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lines. This saved the great expense of In a comparatively short time the raildirect-current work and it secured a very road work of all New England will be high degree of efficiency.
done by electricity. New York will soon If railroads consider electrification be linked with Philadelphia, Philadelphia they ask of course about such matters as with Baltimore, Baltimore with Washthe cost of the respective systems and ington, by electric railways. Electricity their comparative losses of power be- will supersede steam between such cities tween generators and locomotives. The as Cleveland and Toledo, Cincinnati and first cost of the single-phase installation Columbus, Chicago and Milwaukee. is much less than either of the others. Centers of electrification will come into Although the locomotives cost a little being in various parts of the country. At more, the cost of operation is consider last some long trunk line will come forably less in case of the single-phase ward with electric power in use from system.
terminal to terminal. And so, step by This outline of the situation indicates step, the complete, or nearly complete, what the problems of the electrical rail- electrification will arrive. How enorway engineer are going to be. As the mously desirable that this outcome shall crocuses promise the spring so the elec- be anticipated and that broad-minded and trifications already made presage the statesmanlike plans shall be made. coming of the vast electric systems of the There are a few words to say about future. Almost every week witnesses the work done on the New Haven line. some installation. The Michigan Cen- On express trains and trains of great tral has just started its electric operation length two locomotives are used. This in the tunnel under the Detroit River. is not due, as rumor had it, to any error The very first thing that was done by of design. The locomotives were made the president of the New Haven lines to develop eighty per cent. of the power when he became the actual president of for a maximum train load. The ordinary the Boston and Maine was to send an train load is not of the maximum weight. engineer to the Hoosac Tunnel to devise To have made more powerful engines plans for the electrification of the miles would have been to waste them on trains of underground line at that point.
so light as to leave unused a large fraction of their capacity. It is greater econ- motors, which are the essence of being omy to double up the locomotives on the of the locomotive. Here their energy is comparatively few trains that require that wrested from them and they are made to power in excess of what one will de- do work in driving the train, after which velop. The two may be operated with they return to the line to again complete out any additional crew, it must be un- their cycle. derstood.
It is true that direct current and alterThese locomotives are very interesting. nating current in combination had been Tender, cab, cylinders, connecting rods, used before for light service on certain dome, smokestack, have disappeared. unimportant lines. But the enormous They look to be all cab. Only the cow- weight of the trains, the volume of the catcher and the headlight of the old traffic, and the character of the service, order renain. The engineer and his as- make the New Haven's a real pioneer sistant have about them only a few knobs work. When its experts began to study and handles. The corridor running the problem of electrifying these twentyfrom end to end for these locomotives one miles they were told to keep in mind have no front and rear; they are double- the ultimate electrification of the whole headers, needing no turntable at the end Shore Line route between New York of the run—these corridors are walled and Boston. It now seems likely that with steel. Behind these walls are muz- this railroad thus has made a very valuzled cyclones hard at work.
able contribution to the great railway The countless millions of electrons problem of the future—a uniform system rush from the transmission line to the of electrification.
When love with unconfined wings
Hovers within my gates,
To whisper at my grates;
And fettered with her eye,
Know no such liberty.
When flowing cups pass swiftly round
With no allaying Thames,
Our hearts with loyal flames;
When health and draughts go free-
Know no such liberty.
TOW you see it, and now you shore. In no part of the world do re
don't,” is a sign that Nature markable seismic disturbances more fremight well display over a quently recur than in this isolated spot. little group of islands in So often do these large-scale acts of
Bering Sea, where the great legerdemain transpire that no visitor at Mother of the Universe plays the part Nature's black art theatre ever expects of sorceress, coaxing mountain-tops from to see the conjured islands in the same the depths of the ocean and making them form upon a second visit. disappear again in the twinkling of an It was in September of this last season eye, amid a demonstration that only a that the most recent performance was favored few have witnessed. The stage given at the Bogoslofs—for such is the that Nature uses for her works of magic name of the enchanted Bering Sea is apart from the main lanes of ship group. The officers and crew of the revtravel just to the northward of the long enue cutter Tahoma, which had recently string of Aleutian islands that swings returned to Puget Sound from a summer from America almost to the Asiatic cruise in the vicinity of Pribilof seal
PHOTO BY LARGER
rookeries, weré spectators at the birth of a new mountain peak, and their description of the awe-inspiring sight as a steaming mass of lava was raised above the water's surface, sending a pillar of flame and vapor miles into the heavens, while lightning and thunder accompanied the spectacle, proves that every scenic effect was called into play to produce a mighty triumph of the cosmic forces.
Nor is the volcanic action confined to this one isolated spot in the dreary wastes of Bering Sea; for when Bogoslof plunges into a series of activities the effect as a rule about four miles to the northwest. Castle can be felt a thousand miles and more Rock was about sixty miles to the northalong the Alaskan shore.
westward of Unalaska. Accompanying the last upheaval of the When the United States revenue cutBogoslofs, Alaska's most active volcano, ter Perry approached the islands in 1906 Mt. Makushin, near Unalaska, has been the officers found that a new peak had in eruption, and vessels plying between risen out of the sea between Castle Rock Seattle and Nome reported its sides and and Fire Island. This was named Perry top covered with chocolate colored Peak. Smoking and steaming, it looked effluvia, while smoke and steam arose like a gigantic new-made pudding. The from its crater.
three islands in the Bogoslof archipelago Originally Bogoslof was a jagged rock were estimated to be about 800 feet in rising out of Bering Sea. With turrets height. and buttresses it looked like a feudal It was on the Fourth of July, of the castle, and after the United States ac- following year, that the revenue cutter quired Alaska from Russia it came to McCulloch passed the Bogoslof, and be known as Castle Rock. Admiral there out of the sea another peak had Bogoslof of the Russian navy had raised its head, this one right by the side charted the island in 1790. Castle Rock of Perry Island and virtually forming a seemed to alter its size and shape be part of the year-old mound. This was tween the visits of different ships, and called McCulloch Peak. Evidently it had between the seasons of 1886 and 1887 just come into being, for it was formed there sprang into being a second island of soft earth mingled with great boul
ders, and from its fissures great clouds of steam constantly arose to heaven.
But this peak was destined for a short life. Passing the Bogoslofs September 1, 1907, the whaler Herman, of San Francisco, after a season in the Arctic, beheld the disappearance of McCulloch while flame shot
up through clouds of steam MCCULLOCH PEAK, SMOKING AND STEAMING, AT THE SIDE OF PERRY
and smoke, and the super
stitious sailors foresaw the end of mun- water's edge. Strange to relate, a colony dane things. It happened that the United of sea lions that for several years had States auxiliary cruiser Buffalo, com- made their home south of Castle Rock, manded by Capt. Charles F. Pond, sent were flourishing despite their proximity north to investigate the sealing opera- to the center of activity, and were aptions about the Pribilof Islands, was not parently enjoying the warm waters that far away, and when Captain Pond heard, surrounded the island.” of a shower of ash on the nearby islands About this time the steamship Pennhe determined to head for the Bogoslofs sylvania arrived at Nome with her decks and see what new act of legerdemain had sprinkled with ash, and reported that been worked among those restless is- analysis of this effluvia showed the preslands. When the Buffalo reached the ence of gold. Coincident with the disspot Captain Pond found that since the appearance of McCulloch Peak earthvisit of the revenue cutter McCulloch, quake shocks were felt along the coast earlier in the season, the strangest alter- of Alaska to the eastward and a number ations had taken place, for the three of uncharted rocks. made their appearislands had been merged into one, and ance, even in southeastern Alaska. It the sea was 2,000 feet deep where Mc was a little later than this that the govCulloch Peak had stood.
ernment cable between Sitka and Valdez At one end of the new island stood was snapped by the sudden rising of a Castle Rock, changed beyond recognition submarine mountain. by the latest disturbance, and with its P erry Peak lived a few months longer, outline softened and smoothed by a coat- but it had disappeared when the United ing of volcanic dust and lava. Perry States fisheries cutter Albatross visited Peak had been much reduced in height, the Bogoslof group July 7, 1908. A narand a low bar of land connected the three row band of land then joined Castle bits of higher ground.
Rock and Fire Island, but the officers of “Rocks as large as a house were occa the Albatross beheld a new manifestasionally detached from the sides of Perry tion of the restive forces beneath the sea. Peak," Captain Pond related, “rolling What seemed to be the surface of the down with thunderous noises to the water adjoining the strip of land rose up