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HE greatest problem that con- land lie idle, of no use whatever to
fronts the people of the Pa- mankind.
cific Coast states, is what to The big lumber companies of the West
do with the vast areas of land have hewed and slashed ruthlessly into

left barren by the woodsman's the virgin timber of the Northwest. The ax and saw. Millions of acres of giant standing trees are of such huge size, that timber have been cut-over and the great' the average tree is cut ten or twelve stumps and tangles of underbrush left feet above the ground, leaving an enorto menace standing timber through fire mous stump from ten to sixteen feet in and to bar the way of the agriculturist. diameter. Only the long straight knot

In eighteen counties in the state of less trunk of the tree is used and the Washington, west of the Cascade Moun- tangle of branches is left where it falls. tains there are 8,700,000 acres of assessed No attempt is made by the timber hewland. Of this, 5,034,000 acres are covered ers to remove anything from the land with merchantable timber ; 429,000 acres except the choicest timber.

In fact so are under cultivation; and 2.352,000 acres little do the lumber barons care for the have had the timber cut off and consist land after they get the timber off, that of what is called "logged-off” land. In in most cases they allow it to revert to Oregon the logged-off area is about the county for taxes. equal to that in Washington. In British The survey made last summer by ProColumbia, on the Canadian side of the fessor Landes, Dr. Benson, and Dr. Fry line, another million acres of logged-off of the Washington State University and Prof. W. J. McGee, of the federal De- waste and is now experimenting with a partment of Agriculture was to de- view to converting it into dollars. The termine how best to utilize these vast spectacle of this concern taking up the logged-off areas. One of the most im- dairy business and the production of portant lessons growing out of this in- prime beef is now engaging the attention vestigation was that the cut-over lands of Western economists. The members should be protected from fire. It is more of this company, on whom the final sucimportant, according to these men, to cess or failure of the conservation idea keep the fire out of these areas than out is conceded to rest, announce that never of the standing timber.

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since the conservation policies were first On the logged-off lands the great ac- urged, has there been a departure of cumulation of waste becomes dry and such vital bearing on the immediate highly inflammable. In addition, this future of the Pacific slope. land is heavily covered with moss, which Two hundred and fifty acres of this by the exposure to the sun becomes like concern's logged-off land have been set tinder. This waste, including the pitch- aside for the experiment. This land has loaded stumps, burns freely and with been seeded to orchid grass and clover. great heat. The thick moss quickly car- Several carloads of young stock were ries the flames to the nearby timber, as turned loose to graze as soon as the crop well as ignites the heavy rich mulch, was well rooted. In a few weeks adwith which the soil is covered, beneath ditional stock will be added. The exthe moss. This reduces the soil to a periment so far is declared to be sucbarren wilderness. Thus all the con- cessful and of far more value than the structive work of nature for ages reverts timber wealth, will be the agriculture to the desert.

worth after the woods have disappeared. One big lumber company in Washing- The finest dairying country in the ton has seen the folly of this enormous world eventually will be found where the timber now stands. Anything that will the ground and only the underbrush grow in the western climate will grow on

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cleared away.

In other cases the land logged-off lands.

is cleared away and luxuriant growths But the success of the conservation of clover and grasses provide forage for movement depends largely on the own- cows to transform into milk. One man ers of the vast timber tracts. In the on twenty acres last year sold $3,000 last few years small land holders have worth of products. He had six Jersey demonstrated the value of these lands for cows, ten young cattle, forty chickens agricultural purposes, but these few and sold beef, veal, potatoes, apples, garpioneers are scarcely a drop in the bucket den truck, cherries, plums, butter, cream, when the enormous area of land is con- milk, eggs and poultry. sidered.

Thus it will be seen that the real conDr. Rudolph S. Hoague is preparing servation problem, in regard to the timto demonstrate the value of these lands ber, does not rest entirely on leaving the by establishing a colony in Washington. trees standing, but on the ultimate utilAlready the county in which this colony ization of the land. In the place of vast will be formed, has shipped 350 carloads areas of blackened stumps, there should of choice prunes this season. While not be seen waving fields of grasses, blosall this land is suitable for general cul- soming orchards, lowing herds, and tivation, it is often ideal for fruit and flocks of well-kept poultry to delight the poultry. The stumps often are left in eye.

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HE government reclamation California. But, in obedience to the service is putting through a mighty power of engineering, it will be very picturesque

picturesque job by obliged in future to turn its current rather novel means on the through the four-mile tunnel into the

Strawberry Valley Project, in adjoining Utah Valley, where it will be Utah. It is an engineering problem, the

diverted into canals for irrigating purmost important feature of which is the poses. By means of a dam forty-five

. boring of a tunnel four miles in length feet high, its waters will be impounded, through a range of mountains, the bor- so as to form an immense lake for storing being done with the help of electric- age. ity generated for the purpose by a Thus a very striking change will be stream.

made in the physical geography of the In the Utah Valley, sixty miles south region. But the unique part of the busiof Salt Lake City, are sixty thousand ness, from an engineering standpoint, is acres of land which need water to make the taking of a small stream in the Utah them fruitful. This valley is separated Valley, diverting it by a dam into a from the Strawberry Valley by the lofty cement-lined canal, passing it several

Wasatch Mountain range. On the other miles along the side of a hill, and dropside of that range, in the Strawberry ping its water through a pressure pipe Valley, is the Strawberry River, which, upon turbines in a power house, generto furnish the requisite water, is to be ating electric power which is transmitted brought through the great rocky barrier to the tunnel camp far up in the mounby the tunnel aforementioned.

tains, where it is used in boring the The Strawberry River now flows into

great hole. the Colorado River, its waters thus find- This small stream is called Spanish ing their way eventually into the Gulf of Fork. Its water, after being utilized for the production of electric power in the The tunnel is concrete-lined and about manner described, is turned into the sixty square feet in area of section—that canals for irrigation, thus serving a is to say, six and a half feet high and double purpose. Incidentally, the sur- seven and a half feet wide, with arched plus electricity has been leased to the roof. It will carry five hundred cubic town of Spanish Fork—which claims feet a second. But it will not be finished four thousand inhabitants—for illumina- for about three years. The Utah Valley tion and other purposes.

has no outlet to the sea, and the water The construction of the Strawberry fetched through the mountains from the Tunnel, a mile and a half above sea level, Strawberry Valley, after all of it is used is perhaps the most beautiful piece of en- that can be used for irrigation, will gineering work the Reclamation Service find its way into the Great Salt Lake. has ever undertaken. In magnitude it is The Utah Valley is one of the oldest second only to the huge bore now com- settled parts of the West. Pioneer

. pleted, in Colorado, to carry the Gun- farmers established themselves there as nison River through a mountain range. a mountain range. early as 1850.

early as 1850. Peaches, apples, cherries, In summer time the work of digging the plums, alfalfa, all kinds of vegetables, tunnel is carried on without much dif- and likewise the cereals, grow there most ficulty, but in winter at that altitude the luxuriantly and profitably. There has storms are frightful, and snow accumu- been irrigation from the first. But the lates to almost unbelievable depth. Dur- water supply is insufficient, and this is ing the winter of 1908 the snow-fall on why the government is going to bring the watershed, as shown by the weather more water, and plenty of it, through bureau's snow-boxes, was nearly twenty- the heart of the mountains. three feet.

The Reclamation Service says that the

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