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other directions, in other words, the new steaders, any city of the present time development is bona fide.
would soon outgrow its rivals. Little of In its early days San Francisco had a the San Francisco land went to home distinct advantage over all other Ameri- builders. Most of it passed rapidly into can cities. It was founded under a Mexi- the hands of private owners in large can grant which gave the city, in addi- tracts, and as the city grew anyway, the tion to the site for the city proper, a tract private owners became rich through lot of four square leagues, to be owned by sales. the city and used to provide free homes This rivalry of the cities in their comfor its increasing population. With this petition for population has been partly land, enough to build a city the size of the reason for the vast increase in city London, for the benefit of city home- population at the expense of the country.
One hundred years ago a little more than sells his farm and as promptly moves to three per cent. of the entire population town. lived in cities, the others being content In view of these facts it has seemed to remain on farms in spite of the fact to be rather humorous that city dwellers that none had rural telephones or rural should be preachers of the "back to the mail delivery. During the hundred years farm” idea. We go on making our cities the cities have been fighting for popula- more attractive so that they will compete tion, each one trying to be the biggest in for population with the country and then its territory. They have acquired paved urge farmers to remain where they are streets, libraries, museums, street cars, or the city dwellers to go back to the schools—a hundred new luxuries and farm. conveniences until life in an apartment Only recently have serious attempts house in the modern American city offers been made by the states to attract farm the greatest possible amount of comfort population. Colorado now has a state at the least expense of money or care. In immigration bureau, with an annual apthe meantime the farmers have secured, propriation of $30,000 to be used in invery recently, rural free delivery and a ducing farmers from other states or imfew rural telephones. To be sure the migrants from Europe to settle on Coloinvention of farm machinery has light- rado land. Missouri has a similar bureau ened his labor. At the same time it has and Kansas business men facing commade the road to wealth easier and has petition of this kind on the east and the sent the farmers scurrying to town in west will ask the next session of the greater numbers. Every big crop year legislature for an immigration bureau. marks a corresponding increase in the Before this work was taken up by a city or small town population, a decrease few western states the only attempts to in the number living on the farms. In- attract farmer population were made by deed the only way to keep the farmer in real estate and colonization agents with the country has been to keep him poor. land to sell homeseekers. As soon as he can afford it he promptly Their methods are the same as those COMPETING FOR POPULATION
of Hernando Cortez, who after conquer- of five miles a year. Between 1850 and ing Mexico, sought to attract population 1860 the movement was the most rapid, from Europe by the enthusiasm of his when it jumped from Parkersburg to reports about the richness of the country. Chillicothe, Ohio, a distance of eightyThe rapidity with which people crossed one miles. Between 1890 and 1900 the the ocean to the new land proved that westward movement dropped to fourteen Cortez was equally successful as a pro- miles but it is still moving. It has been a moter and a conqueror. Stephen F. fight between the factories of the east Austin, for whom the capitol of the State and the cheap lands of the west, with of Texas is named, was one of many the cheap lands winning all the time. colonization agents whose names are American population has spread over famous in American history. Austin the map according to the opportunities took the first colony of Anglo-Saxons for business, whether the business be into Texas, while it was still a part of farming or factories but long before Mexico, and the literature he sent out towns began looking forward to census descriptive of the country and its won- returns and boasting of the size the figderful opportunities for farmers, would ures indicated, kings and armies decided serve as a model for colonization agents the fights of rival cities or countries for today.
population. Babylon was a struggling Competition for population moves in village five thousand years ago. Then an ever widening circle, reaching from King Hammurabi, who was town town to town, county to county, state to builder with original ideas, started on his state and finally from east to west. Ever campaign of city building. He removed since the first colony was formed on the many rival cities from the landscape and shore of the Atlantic the west and east made others pay big taxes for the privhave been competing, with the west win- ilege of existence. Babylon real estate ning all the time. In 1790, the center of advanced rapidly in value and many subpopulation was twenty-three miles east urban additions were put on to take care of Baltimore. At the end of the century of the increased population. The boom it was west of that city and it moved he started continued for 1,500 years westward for a hundred years at the rate until Cyrus, the Persian, captured it and
then the real estate business suffered a ing in transit privileges immediately besharp decline.
comes a grain center. A city with favorIn later days some Levitican cities had able rates becomes a wholesale and joba great advantage over their rivals in the bing center and all of these advantages fight for population, because of the fact bring with them the population increase that they were cities of refuge. Three which marks the prosperous and growof these were located on each side of the ing city. Jordan and to them anyone might flee In this respect the hustling rival cities and thereby escape the vengeance of the of Texas (Dallas, San Antonio, Fort relatives of the man he had slaughtered. Worth and Houston are all hoping to be Bezer, Ramoth, Galan, Kedesh, Shechem the metropolis at the next census) work and Hebron were the cities favored in under unique conditions. The Texas this way. As there was a good deal of State Railroad Commission was formed
slaughtering going on at that time the twenty years ago, with almost autocratic roads leading to these cities were kept authority over rates. It immediately clear and signs marked the way to them. adopted' a policy of building up many As an easy means of building up depopu- centers of city population instead of allated cities, this plan has been used with lowing one or two cities to take all the success in modern times. Louis XI made business in sight. With the co-operation Paris a sanctuary in 1467, and some have of the railroads a system of "scaling been unkind enough to say that the rates" was worked out. Surrounding growth of the city in population dates each town is a zone in which the rates from that year.
increase in proportion to the distance. The rules of the game have changed This means that wherever two railroads considerably since that time, but the re- cross, a jobbing center has sprung up, sults are accomplished in much the same able to compete with its rivals no matter way. Cities which control manufactur- how large they may be. ing interests collect taxes from their In one sense the most serious rivals rivals with much more certainty than of any town are those located far away. was ever accomplished by royal warrant. Key West, with its large production of When a city secures concessions in rail- cigars, is the rival of every town which way rates it already has its rivals crying could support a local cigar factory. for mercy. A city which possesses mill- Battle Creek, Michigan, is the rival of
COMPETING FOR POPULATION
every town to the extent that its break- crease the home production of homefast foods have replaced home grown manufactured articles, thereby adding pork sausage or home grown ham and names to the local payrolls. Thousands eggs. Every time a town buys from an- of cards were printed bearing a pledge other anything it could make at home, whereby the signer promised to give the it is encouraging and supporting a rival, preference to articles made at home, and, even though the place be a thousand so far as possible, to buy them to the miles distant. Any town which starts exclusion of others. The newspapers in tomorrow to make its own flour, printed a good deal about the organizacigars, brooms, wagons, and do all of its tion and nearly everyone in town signed own printing will immediately begin win- the cards. As a climax to the cumulative ning in the fight for population. This is campaign, a big street parade was given not always possible but some cities have in which everyone of the home factories profited over their rivals by consistently was represented by a float. The campatronizing home industry.
paign attracted a good deal of attention A few years ago a Home Industry and helped to increase the sales from League was formed in a Southern town
local factories and encourage the estabby a few business men, mostly retail lishment of others. Now the city obmerchants. The city had a population of barely a hundred thousand, but members
serves a home industry week each fall.
The merchants loan their show windows of the league found more than two hundred manufacturing establishments lo
to the local factories and goods made at cated there. Many of them consisted
home are displayed in them. The town
is decorated, carnival attractions are only of cigar factories employing one or two men. Other establishments brought in and the week made a combiployed several hundred. Members of the nation of pleasure and business united. League called these manufacturers to- It is a kind of annual revival for city gether and outlined a campaign to in- pride backsliders.
T is not the wide phylactery,
Nor stubborn fast, not stated prayers,
By what it bears.
And when a man can live apart
From works on theologic trust,