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modeled it carefully, fastening it with two-pointed tacks to the frame work. Next he draped it in two hundred yards of burlap, fastening this to the frame with nails, and once more modeling it all. The burlap was then sprayed with plaster water to stiffen it, so that the heavy plaster mold which presently was to be put on, should not intrude through the wire, and clay water was sprayed over the thin coat of plaster to separate it from the plaster mold.
A temporary plaster model of the shoulders and head were then made on the ground, and hoisted into place by means of a hinge derrick. It was not absolutely necessary that these should be placed upon the statue, but their presence gave meaning to the work, illustrated to visitors what was to be done and encouraged the men in their labors. It also determined the precise location of the figure, and the whole structure was swung around over a foot after the erection of the head, in order to present a cleaner profile to the road along the bluff. The derrick by which the great head was lifted in place was in itself a clever contrivance fashioned with a triangle on a boom, with a rope to each of the four derrick points, and a back guy.
The next thing was to prepare for the
heavy concrete work. Four heavy steel beams each thirty feet in length, Were placed on cribbing timbers and bolted together. Scaffolding was then raised, and a mold of common plaster and fiber was put on by hand. Around this scaffolding was finally put hoops of copper wire to prevent spreading, while within the statue was erecting a net work of strutting and cross beams to guard against crushing.
When the plaster mold was completed, the temporary head and shoulders were sawed up and cast to the ground, and everything was removed from within the now hardened mold. This mold was painted within with wall sizing to keep the plaster from absorbing the water in the cement. The solid rock at the bottom of the fourteen foot excavation beneath the statue was pierced and twentyfour rods of steel dipped in brimstone and plaster were anchored in the rock. Into this cement was poured making a solid substructure for the visible pedestal, which was six feet in height. On this was erected a steel tower, composed of rods, reinforced, and wrapped about with galvanized wire. A steel dome surmounted this, designed for the purpose of supporting the head and shoulders of solid cement.
The difficulties were many, and not the least of these was the securing of the water, of which many thousand gallons were required. A small Erickson air engine was pressed into use, and made to lift water from the river two hundred feet below, but as the power of this engine was not equal to the demand that would be placed upon it when the work of mixing the cement began, a reservoir was constructed and the water stored. A steam mixer capable of preparing a cubic yard of cement every six minutes was then installed. This had a hopper which held six barrels of cement for each dumping, and a continuous line of men with barrows was required. Cement sets in about thirty minutes, and to avoid unevenness, continuous work was demanded. Twenty -four hours finds cement in a condition to support itself, and a collapsible frame of steel was therefore devised, which could be lifted up in sections as the concrete hardened. The amount of cement used was about three hundred and fifty barrels, and no less than one hundred and twenty wagon loads of sand were required to mix the cement for the pedestal alone.
The molds for the shoulders and head were lifted into place, and the cement was poured in the top of the head until
A Comparison Of Heads.
the upper portion of the figure w as one solid casting.
One of the pictures shows the plaster mold over which the mold was made, being lifted into its temporary position.
The statue has been erected not only to celebrate Black Hawk, but also to
leave a souvenir of Eagle's Nest Camp, where for years a group of artists, sculptors, writers and musicians have passed their summers. This is above Ganymede Spring, which the American authoress, Margaret Fuller, named on her visit to the West. Beneath the cedars at the crest of the cliff which arises above it, she wrote "Ganymede to His Eagle," as the tablet at the spring bears witness.
Plaster Model Six Feet High From Which The Statue Was Pointed.
OLYMPIC, GREATEST OF STEAMSHIPS
HENRY R. JEVONS
SOME day next July a skyscraper will come floating up Ambrose Channel, the Narrows and the North River to her berth at the new Chelsea docks in New York. For they are building sea-going skyscrapers these days and they are doing pretty well at it, considering. This particular skyscraper, the Olympic, the new White Star Liner, is only eleven stories, to be sure, but measured from the bottom of her keel to the top of her funnels she lacks only twenty-five feet of coming up to the new proposed building height limit in Chicago. Since the Olympic's foundation is salt water which is more unstable, if possible, than the quicksands which vex the builders in the Lake Michigan metropolis this must be conceded to be a pretty fair height. Nor are those funnels to be lightly considered in computing the height. They are very much more important than the ornamental lantern sometimes included in
reckoning the height of a building. Though they do not look very big, so exquisitely is the new liner proportioned, they would make a good many suites of offices if they were arranged for that purpose, for there are four of them, each oval in shape, 24 feet 6 inches in diameter the long way and 19 feet wide. Placed end to end they would make a tunnel 640 feet long with ample room for two standard gauge railroad trains to stand side by side.
Everything else about this latest prodigy of marine architecture is on the same stupendous scale. Unfortunately, descriptive writers of former days exhausted the entire stock of adjectives in describing "leviathans of the deep" that sometimes reached the enormous size of five or six thousand tons, so that now when they are really needed to convey an idea of a craft of forty-five thousand tons there isn't a superlative left that is fit to be seen in print. The only thing that can be done is to fall back on comparative statistics, and let it go at that.
As a starter it may be said that the length of the Olympic, 882 feet 6 inches, is 182 feet greater than the height of the Metropolitan tower in New York, the tallest structure on the continent, and four times the height of the Bunker Hill monument: and yet any one who has toiled up the steps to the top of Boston's proudest landmark will feelingly agree that it is not to be sneezed at. Also, the length of the Olympic and her sister ship, the Titanic, launched in February, 1911, is twice the height of the dome of St. Peter's in Rome and equals the total drop of the famous Bridal Veil falls in Yosemite Valley. Placed end to end beside the Brooklyn Bridge these two ships would completely span the
East River and extend over the shore one hundred feet on each side. In short the Olympic is 97 feet 6 inches longer than the Mauretania and Lusitania, is 92 feet six inches wide over all, and 94 feet wide over the boat deck. From the boat deck to the bottom of the keel is 97 feet; from the top of the Captain's house to the bottom of the keel is 105 feet 6 inches, and from the top of the funnels to the bottom of the keel, 175 feet. There are eleven steel decks and fifteen watertight bulkheads.
The launching of the Olympic alone cost more than enough to build a fine steamship. More than six hundred steers died merely to make her path into the water smooth., for twenty-two tons of tallow were used to grease the ways. Many a Belfast waterman made a modest