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Mr. Hugh L. Cooper, engineered the work on the wing1 dam in the Horseshoe rapids of Niagara, building out 800 feet into a millrace moving seventeen miles an hour and ranging from twenty-two to twenty-six feet in depth. Another feat of Mr. Cooper's was putting in the McCall Ferry dam in the Susquehanna river, 3,100 feet long, sixty feet high, and developing 135.000 water-power. The Keokuk dam presents no new or difficult engineering problems, immense as it is. One of the things which makes the herculean task easier is the fact that the building materials exist in almost limitless quantity right at hand. The Mississippi is lined for more miles than any man knows with bed upon bed of limestone. It is necessary only to uncover the surface strata of dirt and blast the rock into movable chunks for the huge crushers. Sand, also, is there in limitless quantity. Before the work was many months under way two rock crush
ers were at work, each of them capable of crushing 130 tons an hour into threeinch stone. A sand pump brought 15,000 yards of sand from the river bottom every ten hours. The cement fixers fell on this material and fed it into the mixing machines, capable of producing 1,200 cubic yards a day. With the concrete ready for the piers and abutments, the carriers, shovels, and miscellaneous equipment went chugging back and forth over the improvised track and the great dam began to appear; slowly, it is true, but surely, which is the main thing. After a year's work on the Illinois shore, a new gang of men was brought over to the Iowa shore. The cement storehouse on the Illinois shore, holding 10.000 barrels, gave up 2,000 barrels of its stock daily, while train loads of new cement kept the stock replenished day after day. During the first year of construction the daily demand was for ten carloads of cement and three carloads of coal.
A Sea Song
Oh, for a soft and gentle wind!
I heard a fair one cry;
And white waves heaving high.
The good ship tight and free;
And merry men are we.
And lightning in yon cloud;
The wind is piping loud;
The lightning flashing free
Our heritage the sea.
RAILWAY PROBLEM OF TOMORROW
A MERICAN electrical engineers i\ must study in the immediate / % future as vast and vital a railfmm"^L way problem as any which has .X A. taxed the abilities of experts in the whole history of the development of the transportation system of the United States. "Electrification is bound to come"—that is the w:ell-considered opinion of the president of one of the great railroad systems of the country, a man who in a statesmanlike way is leading the railway development of the time. Indeed, electrification is coming and it is coming fast. But the fact that various railways are employing various systems of electrification brings a danger and
with the danger a problem, a danger which the men in control of the roads must very soon consider, and a problem which they must hand over to the very best engineers for solution.
There are in the world today about 1,300 miles of railroads upon which electricity is used for heavy service. Far the greater part of this mileage is in the United States. In addition there are 435 miles of electric elevated and subway lines in the cities of Boston, Chicago, Philadelphia, and New York. But the systems of electrification which are used upon these lines are not uniform.
For example, the New York, New Haven and Hartford has twenty-one miles of its main lines, making one hundred miles of single track, electrified by what is called the single-phase system. But the New York Central has thirtythree miles of four-tracked line, or 132 miles of single track, electrified by what is known as the continuous or direct current system. Now these two roads use the same depot in New York City. Practically all the New England railway service into New York City is over the four tracks of the New Haven line to a point twelve miles out from the Grand Central station, where the trains pass at full speed to the tracks of the New York Central over which they complete their run to the terminal. For the twenty-one miles of the run on the New Haven tracks the trains are operated from overhead trolley wires by alternating current taken aboard the locomotive at 11,OCX) volts. For the twelve miles on the New York Central tracks they are operated from the third rail by direct current at 650 volts. When the New Haven de
ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE DRAWING "TWENTIETH CENTURY LIMITED.'
cided to electrify that twenty-one miles of its own lines it was face to face with the restriction imposed by those twelve miles of New York Central lines. Yet it decided in favor of the alternating current in spite of the twelve miles over which it would have only the direct current available.
The Erie Railway has thirty-four miles of single-phase electrification. The Pennsylvania has seventy-five miles of the direct current system. The West Shore has 106 miles of continuous current electrification, the Long Island Railroad has 125 miles, the West Jersey and Seashore 150 miles, and the Baltimore and Ohio seven miles. On the other hand, the Grand Trunk has twelve miles of the other system, the Colorado Southern forty-six miles, and the Baltimore and Annapolis Shortline thirty miles. There is a greater diversity in Europe. In Italy there is a considerable mileage operated by what is known as the three-phase system. The same system is used in the Simplon Tunnel and on the Gergal Santa Fe in Spain. The other two systems are used extensively in the countries of Europe. The three-phase system is used for a tunnel on the Great Northern line in the United States.
A PENNSYLVANIA ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE WITH TRAIN OF ALL STEEL CARS KOK USF. IN THE
HUDSON RIVER TUNNEL.
Now it is the opinion of those competent to form opinions upon so difficult a subject that what has been done in a small way by these and other lines will in time be done by the railroads throughout the country, and over long reaches of their lines, if not over their entire systems. In time these roads will face each other at meeting points in hundreds of places. Then will come the rub, the inconvenience and the outlay. If
railroads with different systems of electrification are 3 thousand miles, or a hundred miles, or ten miles apart, it makes "no difference whether they have their contact conductors in the same position or whether they use an electric current of the same character. But when they come together it will cost much money and cause manifold delays and vexations if their systems are unlike. It is here that the clanger and the problem of the future emerge.
There was an analogous problem to be solved by the railroads thirty years ago. Its solution entailed financial burdens which lay upon them very heavily for many years. In 1878 in this country there were no less than twelve different gauges of railroad tracks, the standard gauge of four feet eight and one-half inches, and eleven others. By that time it had become evident that uniformity of gauge in the United States and Canada was absolutely necessary. In the early days of railroading the differences of gauge were of no moment. No one dreamed of an interchange of traffic, of using the engines and cars of one railroad upon the lines of another. Some men argued that it was an advantage to keep to a gauge that would prevent the engines and cars of a connecting line from running on its tracks. In some cases through passengers were kept in their cars while the trucks under the coaches were changed, and thus they went on to their destinations without change, although they ran over tracks of five feet, five feet six inches, and six feet gauges in succession. In time, in spite of the immense expense entailed by the change of gauge and of equipment, all the lines made their tracks conform to the present standard gauge.
This experience of thirty years ago explains the view of electrification that is held by the far-sighted and broadminded railroad men of today. They fear that each road will consider its plans with reference only to its own needs, that the road will treat its project as an isolated case. They desire that the roads shall take into consideration in addition the electrification of railroads in general, thus avoiding at some time in the future an expensive experience analogous to that involved in the gauge prohlem of thirty years ago. The problem of today, in view of the strides electrification is certain to make in the near future, is that involved in the selection of a general system of electrification, a system which shall be in its domain what the standard gauge has been in another department of railroading. Determine upon a standard system, which will make possible a complete interchange of traffic, and which will admit of the greatest extension of electrification, and in the future vast expense, and delay, and vexatious difficulties will be avoided.
The three systems of electrification now in use have their respective advan
tages. Each has its own method of conveying the power from the generating station to the locomotive, and each has its own type of motor. The three-phase system in successful use in Italy and Switzerland has been before the world for a number of years. The government of Italy is at present installing upon a heavy-grade line out of Genoa a service for which thirty-five Kxromotives rated at 2,000 horse-power arc now being built. This is the system
Arrangement Of Motors Over Driving Axles. For the Binvlc-phaso and direct current locomotm—passenger and freight service—on the New York. New Haven and Hartford Railroad.
which is used in the Cascade tunnel by the Great Northern. The alternating current is used with two overhead trolley wires.
The third rail system is now being extensively used for direct current. There are no overhead wires and in place of the trolley a third rail is used from which current is collected by a shoe sliding upon it. At present the general practice, except on very short lines, is to produce or generate alternating current at the power house and change this to direct current of proper voltage at sub-stations distributed along the line. The sub-station equipment includes transformers, converters or motor generators, and switchboard apparatus. This system has a large loss in power between the power house and car and the cost of equipment is quite high. The single-phase system uses an alternating current and a single overhead wire. Just now the eyes of the railroad world are upon the daring innovation which has been put into use by the New York, New Haven and Hartford, which line has made the most important installation of this system thus far undertaken.
Each of these three systems has its own type of motor with important differences in speed performances. The directcurrent motor is a sort of automaton,