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heads will be found strong enough to withstand the strain of towing to port. There are the usual doors between watertight compartments all closed at once by a touch on an electric button on the bridge, the submarine signaling apparatus that can pick up the tones of a warning bell seventeen miles distant and also tell the direction from which the warning comes, the wireless telegraph that will keep the ship in constant touch with the shore and with other ships and the elaborate fire protection system to be found on all modern liners. In addition to all these the Olympic has a new wrinkle in the arrangement of the small boats.
To quote from page 156, volume 16 of the Transactions of the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, "It is compulsory to provide a full complement of life boats and other life saving appliances together with davits which can be relied upon to lower the boats in a heavy sea without the least chance of mishap. . . . Provided a vessel is not afire and can float, even with a big hole in her side she is about' the most comfortable and the safest place available in midAtlantic."
The laws of England and the United States do not require a vessel like the Olympic to carry small boats enough to accommodate all the passengers and crew, but even the number she does carry
takes up a great deal of room the passengers would rather have devoted to promenades. By using sixteen sets of Welin double acting quadrant davits, which will swing a boat away from the ship's side and stay put at any angle in any kind of a sea, the Olympic is enabled to stow 32 boats and have most of the deck room too, for each set of davits handles two boats. This arrangement, which has been approved by the conservative British Board of Trade, not only reduces the cost, saves weight and gives greatly increased deck space, but also makes it possible to carry more life boats and still have them readily accessible in case of need.
Since there seems to be no limit to the sums otherwise sane Americans are willing to pay to be ferried across the Atlantic, every facility will be afforded the passenger on the Olympic for getting rid of his money. On any of the big modern liners one may pay from $112.50 for a single berth in an inside room down in the basement to two thousand dollars for an imperial suite on an upper deck where the passengers who like to stay up all night can congregate under the windows to gabble. Not many pay the minimum rate in the "high season," though: the steamship companies see to that. One of the big new German steamships quotes a minimum rate of $112.50 per berth but inquiry reveals the fact that there are just three two berth rooms on the ship at that rate. The rest of the five hundred and twenty first class passengers pay two hundred to six hundred dollars a head. The distance across the Atlantic is about three times the distance from New York to Chicago. The total cost of a trip between these two cities, including berth and meals on the fastest and costliest trains is $38. Three times the distance would amount to $114. But the average rate on the new liners is about three times that amount. The rates on the Olympic have not yet been announced, but there is no reason to doubt that they will be ample.
In return for his money the first class passenger can eat his meals, provided he isn't too sick to think of victuals, in a main dining room, seating six hundred persons, the biggest and most elaborate dining room afloat, or in a smaller dining room. Between meals he can loiter in sumptuous drawing rooms, the lounge or smoking rooms or library, or he can take a turn around the decks, counting about four laps to the mile, or he can work up an appetite in the gymnasium, or take a plunge in the swimming pool. If all these attractions pall he may seek relaxation in the ball room, the theater or the skating rink, all of which are combined in a single vast area of glass
Should there be any danger of his money burning holes in his pockets before he can get to Europe with it, the passenger on the Olympic can find prompt relief at the verandah cafe, where he can mingle sea-breezes with his liquor; or, if more heroic measures seem called for, he can get rid of his cash in larger wads at the tajlor shop or dressmakers' parlors on board, or he can spend it still faster at the jewelry store. In fact there is nothing to prevent the passenger from achieving bankruptcy on the outward bound voyage so that he may return on the first homeward bound vessel. This will save time and simplify the annual hegira.
The Olympic will have accommodations for 2,500 passengers in all. To run the ship and wait upon this great throng will require a crew of 860 which will be commanded by Captain E. J. Smith, now of the Adriatic. The new liner will not lack business. Although sailing dates and rates have not been announced applications for berths have been coming in ever since last fall at a rate which indicates that some intending passengers may have to travel on other ships or submit to the perfectly dreadful and scarcely-to-be-thought of alternative of staying at home.
A FTER having their existence en/% veloped in much mythical
/ \ uncertainty, fall strawberries
/ \ have at last become an accom.X 1l plished fact.
They were first tried out in Iowa. After a preliminary test, Mr. Lawrence J. Farmer of Pulaski, New York, purchased five hundred plants. These plants differ from other varieties only in the single particular that they blossom steadily from June until November. A large crop is obtained by pinching off the blossoms three weeks prior to the time that fruit is desired. If berries are desired by September first this may be secured if the blossoms be pinched or cut off in the first week of August.
At his farm near Pulaski, New York, Mr. Farmer last year had a fine crop of berries both fully ripe and green. The beds were covered so as to prevent dam
age from frost. Three pickings from Mr. Farmer's strawberry beds since August 15 averaged more than 600 quarts to the acre. A ready market at twenty-five cents a quart was found.
Ordinary berries produce but one crop in two years. This vaniety of strawberries produces a crop in the fall following the spring in which they are planted. The next crop is the following June and then again in the autumn, or two in one year.
An exhibit of strawberries in middle September is a most unusual spectacle. Just as the plants may be seen late in spring, resplendent in their fragrant blossoms, green fruit and ripe berries, so were they last fall in Mr. Farmer's garden.
Those of the chosen few who partook of the luxury declared that the fruit possessed a flavor fully equal to the berry raised in June.
WHEN the population figures were announced, Centreville was shown to be larger than Pinetown by about one thousand souls. Centreville papers had a good deal to say about it and Centreville citizens with friends in Pinetown sent them postal cards on which the population figures of the two towns were shown together with such cutting messages as they could think of on the spur of the moment. Pinetown residents passed the thing off as well as was possible under the circumstances and are absolutely certain that when the next census is taken their town will be leading instead of trailing behind Centreville.
These two towns are only ten miles apart and therefore the competition for population between them is keen. Of course each is distinguished for things entirely apart from population. Centreville is known over the state for its schools and for the fact that it is a beautiful and well planned city. Pinetown is a railroad and manufacturing center and with only half the population of Centreville would be far ahead in business interests. But population figures are the scores in the big game of town and com
munity and state rivalry and it is as hard to prove superiority in any other way as to prove that the Cubs had the best baseball team after losing the world's championship to the Athletics.
Naturally enough the competition for population comes chiefly from towns, where a close community of interest makes team work possible and develops municipal pride. Rival towns result, each one trying to increase its population at the expense of the other. The game goes on all the time. Every ten years the score is called; in one town there is rejoicing; in the other much talk of the inefficiency of the census. Baseball is not the only game in which the umpire always gets the blame.
It is not alone town pride that brings about this competition. There is a new idea in town and city government which is that all residents of a town are joint stockholders in a business enterprise, that enterprise being the town itself. When the town grows the profits of the stockholders grow. The bootblack has more shoes to shine, the banker has larger deposits and more money out at interest. As the scheme of government in American cities does not provide for the execution of this new idea, hundreds of commercial clubs and similar organizations have come into existence, supplementing' the work of the regular city administration. Theoretically, the city administration provides a good city in which to live, and the commercial club, corresponding to the sales department of a factory, advertises this fact to the world.
The commission form of government, which has grown rapidly in popularity, is a concession to this new idea. Under its provisions a city is governed by a small board of commissioners in much the same way that a bank is managed by a board of directors. Some people believe that in a short time the new idea of city partnership will be further recognized by the addition to the board of commissioners of a Commissioner of Promotion, whose duty it shall be to advertise the advantages of the city to outsiders. In many western towns the mayor now does this work and seeks reelection on a record of new factory smokestacks brought to the town through his efforts.
The city partnership idea encourages town rivalry and when rivalry begins towns begin to improve. Build a town in the middle of an island where there is no competition from a rival and it will attain a large size before the advantages of parks and paved streets and good water systems are thought of very seriously. Start a rival town and the old one wakes up. It was that way at Smiths Corner, which was the county seat of Irving County. Smiths Corner had just grown up, acquired the court house and county jail, built a flour mill and was vastly contented with itself. One day a geologist went pottering around corn fields and creek bottoms and came back with the announcement that he had discovered coal. A coal mine followed, with a little town twelve miles distant. It was appropriately called Carbondale, because the mine and the town were in a little valley. Smiths Corner folks used to go over to the mine and look at it and carry back symmetrical lumps of coal as souvenirs and some of the boys went to work in the mines. There was no animosity, no competition. Carbondale was a coal mine. Smiths Corner was a town, with all of the dignity and importance given it by the possession of the court house, the residence of the county officers and the occasional sessions of the circuit court. A governor had made a speech there; a bishop had preached the high school baccalaureate sermon; the richest citizen was known to have money invested in railroads and lead mines. Carbondale was but a bunch of houses cluttering up what had been a well ordered corn field.
This went on for years until one Sunday morning the pastor of the First Baptist Church of Smiths Corner announced to his flock that he had been called to the pastorate of the Carbondale Church. It was learned that the Carbondale