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COPYRIGHT, 1970, C

DAYLIGHT DISCLOSED CLOUDS OF VAPOR
AND ENORMOUS COLUMNS OF LAVA
SPOUTING FROM THE CRATER,

Bogoslo Island. Alaska.

COPY 18T, 1010, F. E BAGGER

in a gigantic dome-like swelling, as large as the dome of the capitol at Washington. Then it subsided, only to rise again. Before each subsidence

A DISTANT VIEW OF THE SMOKY ISLAND OF BOGOSLOF. there was a tremendous escape of gas, like a huge bubble pushing peak on the site of the old Perry Peak. its way through the water.

Members of the crew led by officers Following this phenomenon great braved the danger and stood upon the clouds of smoke and steam issued from shore of Bogoslof, but the heat was so the same spot, gradually growing in im- great they could not long remain. mensity until the spellbound spectators It was September 10 of this last season began to fear they would be engulfed in when the revenue cutter Manning first a terrific cataclysm. The sky was filled approached the Bering Sea volcano, and with seething clouds of vapor, while fire, the adventurous spirits insisited on going smoke and white hot lava streamed from ashore. Changes were many since the this sea-level volcanic crater. The col- Perry had been upon the scene. Again umn that rose heavenward officers of the Perry Peak had become two small mounAlbatross declare was three miles in tains. Evidence of terrific heat was diameter.

plain, not only in the coating of lava, The cutter Perry was the next visitor moulten and dust, that covered the island, to the islands, and found a new-made but in the skeletons of multitudes of seafowl that plainly had been roasted alive “When the revenue cutter had apin the twinkling of an eye. The bones, proached within ten miles of the scene scattered by thousands crumbled to fine it was plainly to be observed that the dust at the touch.

flames, molten lava, ashes, steam and The Tahoma's men found a crater fif- smoke were issuing from the old crater, teen hundred feet in diameter, seething which had been partly surrounded by a with lava, fire, boiling water and steam. salt lagoon. Titanic forces were at work They describe it by likening it to a huge creating a prodigious disturbance, and colander with streams of boiling water the heat which was being freed from the spurting upward through the holes, and center of the earth began to produce an a geyser in the center much larger than eddying wind that even from our disthe rest. On insecure footing of baked tance could be plainly felt. As we conmud, which in places gave way under tinued to near the land the force of the their weight, the situation of the ob- increasing wind began to scatter the servers was perilous, and the roar of the clouds of smoke which hovered over the crater drowned their voices.

northeast end of Bogoslof, and by 6:15 Nine days later the Tahoma was again o'clock the land sprang plainly into view. approaching Bogoslof when, at 4 o'clock "Soon the Tahoma had reached a point in the morning, the lookout reported to sufficiently near for the eye of the Capt. J. H. Quinan that a terrific thun- camera, and we obtained some very fine derstorm, with lightning of unusual bril- views of the spectacle. At 6:30 we were liance was raging dead ahead. The cap- only six miles distant, and the heat began tain issued orders to fix the vessel's light to be oppressive. The continuous shower ning rods, and then inquired the exact of ash and lava dust made it necessary location of the storm center.

for us to keep to windward of the island. "That's Bogoslof in eruption again,” “A little before 9 o'clock we were only he exclaimed, and soon all the revenue four miles from this belching, roaring cutter's officers and men were on deck volcano. A column of red-hot glowing to witness the display, which was then lava was rising to a height of half a mile, about twenty miles away.

through the center of the vapor and Lieutenant F. E. Bagger gives a de- clouds. The steam from the crater reared tailed account of the Tahoma's remark- its head as high again into the clouds, in able experience at the birth of a new immense billows. Even above the vapor mountain on Bogoslof:

streams of living fire rose and fell in a “We were on a northeast course, mak- pyrotechnic shower. ing about ten knots an hour when the “Accompanying all this display there officer of the watch noticed perhaps was a constant roar while sounds like twenty-five miles ahead flashes of vivid thunder issued from the cauldron on the lightning. Through the gloom we could island. Still keeping to leeward to escape discern a mass of dark and lowering the heat, we crept to within a mile of the clouds, and as the day dawned one im- shore. But we did not long remain there mense cloud hung over the group as ashes and sparks lighting on the deck directly in our path. Flashes of blinding told of our imminent danger, and light lit the sea and sky to the horizon, Captain Quinan turned the Tahoma's and showed us the rough outline of prow about and we headed for the Aleut Bogoslof as the center of the disturb- village of Chenofski, near Unalaska. But ance. Every eye was strained to watch as we left we could see through the the developments of the awe-inspiring clouds of vapor that a new mountain had spectacle.

been born on Bogoslof, and doubtless it "By six o'clock the Tahoma had drawn will be known as Tahoma Peak.” within twelve miles of Bogoslof. With Since the Tahoma's return to winter the rays of the rising sun old Fire Island quarters the coast of Alaska has been could just be distinguished at the edge racked by quakes and jars, so that it is of heavy clouds of ashes, steam and more than probable Bogoslof has assmoke that completely enveloped the sumed a new shape even since Septemremainder of the island.

ber.

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JITH the ever increasing As is his custom, the first figure Mr.

cost of lumber, the value Taft designed was but eight inches high; of cement as a building the next two feet; the third six feet. material is growing more This figure was set in a frame which

and more apparent. It forms a part of a pointing machine, and is, moreover, becoming one of the most by means of a system devised by Mr. prized of materials to the engineer, who Taft and his assistant, Mr. John Gottuses it for bridges, for retaining walls, lieb Prasuhn, it has been possible to enfor substructure and other purposes. For large this figure seven times, and to preside walks it is unrivalled and has serve accurately every feature of the usurped the place of all other materials. finely finished, six foot model. Mr. Edison considers it one of the most The builders of this huge statue had pliable, esthetic and economical of house no precedent by which to work, and the materials, and Mr. Lorado Taft, the successful development of Mr. Taft's sculptor, is demonstrating the fact that idea is the result of the ingenuity and it is amenable to the purposes of art. mathematics of Mr. Prasuhn.

Mr. Taft is causing to be erected in First a central tower of wood was Ogle County, Illinois, near the delightful built, and upon this and from it was village of Oregon, on the banks of the developed an edifice which indicated the Rock river, a statue of Black Hawk, once form of the figure. Small sticks were chief of the Sac and Fox Indians, who nailed over this at close intervals and possessed the rich and picturesque numbered. These showed wherever country of that region. A chieftain at there was to be a curve or a variation, once wise and brave, he is worthy of and the extent of that variation. A commendation, and Mr. Taft has chosen sketch of the frame work in this conto place his statue upon a rocky bluff dition, with each point numbered was which commands a fine sweep of the then made on paper, and every proporriver both North and South. Tradition tion was tested with plumb line and says that this was a favorite retreat of square. When all corresponded to the Black Hawk's.

working model—a correspondence which The dimensions of this statue are 48 the pointing machine could prove or disfeet without the pedestal, and being set prove by its infallible comparisons, with as it is, upon a bulwark of rock, the effect one end operating from the small model, from the river is one of melancholy and and the other indicating the point at imposing grandeur. Mr. Taft has not which a seven-fold enlargement was to attempted a portrait of Black Hawk, but be made—the whole surface was covhas made what might be regarded as a ered with chicken wire. Mr. Prasuhn composite face of the Indians of the began at the neck and wrapped this Middle West.

around and around the figure, and then

modeled it carefully, fastening it with heavy concrete work. Four heavy steel two-pointed tacks to the frame work. beams each thirty feet in length, were Next he draped it in two hundred yards placed on cribbing timbers and bolted of burlap, fastening this to the frame together. Scaffolding was then raised, with nails, and once more modeling it and a mold of common plaster and fiber all. The burlap was then sprayed with was put on by hand. Around this scafplaster water to stiffen it, so that the folding was finally put hoops of copper heavy plaster mold which presently was wire to prevent spreading, while within to be put on, should not intrude through the statue was erecting a network of the wire, and clay water was sprayed strutting and cross beams to guard over the thin coat of plaster to separate against crushing it from the plaster mold.

When the plaster mold was completed, A temporary plaster model of the the temporary head and shoulders were shoulders and head were then made on sawed up and cast to the ground, and the ground, and hoisted into place by everything was removed from within means of a linge derrick. It was not ab- the now hardened mold. This mold was solutely necessary that these should be painted within with wall sizing to keep placed upon the statue, but their presence the plaster from absorbing the water in gave meaning to the work, illustrated to the cement. The solid rock at the botvisitors what was to be done and encour- tom of the fourteen foot excavation beaged the men in their labors. It also de- neath the statue was pierced and twentytermined the precise location of the four rods of steel dipped in brimstone figure, and the whole structure was and plaster were anchored in the rock. swung around over a foot after the Into this cement was poured making a erection of the head, in order to present solid substructure for the visible pedesa cleaner profile to the road along the tal, which was six feet in height. On bluff. The derrick by which the great this was erected a steel tower, comhead was lifted in place was in itself a posed of rods, reinforced, and wrapped clever contrivance fashioned with a tri- about with galvanized wire. A steel angle on a boom, with a rope to each of dome surmounted this, designed for the the four derrick points, and a back guy. purpose of supporting the head and The next thing was to prepare for the shoulders of solid cement.

The difficulties were many, and not the least of these was the securing of the water, of which many thousand gallons were required. A small Erickson air engine was pressed into use, and made to lift water from the river two hundred feet below, but as the power of this engine was not equal to the demand that would be placed upon it when the work of mixing the cement began, a reservoir was constructed and the water stored. A steam mixer capable of preparing a cubic yard of cement every six minutes was then installed.

This had a hopper which READY TO RAISE THE HEAD.

THE HEAD IN PLACE

held six barrels of

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cement for each the upper por-
dumping, and a tion of the fig-
continuous line ure was one
of men with bar- solid casting.
rows was re- One of the
quired. Cement pictures shows
sets in a bout the plaster mold
thirty minutes, over which the
and to avoid mold was made,
unevenness, con- being lifted into
tinuous work its temporary
was demanded. position.
Twenty - four The statue has
hours finds been erected not
cement in a con- only to celebrate

STATUE WAS POINTED. dition to support Black Hawk, itself, and a collapsible frame of steel but also to was therefore devised, which could be leave a souvenir of Eagle's Nest Camp, lifted up in sections as the concrete where for years a group of artists, hardened. The amount of cement used sculptors, writers and musicians have was about three hundred and fifty bar- passed their summers. This is above rels, and no less than one hundred and Ganymede Spring, which the American twenty wagon loads of sand were re- authoress, Margaret Fuller, named on quired to mix the cement for the pedes- her visit to the West. Beneath the cedars tal alone.

at the crest of the cliff which arises above The molds for the shoulders and head it, she wrote “Ganymede to His Eagle," were lifted into place, and the cement as the tablet at the spring bears witwas poured in the top of the head until ness.

A COMPARISON OF HEADS.

PLASTER MODEL Six FEET HIGH FROM WHICH THE

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Then fill a fair and honest cup, and bear it straight
- 18 me; *
The goblet hallows all it holds, whate'er the liquid

be;
And may the cherubs on its face protect me from

the sin,
That dooms me to those dreadful words—“My dear,
where have you been?”.

0. W. HOLMES.

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