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through it and makes the water of the lake or lagoon briny. The project of damming this river at the point where it leaves the lake is under consideration. By doing this the current of the stream would be thrown into the canal and diverted into the Tuxpan River. The lake is fed by five rivers which have their source in the adjacent mountains.
There is a chain of small lakes or lagoons connecting with Lake Tamiahua on the north for several miles. The water in Lake Tamiahua has a depth ranging from three to fifteen feet. The channel through the lake was opened by means of dredges. The bottom of the lake is a shell bank and the hard material when thrown upon the sides of the waterway rises above the surface of the water in places. Wherever banks are formed in this manner wild tule plants have been set out and are growing nicely. These aquatic plants make a beautiful border to the canal. It is also planned to line the banks of the waterway with trees, and a start in this direction has been made already by the planting of young cork trees at regular intervals along the banks of the canal.
The excavation on the upper end of the canal was heavy. At one place, known as Medano cut, the banks rise fifteen or twenty feet above the surface
of the water. The formation at this point was rock and the material had to be loosened by blasting. It is estimated that the removal of about 2,300,000 cubic meters of material is involved in the construction of the second division of thirty-four miles. The hardest work will be in solid sand and oyster shell reefs. The canal will traverse the length of Lake Tampamachoco, just to the north of the Tuxpan River. This lake is about three miles long and two miles wide. It is only two and one-half to three feet deep. To reach the Tuxpan River from this lake a channel will have to be cut through a strip of land about one and one-half miles wide. The cut through this strip will be from five to fifteen feet above the water level.
The dredges used in the construction of this canal were all built at Tampico under the direction of Captain Shillaber. Four dredges are now in use. Three of them are small orange-peel clipper machines, each having a capacity of 8,000 cubic meters of earth per month, including hard and soft work. The average cost of the work done by the small dredges is about twenty cents, Mexican" money, per cubic yard, which is equivalent to ten cents gold. The large dredge now in use has a capacity of about 20,000 cubic meters of earth per month at the rate of fifteen hours per clay. This dredge is used in the heaviest stretches of work. It can handle any material except the solid rock. The cost of excavation per cubic meter by this dredge is much greater than by the smaller dredges. Another large dredge is being constructed for work on the lower end of the canal. other European countries. Calado work is indigenous to the Canaries and has been carried on there for local use for generations. Its origin, however, is "wropt in mistry." It is supposed that it was introduced by some political refugees who settled in Teneriffe, but this is by no means certain. Originally the work was of the poorest description, so far as the pattern was concerned and the materials employed. Of late years—thanks to careful organization and the introduction of superior qualities of linen—Calado work has vastly improved and is now in great vogue, whilst the peasant women engaged in it have made great strides as regards skill and manipulation. But not all the threadwork produced in the Canary Islands today is of uniform quality. Much of it is, indeed, of a very shoddy character— the product of unskilful workers who are only too ready to trade on the reputation of their cleverer sisters. Not infrequently visitors to these beautiful islands are offered bad work which the would-be
It is estimated that the canal will have cost when completed about $5,000,000 Mexican money, or $2,500,000 gold.
The completed portion of the canal has had one beneficial effect which was not expected when the plans for its construction were under consideration. It has served as a drainage way for a large territory which was formerly covered with a few inches of water, making the land unavailable for agricultural purposes. This land is now perfectly drained and is being placed in cultivation in many places. It is believed that when the canal is finished through to the Tuxpan River it will serve to carry off the surplus water from a still greater territory and that many thousands of acres of land will be in this manner reclaimed.
There are many beautiful vistas along the canal. The shores of the lagoons and lakes are lined with plantations of pineapples, bananas and other products. Pretty homes, with expanse of verdant lawns, slope down to the water's edge. An endless stream of boats, each manned with a picturesque crew, pass up and clown the canal. Whole families of natives occupy some of these boats. They
carry their cooking utensils with them and make their homes on board the frail craft day and night. There are places where the shore is lined with tropical forests, and in the waning hours of the afternoon flocks of brilliant-hued parrots fly from place to place and awaken the echoes with their cries.
The building of this intercoastal canal between Tampico and Tuxpan will be followed by the construction of a similar waterway to connect Tampico with the Rio Grande, where connection will also be made with the proposed intercoastal canal that the United States government is to construct through the lagoons bordering the Louisiana and Texas coasts. The distance between Tampico and the mouth of the Rio Grande is about three hundred miles. A series of salt water lagoons lie along the coast for a part of the distance, but much more excavation work will have to be done on the upper canal than is encountered on the Tampico-Tuxpan waterway. The territory extending back from the coast for 150 miles, between Tampico and the Rio Grande, is susceptible of high agricultural development. Like the TampicoTuxpan region it is attracting many Americans who have purchased large bodies of land and are doing a successful business in farming and raising live stock. They are handicapped, however, by the lack of transportation facilities. The building of the canal will secure for them a direct outlet for their products.
PEARL DIVING PROHIBITED
""THE steamship Maraposa, recently ar* rived at San Francisco from the far away island of Tahiti, under French dominion, in the South Pacific, brings the first news that the French government has lately prohibrted the use of diving apparatus in carrying on the valuable pearl fishing industry.
This action was taken to save one of the most profitable enterprises of the colonies from destruction.
The commission which investigated the matter, found that the native divers who plied their trade without any diving ap
paratus and gathered up these valuable shells only as fast as they naturally increased had been supplanted by Europeans in diving gear who were in the employ of large corporations, and who gathered these shells in such quantities that a great many of the pearl shell beds had been exhausted.
To keep temptation out of the way of the pearl hunters, all of the diving outfits, gear, etc., were gathered together by the French authorities and shipped away from Tahiti and the other islands.
A PKINT IN BLUE AND GREEN. MADE BV NATIVES OF JAVA.
CLEVER FINGERS MAKE
J. HARTLEY KNIGHT AND
sellers know only too well would not be looked at by the regular exporters, and thus the industry as such suffers considerable harm.
As an article of export the history of Calado work is quite modern. Less than twenty years ago an observant young Englishman, Mr. J. Audley Sparrow, went out to Teneriffe for the benefit o£. his health and was so impressed by the possibilities of the drawn-thread work' and the skill and industry of the worker! that he set to work to reorganize the whole thing and put the product on a business basis as an article of export. At first he found that "the trade" in England regarded the Calado work with no"" very great favor. He worked to such good purpose that he was ultimately able to arrange for a regular export of Calado goods to London and, subsequently, to other parts of the continent and America. Mr. Osbert Ward in his book on "The Vale of Orotava," relates in detail how Mr. Sparrow was first attracted to Calado work and foresaw its great possi
EMPLOYEES IN A CALADO FACTORY. ON TENERIFFE. ONE OF THF. CANARY ISLANDS.
share, it is believed, falling to the former. The TenerifFe peasants are adepts at work of the kind—especially drawnthread work and cushion lace work. The former is that open work embroidery in which some of the threads of tbe linen material are drawn out, the remaining threads being stitched into lace patterns. The resultant effects .appear to be that which is technically known as "an insertion," but as a matter of fact the pattern is an integral part of the material itself.
The lace work—rueda, as it is called— consists of wheels or medallions, made by winding thread round pins on a cushion and then with a needle completing the desired design by knotting and darning. Some of the Calado work is of exquisite design and workmanship and of considerable value. Especially was this the case with the bed set of drawn-thread and lace work which was specially made by the loyal islanders and given as a wedding present to King Alfonso of Spain and his queen, Victoria. Even finer was the christening robe presented as a gift on