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ground, stones, sticks, plants, shrubs, and It is astonishing how much the cantrees.

vas has to be retouched to match the The nests were tied in place and actuality of the foreground. The effects packed tight with excelsior, and the trees of lights and shades on objects, as the sawed up and marked branch by branch. artist sees them, are often glaringly at It made no difference which tree the nest variance with the appearance of the real happened to be on; that was the one the foreground, especially at the junction of bird chose; that one must come up, root canvas with reality. Of course the paintand branch, and be shipped to the ing has to be worked over until the most Museum. Finally, the artist sat him fastidious eye can scarcely point out down and painted the large canvas pano- where they shade into each other. rama that forms the present background A still further matter must be looked of the group in the Museum.

to, to secure the wonderful reproduction Arrived at home the collection was of the actual scene that these panoramas unpacked and made up according to the give. It is the effect of shadows on the photographs. The cacti all had to be cast groups. The real objects in the forefrom plaster life moulds, first cutting off ground must have either no shadows at the clusters of thorns. That big prickly all, or else they must agree with those pear on the right of the group, for ex- on the canvas. The former method has ample, has all the old wax drippings of proved the best. The light is thrown a generation of laboratory work in its directly down on the group by concealed interior. The casts were then colored reflectors which receive their light from with the air brush and the clusters of the adjoining windows. In some cases thorns replaced. Some of the hard this is further reinforced by outside rethorny bushes gave worlds of trouble as flectors which throw in the light of the it was exceedingly difficult to drive out zenith. their sap with glycerine. The bush in The Museum has at present twelve of the center of the group—the one with a these panoramas on exhibition in the nest on it—is still alive today and grows Bird Hall. It is worthy of appreciative a few leaves every spring! This, though consideration to reflect that each one cost the branches have been sawn in sections an expensive expedition by scientists and fastened with iron dowels. Its present artists of the Museum Staff, months of roots are also iron dowels, driven into a laboratory work in mounting the birds block of wood in the bottom framing, but from photographs and preparing the acthe bush does not seem to mind the loss cessions, so as to reproduce the actual of the real ones.

plants and trees precisely as found. The To secure a smooth curved surface for

expense of this work is all borne by a the canvas background, a light stud coterie of public-spirited private citizens frame is first built, and on it wire mesh of New York. The result of it all, is to is fastened for a furring. It is then plas- take the observer into the heart of typical tered with hair - felt

American wild scenery plaster bond, upon

which he could never which is applied a

otherwise see, and to smooth finish coat,

fill the study of wild much as in lath-and

birds with interest and plaster work in house

instruction that never building. On this sur

by any possible circumface is sized canvas,

stance could be gotten giving a horizon around

from the old-fashioned the scene, except at the

stuffed bird on a varwindow, through which

nished wooden pedesMOULD OF AN OSAGE Orange. the observer looks.

A very difficult one to make.

tal.

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T

HE greatest problem that con- land lie idle, of no use whatever to
fronts the people of the Pa- mankind.
cific Coast states, is what to The big lumber companies of the West
do with the vast areas of land have hewed and slashed ruthlessly into

left barren by the woodsman's the virgin timber of the Northwest. The ax and saw. Millions of acres of giant standing trees are of such huge size, that timber have been cut-over and the great the average tree is cut ten or twelve stumps and tangles of underbrush left feet above the ground, leaving an enorto menace standing timber through fire mous stump from ten to sixteen feet in and to bar the way of the agriculturist. diameter. Only the long straight knot

In eighteen counties in the state of less trunk of the tree is used and the Washington, west of the Cascade Moun- tangle of branches is left where it falls. tains there are 8,700,000 acres of assessed No attempt is made by the timber hewland. Of this, 5,034,000 acres are covered ers to remove anything from the land with merchantable timber ; 429,000 acres except the choicest timber. In fact so are under cultivation; and 2.352,000 acres little do the lumber barons care for the have had the timber cut off and consist land after they get the timber off, that of what is called “logged-off” land. In in most cases they allow it to revert to Oregon the logged-off area is about the county for taxes. equal to that in Washington. In British The survey made last summer by ProColumbia, on the Canadian side of the fessor Landes, Dr. Benson, and Dr. Fry line, another million acres of logged-off of the Washington State University and Prof. W. J. McGee, of the federal De- waste and is now experimenting with a partment of Agriculture was to de- view to converting it into dollars. The termine how best to utilize these vast spectacle of this concern taking up the logged-off areas. One of the most im- dairy business and the production of portant lessons growing out of this in- prime beef is now engaging the attention vestigation was that the cut-over lands of Wes ern economists. The members should be protected from fire. It is more of this company, on whom the final sucimportant, according to these men, to cess or failure of the conservation idea keep the fire out of these areas than out is conceded to rest, announce that never of the standing timber.

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since the conservation policies were first On the logged-off lands the great ac- urged, has there been a departure of cumulation of waste becomes dry and such vital bearing on the immediate highly inflammable. In addition, this future of the Pacific slope. land is heavily covered with moss, which Two hundred and fifty acres of this by the exposure to the sun becomes like concern's logged-off land have been set tinder. This waste, including the pitch- aside for the experiment. This land has loaded stumps, burns freely and with been seeded to orchid grass and clover. great heat. The thick moss quickly car- Several carloads of young stock were ries the flames to the nearby timber, as turned loose to graze as soon as the crop well as ignites the heavy rich mulch, was well rooted. In a few weeks adwith which the soil is covered, beneath ditional stock will be added. The exthe moss. This reduces the soil to a periment so far is declared to be sucbarren wilderness. Thus all the con- cessful and of far more value than the structive work of nature for ages reverts timber wealth, will be the agriculture to the desert.

worth after the woods have disappeared. One big lumber company in Washing- The finest dairying country in the ton has seen the folly of this enormous world eventually will be found where the timber now stands. Anything that will the ground and only the underbrush grow in the western climate will grow on cleared away. In other cases the land logged-off lands.

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is cleared away and luxuriant growths But the success of the conservation of clover and grasses provide forage for movement depends largely on the own- cows to transform into milk. One man ers of the vast timber tracts. In the on twenty acres last year sold $3,000 last few years small land holders have worth of products. He had six Jersey demonstrated the value of these lands for cows, ten young cattle, forty chickens agricultural purposes, but these few and sold beef, veal, potatoes, apples, garpioneers are scarcely a drop in the bucket den truck, cherries, plums, butter, cream, when the enormous area of land is con- milk, eggs and poultry. sidered.

Thus it will be seen that the real conDr. Rudolph S. Hoague is preparing servation problem, in regard to the timto demonstrate the value of these lands ber, does not rest entirely on leaving the by establishing a colony in Washington. trees standing, but on the ultimate utilAlready the county in which this colony ization of the land. In the place of vast will be formed, has shipped 350 carloads areas of blackened stumps, there should of choice prunes this season. While not be seen waving fields of grasses, blosall this land is suitable for general cul- soming orchards, lowing herds, and tivation, it is often ideal for fruit and flocks of well-kept poultry to delight the poultry. The stumps often are left in

eye.

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T

HE government reclamation California.

California. But, in obedience to the service is putting through a mighty power of engineering, it will be very picturesque job by obliged in future to turn its current rather novel means on the through the four-mile tunnel into the

Strawberry Valley Project, in adjoining Utah Valley, where it will be Utah. It is an engineering problem, the

diverted into canals for irrigating purmost important feature of which is the poses. By means of a dam forty-five boring of a tunnel four miles in length feet high, its waters will be impounded, through a range of mountains, the bor- so as to form an immense lake for storing being done with the help of electric- age. ity generated for the purpose by a Thus a very striking change will be stream.

made in the physical geography of the In the Utah Valley, sixty miles south region. But the unique part of the busiof Salt Lake City, are sixty thousand ness, from an engineering standpoint, is acres of land which need water to make the taking of a small stream in the Utah them fruitful. This valley is separated Valley, diverting it by a dam into a from the Strawberry Valley by the lofty cement-lined canal, passing it several Wasatch Mountain range. On the other miles along the side of a hill, and dropside of that range, in the Strawberry ping its water through a pressure pipe Valley, is the Strawberry River, which, upon turbines in a power house, generto furnish the requisite water, is to be ating electric power which is transmitted brought through the great rocky barrier to the tunnel camp far up in the mounby the tunnel aforementioned.

tains, where it is used in boring the The Strawberry River now flows into great hole. the Colorado River, its waters thus find- This small stream is called Spanish ing their way eventually into the Gulf of Fork. Its water, after being utilized for

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