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OCTOBER - Continued.

NAME OF BATTLE.

Opponent.

Victor.

Day.
Year.

7'1863 Farmington....

Confederates ('.s. 8 1780 Saratoga-Molly..

English...... l'.s. 8 1862 Perryville.

Confederates U.S. 8 1779 Savannah.

English..

Eng. 9 1779 Assault on Savannah.

English.. Eng. 9 1814 Prince de Neuchatel-Emlynion.. English.. U.S. 10 1863 Blue Springs....

Confederates U.S. 11 1776 Lake Champlain...

English. Eng. 12 1800 Boston-Berceant...

French U.S. 12 1863 Arrow Rock (continued)..

Confederates Conf. 13 1812 Queenstown..

English ...... Eng 13 1863 Arrow Rock (ended).

Confederates U.S 14 1863 Bristow Station...

Confederates 15 1779 Vengeance-Defiance

English.. U.s 16 1776 Ranger-privateer.

English. U.S. 17 1862 Fort Ridgeley.

Indians U.S 18 1812 Wasp-Frolic.

English. U.S. 19 1781 Yorktown (ended)

English U.S. 19 1814 Cook's Mills..

English..

U.S. 19 1863 Buckland's Mills.

Confederates Conf. 19 1864 Cedar Creek.

Confederates U.S.. 20 1863 Philadelphia, Tenn..

Confederates Conf. 21 1861 Ball's Bluff..

Confederates Conf. 22 1777 Red Bank..

English.. .... U.S. 22 1862 Pocotaligo (continued).

Confederates Conf. 23 1862 Pocotaligo (ended).

Confederates Conf... 24 1864 Big Blue (continued).

Confederates U.S.. 25 1776 White Plains..

English... 28 1812 United Slates-Macedonian.

English.

U.S. 25 1863 Pine Bluff.

Confederates U.S. 25 1864 Big Blue (ended)..

Confederates U.S. 26 1846 Tabasco..

Mexican..... U.S. 27 1863 Wauhatchie (continued).

Confederates U.S. 27 186+ Albemarle..

Confederates U.S. 27 1864 Hatcher's Run....

Confederates 27 1864 Fair Oaks (continued)

Confederates 28 1863 Wauhatchio(continued).

Confederates U.S.... 28 1864 Fair Oaks (ended)..

Confederates 29 1863 Wauhatchie (ended).

Confederates U.S. 30 1864 Petersburg (September 1-October 30). Confederates U.S. 31 1799 Norfolk-Picaroons..

Picaroons ...

U.S.

NOVEMBER. 1 1779 Jason-Perseus..

English...... Eng. 2 1813 Governor Tompkins-Mary Ann..

English.. 3 1813 Talluschatches.

Indians. U.S. 3 1863 Near Opelousas...

Confederates 4 1812 Marengo-Leonidas.

English.. U.S. 5 1812 Paw Jones-Hassan.

English.. U.S. 6 1861 Belmont (continued).

Confederates Conf. 6 1863 Droop Mountain.

Confederates U.S. 6 1863 Rogersville...

Confederates Conf. 6 1863 Campbell Station,

Confederates Conf. 7 1811 Tippecanoe..

Indians......, U.S. 7 1861 Port Royal..

Confederates U.S. 7 1861 Belmont (ended)..

Confederates U.S. 7 1863 Rappahannock Station.

Confederates U.S.. 8 1813 Globe-packets.

English.. U.S. 9 1813 Talladega..

Indians... l'.s. 10 1813 Saucy Jack-Sherbroke

English.. U.S. 11 1813 Chrysler's Fields.

English. 12 1813 Tom-Tounsend

English.. U.S. 13 1776 Alfred-transports.

English. ('.s. 14 1813 W'ile Renard-ship..

English.. U.S. 16 1779 Importinent- Harlem.

English.

U.S. 16 1776 Industry-hrig...

English.. 16 1776 Mount Washington.

English.. Eng. 17 1847 Guaymas.

Mexican U.S. 17 1863 Knoxville

Confederates 18 1813 Hillabee towns.

Indians..

U.S. 19 1817 Urias

Mexican.. U.S. 20 1780 Ennoree Ford.

English.. U.S. 20 1856 Canton Forts (continued).

Chinese. U.S. 21 1847 San José.

Mexican. (.s. 21 1856 Canton Forts (continued).

Chinese..

U.s. 22 1776 Lee-ship.

English. 22 1856 Canton Forts (ended)

Chinese. U.S. 23 1863 Chattanooga, including Orchard Knob,

Lookout Mountain, and Missionary
Ridge (continued).

Confederates (1.S..

120

76 170

0

339 822

0

208 761 79

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1 1782 Commerce-brig and schoonr8.. 2,1777 Massachusetts-Launsdale.. 3 1815 Kemp-merchantmen (armed).. 4 1781 Prosperity-privateer.. 5 1863 Coffeeville. 6 1812 Montgomery-armed ship. 6 1864 Deveraux's Neck (continued). 7/1777 Chestnut Hill. 7 1862 Prairie Grove. 7 1862 Hartsville. 8 1861 Deveraux's Neck(continued). 9 1862 Col. Matthews... 9 1861 Deveraux's Neck (ended).. 10 1812 Saratoga-Morgiana.. 11 1862 Fredericksburg (continued).. 12 1862 Fredericksburg (continued).. 13 1862 Fredericksburg (ended)... 14 1814 Lake Borgne. 14 1862 Kinston. 15 1776 Great Bridge.. 15 1864 Nashville (continued). 16 1864 Nashville (ended).. 17 1812 Massasinewa .. 18 1862 Foster's expedition (endedi).. 19 1776 Rover-Africa.. 201862 Holly Springs.. 21 1779 Sally-transports. 22 1778 Saratoga-Chance. 23 1813 Econochaca 23 1814 Near New Orleans.. 24 1861 Fort Fisher (continued). 25 1776 Trenton... 25 1861 Fort Fisher (continued).. 26 1781 St. James-ship (armed), 77 1862 Vicksburg assault(continued). 28 1814 Near New Orleans. 28 1862 Vicksburg assault (ended). 29 1778 Savannah.. 29 1812 Constitution-Jara 30 1862 Murfreesboro (continued). 31 1776 Quebec .. 31 1862 Parker's Cross-Roads. 31 1862 Murfreesboro (continued).

DECEMBER.
English.
English, U.S.
English. U.S.
English. t.s.
Confederates Conf
English ... l'.s.
Confederates
English..
Confederates U.S..
Confederates Conf...
Confederates
Confederates US....
Confederates
English...... U.S....
Confederates Conf.
Confederates Conf
Confederates Conf..
English.... Eng..
Confederates U.S.
English ..... U.S.
Confederates U.S.
Confederates (.s.
Indians...... U.S.
Confederates U.S.
English...... U.S.
Confederates Conf.
English..
English. U.S.
Indians. U.S.
English...... Eng.
Confederates Conf.
English...... U.S..
Confederates Conf...
English..
Confederates Conf...
English...... U.S..
Confederates Conf
English...... Eng..
English.. U.s
('onfederates U.S.
English ...... Eng.
Confederates U.S.
Confederates U.S..

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THE RULERS OF FRANCE FROM THE REVOLUTION OF 1792. The First Republic.

The Second Republic. The National ('onvention first sat.. .Sept. 21, 1792 Provisional Government formed..

Feb. 22, 1848 The Directory nominated..

Nov. 1, 1795 Louis Napoleon elected President.. ..Dec. 19, 1848 The Consulate.

The Second Empire. Bonaparte, Cambacérès, and Lebrun. Dec. 24, 1799 Napoleon III. elected Emperor..

Nov. 22, 1832 Bonaparte, Consul for ten years..

..May 6, 1802

(Deposed Sept. 4, 1870, died Jan. 3, 1873.) Bonaparte, Consul for life ..

Aug. 2, 1802

The Third Republic.
The Empire.
Committee of Public Defense...

.Sept. 4, 1870
Napoleon I. decreed Emperor..
May 18, 1804 L. A. Thiers elected President..

.Aug. 31, 1871 Napoleon II. (never reigned) ..died July 22, 1832 Marshal MacMahon elected President...... May 24, 1873 The Restoration. Jules Grévy elected President

.Jan. 30, 1879

.Dec.
Louis XVIII. re-entered Paris.

Marie F. S. Carnot elected President.
May 3, 1814

3, 1887 Charles X. (dep. July 30, 1830, d. Nov. 6, 1836)

18:24

(Assassinated at Lyons, June 24, 1894.)

Jean Casimir Perier elected President...... June 27, 1894 The House of Orleans.

Felix François Faure elected President....Jan. 17, 18.45 Louis Philippe, King of the French..

1830

(Assassinated, in Paris, Feb. 16, 1899.) (Abdicated Feb. 24, 1848, died Aug. 2, 1850.) M. Emile Loubet elected President.........Feb, 18, 18:33

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A TABLE OF THE KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND.
NAME.
SAXONS AND DANES.

Accession. Died. Age. 'Reigned,
Egbert..
First King of all England..

827
8:39

12 Ethelwulf Son of Egbert....

837
258

21 (Ethelbald Son of Ethelwulf..

R58

860 1 Ethelbert Second son of Ethelwulf.

858

866 Ethelred Third son of Ethelwulf..

846

871
Alfred..
Fourth son of Ethelwulf.

871
901

30 Edward the Elder. Son of Alfred......

901

925
Athelstan
Eldest son of Edward

925
1940

15 Edmund.. Brother of Athelstan.

910

946 Edred Brother of Edmund

946 Edwy.. Son of Edmund.

955

958 20
Edgar.
Second son of Edmund..

958
975

17 Edward the Martyr Son of Edgar

975

979

17 Ethelred II.. Half-brother of Edward..

979

1016 Edmund Ironside. Eldest son of Ethelred

1016

1016 Canute By conquest and election..

1017

1035 Harold I.. Son of Canute....

1035

1040 Hardicanute Another son of Canute.

1040

1042 Edward the Confessor.. Son of Ethelred II....

1012

1066 Harold II.... Brother-in-law of Edward.

1066

1066
THE HOUSE OF NORMANDY.
William I...
Obtained the Crown by conquest.

1066

1087

60

21 Willian II... Third son of William I..

1087

1100

43

13 Henry I... Youngest son of William I.

1100
1135 67

35 Stephen. Third son of Stephen, Count of Blois.

1135

1154
49

19
THE HOUSE OF PLANTAGENET.
Henry II.
Son of Geoffrey Plantagenet..

1157

1189
Richard I..
Eldest surviving son of Henry II.

1189
1199

10 John... Sixth and youngest son of Henry II.

1199
1216

17 Henry III.. Eldest son of John

1216

1272
Edward I.
Eldest son of Henry III,

1272
1307

35 Edward II. Eldest surviving son of Edward I..

1307
1327

20 Edward III. Eldest son of Edward II.....

1327
1377

50 Richard 11.. Son of the Black Prince, eldest son of Edward III. 1377 Dep. 139 33

22 THE HOUSE OF LANCASTER. Henry IV. Son of John of Gaunt, fourth son of Edward III. 1393

1413 Henry V. Eldest son of Henry IV.

1413

1422
34

9 Henry VI.. Only son of Henry V. (died 1471)..

1422

Dep. 1461 19
THE HOUSE OF YORK.
Edward IV.

His grandfather was Richard, son of Eilmund,

fifth son of Edward III.; and his grandmother, Anne, was great-granddaughter of Lionel, third son of Edward Isi.

1461

1483 41 Edward v. Eldest son of Edward IV.

1483

1483 12 Richard III. Younger brother of Edward IV..

1483

1485

33
THE HOUSE OF TUDOR.
Henry VII....

Son of Edmund, eldest son of Owen Tudor, by
Katharine, widow of Henry V.; his mother,
Margaret Beaufort, was great-granddaughter
of John of Gaunt..

1485

1509

52

24 Henry VIII. Only surviving son of Henry VII.

1509

1547

55 Edward VI. Son of Henry VIII., by Jane Seymour.

1547

1553
16

6 Mary I... Daughter of Henry VIII., by Katherine of Aragon 1553

1558 42 Elizabeth... Daughter of Henry VIII., by Anne Boleyn..

1558

1603

69
THE HOUSE OF ST('ART.
James I..

Son of Mary Queen of Scots, grand laughter of
James IV.and Margaret, daughter of HenryVII. 1603

1625
Charles I...
Only surviving son of James [...

1625

1649

18 Commonwealth declared May 19..

1649 Commonwealth Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector

1653

1658 Richard Cromwell, Lord Protector.

16,58 Res. 1659 THE HOUSE OF STUART-RESTORED). Charles II.. .!... Eldest son of Charles I..

1660

1085 54
James II...
Second son of Charles I. (died Sept. 16, 1701)..

1685
I ep. 1688 68

3 (Interregnum, Dec. 11, 1688-Fel), 13, 1689.)

Dec. 1701
William III...
Son of William, Prince of Orange, by Mary,

si

13 and

1689 Mary II... Eldest daughter of James II.

T
1624 32

5 Anne. Second daughter of James II.

1702

1714 49 12 THE HOUSE OF HANOVER. George I...

Son of Elector of Hanover, by Sophia, daughter
of Elizabeth, daughter of James I...

1714
1727

13 George II. Only son of George l..

1727

1760
George III.
Grandson of George II.

1760
1820

60 George IV. Eldest son of George III.

1820

1830 William IV. Third son of George III.

1830

1837 Victoria.

Daughter of Edward, fourth son of George III... 1837

25

( 1702

DICTIONARY OF BIOGRAPHY. ABBREVIATIONS: Am., American. Br., British. Dan., Danish. Eng., English. Fl., flourished. Fr., French Ger., German. Gr., Greek. Ir., Irish. It., Italian. Nor., Norwegian. Port., Portuguese. Prus., Prussian. Rom., Roman. Scot., Scottish. Sp., Spanish. Sw., Swedish.

The numbers after each name indicate the years of birth and death. An interrogation mark denotes that the date is doubtful. After the names of the Popes the first date indicates time of accession unless otherwise stated.

ABBAS I. (the Great), 1557-1628, shah of Æsop, 619?-564 B.C., Gr. fabulist; a slave, Persia.

but liberated by his master on account of his ABBASSIDES, A. within 749-1258, famous talents. dynasty of Caliphs at Bagdad and Damascus. AFFRE, Denis Auguste, 1793-1848, arch

ABBOTT, John Stevens Cabot, 1805-77, Am. bishop of Paris ; killed during the insurrection historian.

of June, 1848. ABD-EL-KADER, 1807-83, emir of Algeria. Agassiz, Louis, 1807-73, Swiss naturalist;

ABELARD, Pierre, 1079-1142, Fr. orator and professor at Harvard; founded museum of philosopher.

comparative zoology, Cambridge. ABERCROMBIE, James, 1706-81. Br. gen-i AGRICOLA, Cnæus Julius, 37-93, Rom. gen. eral in America.

era). ABERCROMBIE, John, 1781-1844, Scot. met AGRIPPA, Marcus Vipsanius, 63-12 B.C., aphysician.

Rom. soldier and statesman. ABERCROMBY, Sir Ralph, 1734-1801, Br. Ainsworth, William Harrison, 1805-82, general.

Eng. novelist. ABERNETHY, John, 1764-1831, Eng. anato- AKBAR, 1542-1605, most illustrious of the mist.

Mogul emperors. ABOUT, Edmond, 1828-85, Fr. author. AKENSIDE, Mark, 1721-70, Eng. physician,

ABRAHAM (or ABRAM), born about 2000 B. poet, and scholar. C., and died at the age of 175, Hebrew prince ALADDIN, A. 1375, son of Osman and organ. and patriarch.

izer of the Janissaries. ADAMS, Charles Francis, 1807-88, Am. ALARIC, 3502-410, king of the Visigoths. statesman, son of J. Q. A.; negotiated treaty ALBERT, or ALBERT FRANCIS, Augustus of Geneva.

Charles Emmanuel, prince of Saxe-Coburg-' ADAMS, John, first vice-president and sec- ! Gotha, 1819-61, consort of Queen Victoria. ond president of the United States; one of the ALBUQUERQUE, Alfonso, Marquis de, 1453negotiators of the treaty of peace with Great 1515, Portuguese conqueror. Britain, 1782 ; defeated by Jefferson for the ALCIBIADES, 450-404 B.C., Athenian genpresidency in 1800, he retired to private life. eral.

ADAMS, John Quincy, 1768-1848, son of Alcott, Amos Bronson, 1799-1888, Am. J. A., sixth president of the United States ; philosopher and teacher. being elected by the House ; defeated by Jack- ALCOTT, Louisa May, 1833-88, Am. auson in 1828; elected to the House in 1830, his thoress. oratory gained for him the title “ Old Man ALEMBERT, Jean le Rond d’, 1717-83, Fr. Eloquent”; member of the House until 1848, geometer. in which year, while in his seat at the Capitol, ALEXANDER (the Great), 356-323 B.C., he received a stroke of paralysis, which caused king of Macedon; taught by Aristotle; ashis death.

cended the throne of Macedon 336, destroyed ADAMS, Samuel, 1722-1803, Governor of Thebes and was chosen commander of the Massachusetts; one of the popular leaders of Greeks against Persia ; invaded Asia Minor in the Revolution ; signer of the Declaration of In- 334, defeating Darius on the banks of the dependence.

| Granicus ; in 333 he almost annihilated the ADDISON, Joseph, 1672-1719, Eng. poet, Persian army at the battle of Issus; cut the moralist, and dramatist.

Gordian kuot and caused the Ammonian oracle ADRIAN I., pope from 772-95 ; II., 867-72 ; to declare him the son of Jupiter Ammon; III., 884-5; IV., 1154-9; V., 1276, died same captured Tyre in 332, and, having invaded year; VI., 1521-3.

Egypt, founded Alexandria ; in 331 he deÆschines, 389-14 B.C., Athenian orator. feated Darius at Arbela ; elated by his success,

AESCHYLUS, 525-456 B.C., first great tragic he claimed the homage due to a god, stabbing poet and founder of the drama.

his foster-brother Clitus for refusal to pay such

homage ; invaded India in 327, advancing as ARCHIMEDES, B. C. 287 ?-12, Gr. mathemafar as the Hyphasis : his death is said to have tician and natural philosopher; founder of been caused by excessive drinking.

physics. ALFIERI, Vittorio, 1749-1803, It. poet. ARGYLL (or ARGYLE), Archibald Campbell, ALFRED (the Great), 8492-901, king of the eighth earl, 1598-1601, Scot. Covenanter; deWest Saxons; one of the greatest and noblest feated by Montrose ; executed for treason. of Englishmen; established schools and a sys- ARIOSTO, Ludovico, 1474-1533, It. poet. tem of police, and founded a navy.

ARISTIDES, B. C. -468?, Athenian genALLEN, Ethan, 17:37-89, Am. Revolutionary eral and statesman. commander ; captured Ticonderoga and Crown ARISTOPHANES, B. C. 444 ?-380?, Gr. comic Point in 1775 with only eighty-three men. poet; his genius and audacity in burlesque

ALLIBONE, Samuel Austin, 1816-89, Am. have never been equaled. writer,

ARISTOTLE (the Stagirite), B. C. 384-22, Gr. Allston, Washington, 1779-1843, Am. founder of analytic philosophy. painter

Arius, 255?-336?, patriarch of Alexandria ALVA, Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, Duke and founder of the Arian schism. of, 1508-82, Spanish commander in Nether- Arkwright, Sir Richard, 1732-92, Eng. lands ; infamous for cruelty.

manufacturer; inventor of the spinning-jenny. AMBROSE, Saint, 340?-97, one of the fathers ARMINIUS, Hermann, B. C. 16-21, A. D., of the Church.

Ger. hero; defeated the Romans A. D. 9, near AMERICUS, see Vespucci.

the Lippe. AMES, Fisher, 1758-1808, Am. orator and ARNAUD, Henri, 1641-1721, leader of the statesman.

Waldenses. Amherst, Jeffrey (Lord Amherst), 1717-97, Arnold, Benedict, 1740-1801, Am. general Br. general and field-marshal and governor of and traitor ; his plot to deliver West Point into Virginia.

the hands of the British was foiled by the capAMPERE, Andre Marie, 1775-1836, Fr. elec- ture of Major Andre, and he barely escaped ; trician and natural philosopher.

he became a colonel in the British army. ANACREON, B. C.560 7-478, Gr. lyric poet. Arxold OF BRESCIA (or Arnaldo),

ANAXAGORAS, B. C. 500-428, Gr. philos- -1155, It. reformer and orator. opher; "the father of modern science."

Arxold, Matthew, 1822-88, Eng. author, ANAXIMANDER, B. C. 610-547, Gr. philos- poet, and critic. ophér.

ARNOLD, Thomas, 1795-1842, Eng. historian. ANDERSEN, Hans Christian, 1805-75, Dan. ARNOLD

WINKELRIED, ...-1386, author.

Swiss patriot, who broke the Austrian phalanx ANDRASSY, Julian, Count, 1823-90, Hun- at the battle of Sempach by throwing himself garian statesman.

against the points of their spears. ANDRE, John, 1751-80, Eng. spy; hanged ARTEMISIA, f. 350 B. C., consort of Maufor connection with the Arnold treason. solus, prince of Caria, in whose memory she

ANDRos, Sir Edmund, 1637-1714, Br. col- erected a tomb numbered ainong the seven onial governor of New England.

wonders of the world. ANNE, 1664-1714, queen of England ; last ARTEVELDE, Jacob van, 1300?-45, leader of of the Stuarts.

people of Ghent. Anthony, St., 251-356?, Egyptian founder ARTEVELDE, Philip van, son of J. v. A., of monachism.

1340-82, leader of insurrection in Flanders. ANTISTHENES, f. 400 B. C., Gr. philosopher ; ARTHUR, Chester Alan, 1831-86, twentyfounder of the Cynic school.

first president of the United States ; born at ANTOINETTE, Marie, 1755-93, queen of Louis St. Albans, Vermont; read law, was admitted XVI. of France; guillotined.

to the bar, and began practice in New York ANTONIUS, Marcus (Mark Antony), B. C. city; 1860, quartermaster general on the staff 932-30, Rom. general and statesman.

of Governor Morgan; 1871, collector of the AQUINAS, Thomas, Saint (the Angelic Doc- port of New York, but superseded, 1878, by tor), 1224-74, theologian, teacher, and writer; General Merritt; 1880, nominated for vicemember of the order of St. Dominic; the great- president by the Republicans and elected; sucest of the schoolmen of the middle ages. ceeded to the presidency on the death of Gar.

ARAM, Eugene, 1704-59, Eng. scholar; ex- field. ecuted for the murder of one Daniel Clark, Ascham, Roger, 1515-68, Eng. scholar and whom he is said to have killed to procure means author. for prosecuting his studies ; chief character in ASHBURTON, Alexander Baring, Lord, 1774. one of Bulwer's novels.

1848, Eng. diplomatist.

VON

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