Page images
PDF
EPUB

Philomela. The daughter of Pandion, king of The'mis. The daughter of Cælas and Torra, and Athens; changed into a nightingale.

goddess of justice. Phin'eas. King of Paphlagonia; bad his eyes tornTi'phys. Pilot of the ship Argo. out by Boreas, but was recompensed with the knowl Tisiph'one. One of the three Furies. edge of futurity. Also a king of Thrace turned into a Ti'tan. The son of Cælus and Terra, elder brother stone by Perseus.

of Saturn, and one of the giants who warred against Phae'bus. A title of Apollo.

heaven. Ple'iades. Seven daughters of Atlas and Pleione, Titho'nus. The son of Laomedon, loved by Aurora, changed into stars.

and turned by her, in his old age, into a grasshopper. Plu'to. The son of Saturn and Ops, brother of Jupi- Tri'ton. The son of Neptune and Amphitrite, a ter and Neptune, and the god of the infernal regions. powerful sea god, and Neptune's trumpeter. Plu'tus. The god of riches.

Tro'ilus. À son of Priam and Hecuba. Pomo'na. The goddess of fruits and autumn.

Troy. A city of Phrygia, famous for holding out a Polyhym'nia. The Muse of rhetoric.

siege of ten years against the Greeks, but finally capPri'am. The last king of Troy, the son of Laomedon, tured and destroyed. under whose reign Troy was taken by the Greeks.

Prome'theus. The son of Japetus; said to have Ulys'ses. King of Ithaca, who, by his subtlety and stolen fire from heaven to anipate two bodies which hel eloquence, was eminently serviceable to the Greeks in had formed of clay, and was therefore chained by Jupi- the Trojan War. ter to Mount Caucasus, with a vulture perpetually! Ura'nia. The Muse of astronomy. gnawing his liver. Pros'erpine. Wife of Pluto.

Venus. One of the most celebrated deities of the Pro'teus. The son of Oceanus and Tethys; a sea god ancients, the wife of Vulcan, the goddess of beauty, the and prophet, who possessed the power of changing him- mother of love, and the mistress of the graces and of self into any shape.

pleasures. Psy'che. A nymph beloved by Cupid and made im Vertum'nus. A deity of the Romans, who presided mortal by Jupiter.

over spring and orchards, and who was the lover of Pyg'mies. A nation of dwarfs only a span long, car- Pomona. ried away by Hercules.

Ves'ta. The sister of Ceres and Juno, the goddess of Pyl'ades. The constant friend of Orestes.

fire, and patroness of vestal virgins. vo lovers of Babylon. who i Viri'placa.An inferior nuptial goddess, who reconkilled themselves with the same sword, and thus caused ciled husbands and wives. A temple at Rome was dedithe berries of the mulberry tree, under which they died, cated to her, whither the inarried couple repaired after to change from white to red.

a quarrel. Python. A huge serpent, produced from the mud of Vulcan. The god who presided over subterraneous the deluge; killed by Apollo, who, in memory thereof, fire, patron of workers in metal.. instituted the Pythian games.

Zeph'yrus. The west wind, son of Æolus and Aurora, Re'mus. The elder brother of Romulus, killed by and lover of the goddess Flora. him for ridiculing the city walls.

Zeus. A title of Jupiter.
Rhadaman'thus. One of the three infernal judges.

Rom'ulus. The son of Mars and Ilia: thrown into the
Tiber by his uncle, but saved, with his twin brother,
Remus, by a shepherd; became the founder and first The eccentricities of traditional story and tradition-
king of Rome.

ary practice have always been found a more or less in

teresting and ainusing study by the contemplative Sal. The twelve frantic prie

observer of human nature; and almost all travelers and Sa'lus. Goddess of health.

historians, from Herodotus downward, have occasionSaturnalia. Feasts of Saturn.

ally condescended to add something to the general colSat'urn. A son of Cælus and Terra; god of time. lection of curiosities in that department. But to make

Sat'yrs. Attendants of Bacchus; horned monsters, a thorough investigation of the “ vulgar antiquities" half goats, half men.

of any country, and especially of one's own, was, until Sem'ele. The daughter of Cadmus and Thebe, and very recently, regarded as childish and useless. An exmother of Bacchus.

ception, indeed, has been made in favor of the folklores Semiramis, A celebrated queen of Assyria, who of ancient Greece and Rome, as being intrinsically bnilt the walls of Babylon; was slain by her own son, beautiful and exceptionally instructive. But the very Nimyas, and turned into a pigeon.

fact that these had been beautified by artistic treatSera'pis. See Apis.

ment impaired their usefulness from the purely antiSile' nus. The foster-father, master, and companion quarian point of view; and in any case the floating of Bacchus. He lived in Arcadia, rode on an ass, and | traditions of Attica and Latium were too few, too fragwas drunk every day.

mentary, and gathered from too narrow an area to furSi'rens. Sea nymphs, or sea monsters, the daughters nish adequate data for the anthropologist and the soof Oceanus and Amphitrite.

ciologist. Sis'yphus. The son of Eolus ; a most crafty prince, It was in Germany that the study of folklore entered killed by Theseus, and condemned by Pluto to roll up upon its scientific stage, and indeed that country has hill a large stone, which constantly fell back again. been most prolific in curious oral traditions and unwritSol. A name of Apollo.

ten customs. Every custom has an instructive history Som'nus. The son of Erebus and Nox, and the god if we can but succeed in interpreting its lore. of sleep.

Orion was a giant hunter, noted for his beauty. Sphinx. A monster, who destroyed herself because Puck and Robin Goodfellow are identical myths. Eclipus solved the enigma she proposed.

Ogri, The, were giants said to feed on human flesh. Sten'tor. A Grecian, whose voice is reported to have Toadstool, The, is called in Ireland the fairy's mushheen as strong and as lond as the voices of fifty men room, together.

Loki was the god of strife and evil in Scandinavian Sthe'no. One of the three Gorgons.

mythology. Styx. A river of hell.

Jupiter chose the eagle as the best preservative Sylvanus. A god of woods and forests.

against lightning.

Apotheosis was the deification or raising of a mortal Ta'cita. A goddess of silence.

to the rank of a god. Tan'talus. The son of Jupiter, and king of Lydia, Oak, The, is sacred to Jupiter because he first who served up the limbs of his son, Pelops, to try the mankind to live upon acorns. divinity of the gods, for which he was plunged to the Goat, The, was the animal usually sacrificed to Bacchin in a lake of hell, and doomed to everlasting thirst chus, on account of its propensity to destroy the vine. and hunger.

1 Gypsies, The, are said to be wanderers because they Tartarus. The part of the infernal regions in which refused shelter to the Virgin and Christ-child on the the wicked were punished.

flight into Egypt. Tau'ru.. The bull under whose form Jupiter carried 1 Valkyri, in the northern mythology, are either nine away Europa.

or three times three divine maidons, who cleave their Telem'achus. The only son of Ulysses.

way through air and water to lead to Odin those who Terpsich'ore. The Muse presiding over dancing. have fallen in battle and who are worthy of Valhalla.

[ocr errors]

Dagon, the national god of the Philistines, half man traced further to the lares or hearth spirits of the anand half fish, is mentioned in the Old Testament as cients. The Russian Domoroy lives behind the stove, having temples at Gaza and Ashilod. Several names of and in some families a portion of the supper is always places prove that the worship of Dagon existed also in set aside for him; for if he is neglected he waxes wroth other parts of Palestine.

and knocks the tables and benches about at night. Astral Spirits are the supposedl spirits which per- Spirits with similar functions elsewhere, are the Lithuvade the stars, each star having its own spirit or soul, anian kanka, the Finnish para, and the French lutin. Paracelsus thought that every human being haul an Star Legends. In Galicia, the province northeast of astral spirit; hence the intluence of one's particular Hungary, the peasants believe that when a star falls to star on his life.

earth, it is at once transformed into a rarely beautiful Wehr.wolf. According to the ancient German woman with long hair, blonde and glittering. This superstition, the Wehr-wolt was a man-wolf, who had splendid creature, iniraculously engendered, exercises the form of a man by clay and a wolf by night. Lycan on all who come in contact with her a magical influence. thropy, or wolf-madness, was prevalent in Europe, and Every handsonne youth unfortunate enough to attract especially in Germany, in the fourteenth and tifteenth her attention becomes her victim. Thus having allureil centuries.

them to her, she encircles them with her arin in an enCornucopia,the horn or symbol of plenty, is placerlin brace that becomes gradually tighter and tighter, until the hands of emblematical figures of Plenty, Liberality, the poor dupes are strangled to death. It certain worris and the like, who are represented as pouring from it an are murmured the moment the star starts to fall, they abundance of fruits or corn. It is frequently lined in (ause her allurements to lose their power. From this architecture, sculpture, and heralitry.

superstition springsthe custom of wishing while a star is Idris, a mythical figure in Welsh tradition, supposed ! seen hurrying through the air, a wish said surely ti) to have been at once a giant, a prince', anul an astrono- come true if completely formulated before the light is mer. On the summit of Caller Idris in Merionethshire, l extinguished. The Spaniards saw in the falling stars may be seen his rock-hewn chair, and an ancient tradi- the souls of their dead friends, the thread of whose estion told that any Welsh barat who could pass the night intence was cut short by destiny. The Arabs thought upon it would be found the next morning, either dead, i these stars to be burning stones thrown by angels at the mad, or endowed with supernatural poetic inspiration, heads of devils who attempted to enter Paradise This tradition forms the sulrject of a tine poem by Mrs. / Valhalla is the place of residence for the fallen in Hemans; the gigantic size of the chair is alluded to in battle, in Scandinavian mythology. The name Valhalla Tennyson's Geraint and Enidl."

was given to a magnificent marble structure of nearly Griftin. The, is a chimerical creature, and first men- the same proportions as the Parthenon, erected by Lud. tioned by Aristeas about 500 B, ('. The griffin is vari-, wig I., of Bavaria (1830-41), as a Temple of Fame for all ously described and represented, but the shape in which Germany, on an eminence two hundred and fifty feet it most frequently appears is that of a cross between a above the Danube, near Ratisbon. By means of statues, lion and an eagle, having the body and legs of the for busts, reliefs, ani tablets, the mythology and history of mer, with the beak and wings of the latter, and the Germany are illustrated and her great names commemo addition of pointed ears. Sometimes the four legs are rated. all like those of an eagle, and the head is that of a cock. Thule was the name given by ancient Greeks and The figure seems to have originated in the East, as it is Romans to the most remote northern portion of the found in ancient Persian sculptures. Among the Greeks world then known. Whether an island or part of a it appears on antique coins, and as an ornament in clas- continent, is not known. It is mentioned by Pytheas, sical architecture.

I the Greek navigator, who says it is six days' sail from Nectar is the name given by Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, Britain, and that its climate is a mixture of earth, air, and the Greek poets generally, and by the Romans, to and sea. Ptolemy, with more exactitude, tells us that the beverage of the gods, their food being alleil am-i the sixty-three degrees of north latitude runs through brosia. But Sappho and Aleman make nectar the fooil the middle of Thule, and adds that the days there are, at of the gods, and ambrosia their drink. Homer describes the equinoctials, twenty-four hours long. nectar as resembling red wine, and represents its con Amulet is any object worn as a charm. It is often a tinued use as causing immortality. By the later poets, i stone or a piece of metal, with an inscription or some nectar and ambrosia are represented as of most deli figures engraved on it, and is generally suspended from cious odor; and sprinkling with nectar, or anointing the neck, and worn as a preservative against sickness or with ambrosia, is spoken of as conferring perpetual witchcraft. Its origin, like its name, seems to be ori. youth, and they are assumed as the symbols of every-ental. thing most delicious to the taste.

Cockatrice, The, is a fabulous monster, often conVishnu is the second god of the Hindu triad, now the founded with the basilisk, and regarded as possessing most worshiped of all Hindu gods. Originally, in the similar deadly powers. To the charms of the basilisk is oldest Vedas, a sun-god, he gradually increased in intui-acleil a dragon's tail armed with a sting; and it sharedi ence at the expense of other gods, and in the later also the power of destroying, by a glance, so often rePurana, is the supreme god. Always a friendly pod, he ferred to in Shakespeare, and other early writers. became specially the friend and benefactor of man in Cuneiform is a term (lescriptive of a form of writ. his avatars or incarnations. The Vishmute doctrinesing of which the component parts resemble a wedge. It were gathered into one body in the eleventh century, as was used by the peoples of Babylonia, Assyria, and other the Vishnu-Purana. Of twenty principal sects, votaries ancient nations, and was inscribed upon stone, bronze, of Vishnu, and one hundred ininor brotherhoods, some iron, glass, and clay. It was not until the seventeenth are merely local, others are wealthy bodies and wide-century that the wedge-shaped characters were susspread.

pected to be other than idle fancies of the architects Damon and Pythias, two noble Pythagoreans of Arthur', Round Table contained seats for one hunSyracuse, are remembered as the models of faithful dred and fifty knights. Three were reserved; two for friendship. Pythias, having been condemned to death honor, and one (called the siegre perilous) for Sir Galaby the elder Dionysius, the tyrant of Syracuse, begged had, destined to achieve the quest of the Sangreal. 11 to be allowed to go home for the purpose of arranging anyone else attempted to sit in it, his death was the cerhis domestic affairs, Damon pledging his own life for tain penalty. the reappearance of his friend at the time appointed Undines, The, according to the fanciful system of for his doom. Dionysius consented, and Pythias re- Paracelsis, were female water sprites. They intermarry turned just in time to save Damon from leath. Struck readily with human beings, and the Undine who gives by so noble an example of mutual affection, the tyrant | birth to a child under such a union receives, with her pardoned Pythias, and desired to be admitted into their babe, a human soul. But the man who takes an Undine sacred fellowship.

to wife must be careful not to go on the water with her, Brownie, a very engaging though mythical creature or at least must not vex her while there, or she returns of the Scottish rural districts, is believed to assist into her native element. housework at night. The brownie is good tempered Isis was an Egyptian goddess. The deities of ancient and industrious, but has a great objection to slovenli- ! Egypt might be male or female, but in neither case ness, and marks his sense of neglect by pinching slat-, could the Egyptian wershiper conceive a deity as ex. ternly maids. Good housewives leave out a bowl of isting in isolation; to every deity of either sex there milk for him. If the farm changed hands the brownie must be a counterpart of the other sex. It was to this usually left, which may explain why there are none notion that the goddess Isis owed her origin; she was now. . The resemblance of the Scotch brownie to the the counterpart of Osiris, and this fact is expressed in Robin Goodfellow of the English and the Kobold of the the statement that she was at once wife and sister of German folklore is obvious, but perhaps they may be Osiris.

OUTLINES OF HISTORY.

CHRONOLOGICAL AND HISTORICAL TABULATIONS DESIGNED FOR READY REFERENCE.

Prehistoric Ages. — Sir J. Lubbock distinguishes four prehistoric ages, as follows: 1. The Paleolithic or Early Stone Age. 2. The Neolithic or Polished Stone Age. 3. The Bronze Age. 4. The Iron Age. In the Stone Age man knew nothing of pottery or agriculture and had no domestic animals except the dog. In the Bronze Age arms and cutting instruments were made of bronze. In the Iron Age bronze was superseded by iron.

B.c.

FROM THE DELUGE TO THE TIME OF CYRUS

2350

| The Deluge.

2200 (circa). Hia dynasty founded in China. 1996. Birth of Abraham. 1921. Call of Abraham. 1896. Isaac born. 1837. Jacob and Esau born. 1822. Egyptian alphabet invented. 1729. Joseph sold into Egypt. 1706. Jacob removes into Egypt.

1700. Rameses, King of Egypt. 1618. Sesostris, King of Egypt.
1982. Beginning of the chronology of the Arundelian marbles, brought to England A.D. 1027.

1574. Moses born. 1571. Aaron born.
1491. The Exodus. The Law given from Sinai. 1451. Moses and Aaron die.

1451. Joshua leads the Israelites into Canaan.

[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]

Joel, prophet. Jonah.
. Jotham.
42. Ahaz pays trib- 47. Assyrians in- 47. Nabonassar.
ute to Tiglath vade Israel.

41. Tiglath Pileser.
Pileser.
41. Pekah, King of 30. Hosea pays"
Israel, besieges tribute,

28. Shalmaneser.
Jerusalem;
120,000 of his men ?

21. The ten tribes | 23. Invades
are slain in one

carried into cap- Phænicia.

tivity.
26. Hezekiah.
Isaiah.

17. Sennacherib.

| 11. Sennacherib's
Nahum.
9. Esarhadon, King of

invasion.
10 Sennacherib's
army destroyed.

Babylonia
97. Manasseh.

76. Commence

ment of Olympiads-first authentic date

in Greek history. 83. Romo founded

by Rommilus. 50. Sabine war in

Rome.

day.

700

42. Amon.

Josiah.
Jeremiah.

Habakkuk.
6. Jerusalem

taken by
Nebuchadnezzar,

11. Necho II, loses 24. Code of Draco,

200,000 men try-! Athens.
ing to cut canal 16. Tarquin the
to Red Sea.

Elder, King of
6. Nebuchadnezzar the Great defeats 6. Nebuchadnez- Rome.
Necho of Egypt, invades Judea and i zar defeats
takes Jerusalem.

Necho.

600

98. Jehoiachin.

94. Apries, King. 94. Solon gives 96. Zedekiah.

1 laws at Athens. 89. Nebuchadnezzar invades Phænicia. 88. Jerusalem destroyed.

79-72. Conquered 79. Takes Tyre.

and devasted by 78. Servius TulEzekiel. Destroys Nineveh.

Nebuchadnezzar. Jins, Rome. Jews carried captive to Babylon. 65. Belshazzar.

Amasis,

34. Tarquin the 38. Cyrus, the Mede, captures Babylon and establishes the Psammenit.

Proud.
Persian Empire.

25. Conquest by
36. Cyrus ends captivity of the Jews.

Cambyses, son of 29. Death of Cyrus.

Cyrus.

[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]
[merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small]

81, War with 99. Athens taken 98. Philip IV.

Pyrrhus, King by Demetrius.

of Epirus,

80. Pyrrhus 97. Republic re

invades Italy. established.

74. Pyrrhus 87. Birth of Ar- 88. Lysimachus,

defeated at Benchimedes(d. 212).

eventum.

King of Thrace, I 6. Rome supreme 91. Achæan league. subjects Mace

over all Italy.

donia. 79. Irruption of

64. First Puníc the Gauls.

war.

56, Defeat of 51. Achæan league

Carthaginians. renewed.

55. Regulus capt'd

by Carthaginians 41. Catullus

defeats Carthaginians. 18. Second Punic war.

Hannibal 26. Reforms of

defeats Romans Cleomenes.

at Ticinus. 17. Hannibal

passes the 20. Philip V.

Apennines. 16. Battle of

Cannæ. 11-5. First Mace

donian war. 7. Carthaginians

defeated at 11. War with Rome

Metaurus. 3. Scipio carries

war into Africa. 2. Hannibal defeated.

21. Ptolemy Philo- 23. Antiochus
pater.

the Great.

14. Ptolemy

Epiphane.

« PreviousContinue »