphur finally reached the conclusion that the excess of the ADULT CURCULIO BEETLES ON A YOUNG PEACH.
that was easily worth $20,000 was a total failure and the owner was in debt. The career of this disease had practically doomed the early peach belt of Georgia to extinction when Mr. Scott intervened.
The annual loss to the peach crop due to the ravages of brown-rot is estimated at $5,000,000. The normal output of the state of Georgia is not less than 5,000 carloads, worth about $2,500,000. In 1900 the brown-rot burned up between $500,000 and $700,000 of the peach profits of that state. A conservative estimate of the annual damage in Georgia in recent years is $1,000,000. It is good to know that the peach grower now has the whip-hand of so expensive a disease.
To a bank cashier with a taste for State Bank, South Dakota, hit upon the 1 chemistry is due the credit of a idea that if he could place a bottle of simple yet highly efficient cash protector some strong chemical between the outer and cracksman tamer. Several years ago and inner doors of the vault its fumes Cashier George Clark of the Corona might retard the work of safe breakers
or perhaps frighten them away. A quart bottle of formaldehyde was immediately given a position as a silent night watchman between the doors of the vault.
For about five years the "yegg doctor” kept unobtrusive guard. Finally early in November, 1910, the test came. A couple of professional cracksmen entered the town. Two charges of nitro-glycerine were used on Cashier Clark's safe that night. The first one did little damage but the second wrecked both the outer and inner doors, tore the latter from their hinges and threw them out into the vault and against the small safe and safety deposit boxes. The “yeggmen" did not wait to wreck the inner safe, however, for at the same moment the "yegg doctor” responded to a hurry call and the fumes of a full quart of formaldehyde filled the room. Choking and gasping, with tears streaming from their eyes, the criminals scrambled out the way they had come in and left tracks down the peaceful country highway that fairly sizzled. For days after the explosion the fumes of formaldehyde were
so strong that a person could not breathe