Page images
PDF
EPUB
[blocks in formation]

Pa..

[ocr errors]

.

Washington. Alexander Hamilton. . N. Y.

Oliver Wolcott...... ...Ct..... Adams ...... " ...... Samuel Dexter.........

Mass .. Jefferson....

Albert Gallatin....... Madison

..... George W. Campbell... Tenn..

Alexander J. Dallas... Pa

William H. Crawford... Ga
Monroe..
J. Q. Adams. Richard Rush.........

Pa
Jackson..... Samuel D. Ingham

Louis McLane... Del...
William J. Duane... Pa.....'
Roger B. Taney. .... Md....

Levi Woodbury....
Van Buren..
Harrison .... Thomas Ewing..

Ohio ..
Tyler ........

Walter Forward... Pa.....
John C. Spencer... .. N. Y...
George M. Bibb.....

Ky
Polk.... .. Robert J. Walker....... Miss...
Taylor....... William M. Meredith... Pa.....

1789 1795 1797 1801 1801 1801 1803 1814 1811 1816 1817 1825 1829 1831 1833 1833 1831 1837 1841 1841 1841 1843 1841 1815 1849

Fillmore..... Thomas Corwin...

Ohio ..
Pierce....... James Guthrie..

Ky
Buchanan... Howell Cobb ...... .. Ga.....

Philip F. Thomas... ... Md....
John A. Dix

N . Y
Lincoln.. ... Salmon P. Chase........ Ohio ..

William P. Fessenden .. Me
......

. Hugh McCulloch ........ Ind....
Johnson.
Grant... George S. Boutwell ... Mass

William A. Richardson.
Benjamin H. Bristow... Ky

Lot M. Morrill.
Hayes...

John Sherman ...
Garfield.... William Windom .....
Arthur .... Charles J. Folger ...

Walter Q. Gresham..... Ind....

Hugh McCulloch.
Cleveland.... Daniel Manning ..

N. Y...
Charles S. Fairchild ...
Harrison .... William Windom. ..Minn..
.... Charles Foster ..

Ohio..
Cleveland.... John G. Carlisle....

Ky...
Mckinley.... Lyman J. Gage .....

1850 1853 1857 1860 1861 1861 1864 1865 1865 1869 1873 1874 1876 1877 1881 1881 1884 1884 1885 1887 1889 1891 1893 1897

ury......... N.H...

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

Mo

Md ....

66

SECRETARIES OF WAR.
Washington Henry Knox...... Mass .. 1789 Taylor....... George W. Crawford.... Ga.....
Timothy Pickering...

1795

Edward Bates...
James McHenry .....

1796
Fillmore ....

Charles M. Conrad.... La .....
Adams.

1797 Pierce.. .... Jefferson Davis ... Miss..
John Marshall ....
Va.... 1800 Buchanan... John B. Floyd....

Va.....
Samuel Dexter..... Mass ..

1800
Joseph Holt ......

Ky...
Roger Griswold.... .. Ct..... 1801 Lincoln ... Simon Cameron...

Pa.....
Jefferson.... Henry Dearborn

Mass.. 1801

Edwin M. Stanton .....

Ohio Madison William Eustis. ...

1809 Johnson. John Armstrong ........N. Y...

1813

U.S. Grant (ad, in ).... III
James Monroe .......... Va..... 1814

Lor, Thomas (ad, in.)...
William H. Crawford... Ga..... 1815

John M. Schofield..... Monroe...... Isaac Shelby ....... Ky 1817 Grant ...... ... John A. Rawlins ........ . Geo. Graham (ad, in.)...Va... 1817

William T. Sherman.... .... John C. Calhoun ........ S.C... 1817

William W. Belknap....
J. Q. Adams James Barbour .......

Va....
1825

Alphonso Taft.. .Ohio..
Peter B. Porter ... ... N. Y... 1828

James Don Cameron....
...... John H. Eaton ..... ..Tenn.. 1829 | Hayes ....... George W. McCrary ....
..... Lewis Cass............ Ohio.. 1831

Alexander Ramsey......Minn.. ..... Benjamin F. Butler..... N. Y... 1837 Garfield Robert T. Lincoln...... .NI..... Van Buren.. Joel R. Poinsett....... S.C... 1837

Arthur......
Harrison ....John Bell .......... Tenn. 1841 Cleveland ... William C. Endicott.... Mass

1841 Harrison .... Redfield Proctor .......
John McLean ..
Ohio 1841

Stephen B. Elkins .... W. Va.
John C. Spencer .. ..N.Y. 1841 Cleveland ... Daniel S. Lamont .. N. Y...
..... James M. Porter ... .. Pa,.... 1843 McKinley ... Russell A. Alger

Mich..
William Wilkins...

1844
Elihu Root ......

.N. Y... Polk......... William L. Marcy...... N. ... 1845

Oh

18.9 1850 1850 1853 1857 1861 1861 1862 1865 1867 1808 1868 1869 1869 1869 1876 1876 1877 1879 1881 1881 1885 1889 1891 1893 1897 1899

Tyler ......

SECRETARIES OF THE NAVY.

2

.

[blocks in formation]

Adams ...... {George Cabot ........... Mass ..

Benjamin Stoddert ..... Md.... Jefferson...

.... Robert Smith .....

.... Jacob Crowninshield ... Mass .. Madison .. Paul Hamilton..........S. C...

William Jones .......... Pa.....

B. W. Crowninshield ... Mass .. Monroe.

...... Smith Thompson ....... N. Y.

Samuel L. Southard .... N.J.
J. Q. Adams
Jackson ..... John Branch.....

*.N.C.
...... Levi Woodbury ..... .N. H

Mahlon Dickerson .. .N.J..
Van Buren..

James K. Paulding ..... N. Y..
Harrison .... George E. Badger..... ..NO
Tyler ....
Abel P. Upshur...

Va.....
.....David Henshaw.........Mass ..

1798 1798 1801 1801 1805 1809 1813 1814 1817 1818 1823 1825 1829 1831 1234 1837 1838 1841 1841 1811 1843

Tyler ........ Thomas W. Gilmer ....

.. John Y. Mason ...
Polk. .. George Bancroft..

... John Y. Mason....
| Taylor.. .....William B. Preston,
Fillmore .... William A. Graham

.... John P. Kennedy.....
| Pierce....... James C. Dobbin ...
Buchanan... Isaac Toucey ..
Lincoln ..... Gideon Welles ....
Johnson.....
Grant ....... Adolph E. Borie.

George M. Robeson.....N.J...
. Richard W. Thompson.. Ind....

.. Nathan Goff, Jr.........W. Va.
Garfield ..... William H. Hunt ....... La.....
Arthur ......'William E. Chandler.... NH ..
Cleveland ... William C. Whitney.... N. Y. .
Harrison .... Benjamin F. Tracy .....
Cleveland ... Hilary A. Herbert. ... Ala
McKinley ... John D. Long ........... Mass..!

1844 1844 1845 1846 1849 1850 1852 1853 1857 1861 1863 1899 1869 1877 1881 1881 1882 1885 1889 1893 1897

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

Presidential Cabinet Officers.-Continued.

POSTMASTERS-GENERAL.*

Resi. | Date of

Resi ! Date of

Presidents.

Cabinet Officers.

Appoint-.Presidents. dence. A

ment.

Cabinet Officers.

Appointdence.

ment.

Mass ..

J. Q. Adams: John McLean

Hayes ......

1859 1861 1861 180+ 1865 1866 1869 1874 1874 1876 1877 1880 1881 1881 18N3 1881 18N5 18x8 1889 18:13 1895 1897 1898

.Y..

Washington Sainuel Osgood

1789 Buchanan... Joseph Holt.

Ky....!
Timothy Pickering ..

1791

... Horatio King..... Me Joseph Habersham.

1795 Lincoln .....

.. Montgomery Blair ...... Md Adams

1797

William Dennison ...... Ohio Jefferson....

1801 Johnson Gideon Granger ....

1801

Alexander W. Randall.. Wis ... Madison.

1809 Grant.. John A. J. Cresswell ... Md....
.. Return J. Mei

Ohio
1814

James W. Marshall ..... Va ....
Monroe .....

1817

Marshall Jewell.... .... Ct.....
183
James N. Tyner...

Ind....
1825

David McK. Key.. Tenn. Jackson ..... . William T. Barry ...

1829

Horace Maynard... ..... Amos Kendall .

1835

Garfield ..... Thomas L. Jaines.. . N. Y... Van Buren ..

1837 Arthur .....

Timothy 0. Howe... Wis. .. John M. Niles.

1810

Walter Q. Gresham.... .. Ind... Harrison ....Francis Granger.... IN

1811

... Frank Hattan....... lowa .. Tyler

1811 Cleveland ... William F. Vilas...

... Wis...
Charles A. Wicklifle..

Kv..
1811

... Don M. Dickinson .. Mich
Polk
Cave Johnson......

1815 Harrison John Wanamaker. .. Pa .... Taylor... Jacob Collamer.

18 19 Cleveland Wilson S. Bissell...

N. Y...
Fillmore .... 'Nathan K. Hall .....

N. Y..
1850

William L. Wilson...... W. V
Samuel D. Hubbard .... 'Ct

1852 1. McKinley ... James A. Gary.... ...... M .. Pierce....... James Campbell ........ Pa.

1853
Charles Emory Smith...

Pa .....
Buchanan... Aaron V. Brown ........ Ten .. 1857

SECRETARIES OF THE INTERIOR. Taylor....... Thomas Ewing....... .. Ohio .. 1849

Grant

Columbus Delano....... Ohio ..
Fillmore .... James A. Pearce........ Md.... 1850

Zachariah Chandler ... Mich ..
.... Thos. M. T. McKernon.. Pa.. 1850 Haves ....... Carl Schurz.
..Alexander H. H. Stuart Va..... 18.50 Garfield ..... Samuel J. Kirkwood .

Jowa ..
Pierce...

Robert McClelland ..... Mich.. 1853 Arthur ...... Henry M. Teller ..... Colo... Buchanan... Jacob Thompson........ Miss... 1857 Cleveland... Lucius Q. C. Lamar..... Miss... Lincoln ..... Caleb B. Smith .... .. Ind.... 1861

... William F. Vilas

... Wis ...
John P. Usher ..
1863 Harrison .... John W. Noble...

Mo ....
Johnson.

1865

Cleveland ... Hoke Smith.
James Harlan.. ..Iowa. 1865

David R. Francis ....... Mo ...
Orville H. Browning..
1866 McKinley ... Cornelius N. Bliss ..

58 ...... N. Y. Grant ..... Jacob D. Cox ........... Ohio..l

1869

. Ethan A. Hitchcock .... Mo ....!

enn

....N.

Mo ....

1870 1875 1877 1881 1882 1885 1888 1889 1893 1896 1897 1899

[ocr errors]

. Ga....

SECRETARIES OF AGRICULTURE.
Cleveland ... Norman J Colman ...... Mo .... 1889 | Cleveland ... J. Sterling Morton...... Neb ...
Harrison ....Jeremiah M. Rusk ...... Wis ...l 1889 McKinley ... James Wilson...

lowa ..

1893 1897

Pa.

ky....

ATTORNEYS-GENERAL. Washington. Edmund Randolph ..... Va..... 1789 Polk. ........ Isaac Toucey ....... Ct... 1848 William Bradford....... Pa... 1794 Taylor ....... Reverdy Johnson.......

Md ....

1819 Charles Lee.......

Va..

1795 Fillmore..... John J. Crittenden ..... 'Ky... 1850 Adams..

1797 Pierce....... Caleb Cushing .... Mass. 1853 Theophilus Parsons..... Mass... 1801 Buchanan... Jeremiah S. Black.

1857 Jefferson ....Levi Lincoln ......

1801
Edwin M. Stanton.. Ohio

1860 Robert Smith ............ Md.. 1805 Lincoln.... Edward Bates.....

Mo.

1861 John Breckinridge .. Ky...

1805
Titian J. Coffey (ad. in.) Pa.

1863 Cæsar A. Rodney.........

.. Del ..
1807
James Speed ............

1864 Madison. 1809 Johnson...

1865 William Pinkney..... Md... 1811

Henry Stanbery.........

Ohio.. 1866 Richard Rush .... ... Pa..

1814

William M.Evarts...... N. Y. 1868 Monroe,

1817 I'Grant... Ebenezer R. Hoar....... Mass... 1869 William Wirt...

1817
Amos T. Ackerman.

1870 J. Q. Adams.

1125
George H. Williains ...

171 Jackson...... John McP. Berrien

1829
Edwards Pierrepont..

1875 Roger B. Taney .......

1831

Alphonso Taft... . Ohio... 1876 Benjamin F. Butler ...

.... N. Y.. 1833 Hayes ....... Charles Devens ......... Mass... 1877 Van Buren ..

1837 Garfield ..... Wayne MacVeagh ...... Pa ..... 1881 Felix Grundy..... Tenn.. 1838 Arthur ...... Benjamin H. Brewster..

18X1 Henry D. Gilpin. . Pa.... 1810 Cleveland .... Augustus H. Garland...

Ark.

1885 Harrison .... John J. Crittenden ..... Ky.....! 1841 Harrison .... William H. H. Miller ... Ind.... 1889 Tyler ..

1811 Cleveland ... Richard Olney.

Mass..

1893 Hugh S. Legare.........

S. C.
1841
Judson Harmon....

... Ohio...

1895 John Nelson ....

Md
1843 McKinley ... Joseph McKenna .......

.. Cal....! 1897 Polk... .... John Y. Mason ... Va..... 1815

John W. Griggs.........

..... N J ... 1897 Nathan Clifford......... Me..... 1846 NOTE,- Since the foundation of the Government, the individual States have been represented the following number of times in Cabinet positions: Massachusetts, 30; New York, 29 : Pennsylvania, 26; Virginia, 22; Ohio, 22; Maryland, 16; Kentucky, 15; Connecticut, 9; Indiana, 9; Georgia, 8; Tennessee, 8; Illinois, 7; Maine, 6; South Carolina, 6; Missouri, 6; Delaware, 5; Wisconsin, 5; Michigan, 5; New Jersey, 5; Mississippi, 4; North Carolina, 4; Iowa, 4; Louisiana, 3; Minnesota, 3; New Hampshire, 3; West Virginia, 3; Vermont, 2; Alabama, 1; Arkansas, 1; Colorado, 1; Nebraska, 1 ; California, 1; Oregon, 1. The States which have not been represented in the Cabinet are: Florida, Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Nevada, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Texas, Washington, Wyoming. The Postmaster-General was not considered a Cabinet officer until 1829.

[merged small][ocr errors]

JUSTICES OF THE UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT,

(Names of the Chief Justices in Italics.)
SERVICE.

SERVICE.
NAME.

Born. Died.
NAME.

Born. Died.
Term. Yrs

Term. Yrs

- John Jay, N. Y ...

. 1789-1795

1829 Samuel Nelson, N. Y.......... 1845-1872 27 1792 | 1873 John Rutledge, S. C..... 1789-1791 1739 1800 Levi Woodbury, N. H.... 1845-1851 1789' 1851 William Cushing, Mass... 1789-1810 21 1733 1810 Robert C. Grier, Pa.

1846-1870 23 1794 1870

ti Uogo James Wilson, Pa... 1789-1798 9 1742 1798 | Benjamin R. Curtis, Mass.... 1851-18571

1831_18571 6 1809 187 John Blair, Va....

1789-17967 1732 1800 John A. Campbell, Ala........ 1853–1861! 8 i 1811 1889 Robert H. Harrison, Md. 1789-1790 1 1745 1790 Nathan Clifford, Me........... 1858-1881 23 1803 | 1881 James Iredell, N.C..... 1790-17999 1751 1799 Noah H. Swayne, Ohio...... 1861-1891 20 1804 1884 Thomas Johnson, Md.... 1791-1793 2 | 1732

1819 Samuel F. Miller, Iowa ....... 1862-1890 28 1816 | 19) William Paterson, N.J.. 1793-1806 13 | 1745 1806 David Davis, Ill.....

1802-1877 15 1815 1885 John Rutledge, S. C..... 1795-1795 .. 1739 1800 Stephen J. Field, Cal.......... 1863-1897 34 1816 Samuel Chase, Md....

1796-1811' 15 1741 1811 Salmon P. Chase, Ohio....... 1864-1873 9 | 1808 1873 Oliver Ellsworth, Ct.... 1796-1800 4

| 1745

1807 William Strong, Pa..... ... 1870-1880 10 1808 1895 Bushrod Washington, Va ...... 1798-18293 | 1762

1829 Joseph P. Bradley, N.J.... 1870-1892 22 1813 1892 Alfred Moore, N. C............ 1799-1804 | 1755 1810 !! Ward llunt, N. Y..

· 1872-182 10 1811 1886 John Marshall, Va........ 1801-1835 34 1755 1835 Morrison R. Waite, Ohio..... 1874-1888 14 ' 1816 1888 William Johnson, S. C.... 1804-1834 30 1771 | 1834 John M. Harlan, Ky........... 1817-....

1833 .. Brock. Livingstone, N. Y ... 1806-1823 17 1757 1823 William B. Woods, Ga........ 188-1887 71 1824 1887 Thomas Todd, Ky...... 1807-1826 19 | 1765 1826 Stanley Matthews, Ohio...... 1881-18898 1824 1889 Joseph Story, Mass...

1811-1845 34 17-9 1815 Horace Gray, Mass...... .. 1821-....1 1828 Gabriel Duval, Md..

1811-1836 25 1752 1844 Samuel Blatchford, N. Y..... 12*2-1893 11 | 18:20 1893 Smith Thompson, N.)

1823-1843, 20 | 1767 1813 Lucius Q. C. Lamar, Miss..... 1848-1893 5! 1825 1893 Robert Trimble, Ky..... 1826-1828 2 1828 Melville W. Fuller, Ill......... 188%-..

1833 ! John McLean, Ohio.... 1829-1861 32

1861 David J. Brewer, Kan......... 1889-.... 1837 Henry Baldwin, Pa.... 18.30-1844 14 | 1779 1841 Henry B. Brown, Mich........ 1890-..

1836 James M. Wayne, Ga.... 1835 1867 32 1790 1867 George Shiras, Jr., Pa........ 1892-.

1832 Roger B. Taney, Md..... 1836-1861 28 1777 1864 IN Howell E. Jackson, Tenn..... 1893-189

1832 1 Philip P. Barbour, Va........ 1836-1841 5 1783 1811

1 Edward D. White, La......... 1893-

1845 19 John Catron, Tenn...... ... 1837-1865 28 17861865 Rufus W. Peckham, N. Y..... 1895

1837 ! John Mckinley, Ala.......... 1837-1852 15 1780 1852 Joseph McKenna, Cal......... 1897-.... 1843 Peter V. Daniel, Va........... 1841-1860/ 19 / 1785 | 1860 !

| 1777 | 1785

SOME FAMOUS NAVAL BATTLES, From the naval battle of Salamis to the great sea fight | Navarino-The fleets of England, France, and Russia a: Manila is a “far cry," B. C. 480 to A. D. 1898, more destroy 30 Turkish men-of-war, October 20, 1827. than 2,000 years. Salamis was the first great recorded Most notable of American naval battles preceding battle of the world. Salamis drove the Persians from Manila are the following: Greek soil; Manila drives Spain from Asiatic waters. Coast of Scotland-Paul Jones captures the Serapis The loss of life at Salamis has been variously estimated and Scarborough, 70 guns, September 23, 1779. The loss of Dreat salamisnas been various state ac

Off St. Kitts-The Constellation, 26 guns, captures the

n i at from 5,000 to 50.000; at Manila from 400 to 2,000. Tri

'ni n remes were at Salamis, and shield and sword and brute French L'Insurgent, 40 guns, February 9, 1799. numbers; at Manila the hell of monster guns and iron Coast of United States--Constitution, 44 guns, sinks cla(ls, the scream of shell, and the carnage of high ex the Guerriere, 38 runs, in 30 minutes, August 19, 1812. plosives. Salamis was fought in the youth of nations; Madeira United States, 14 guns, captures the MaceManila in the dawn of the greatness of the American donian, 40 guns, October 25, 1812. people, the night of Spain. One notable parallel to Brazil-Constitution captures the Java, Dec. 29, 1812. Manila is found in the battle of the Nile, fought August Demerara River-Hornet captures the Peacock. Feb1, 1798 -- Lord Nelson and the English teet against Ad- ruary 24, 1813. miral Brueys and the French fleet. Nine French line- ! Lake Erie-Perry, with 54 guns, defeats English fleet of-battle ships were taken, two burned, and two with 63 guns, September 10, 1813. escaped. The French L'Orient, with Brueys and 1.000 Lake Champlain-McDonough, with 86 guns, defeats men on board, blew up, and only seventy or eighty English fleet with 96 guns, September 11, 1814. escaped. Nelson's cry for this engagement was: Manila Bay-Rear Admiral Dewey, with six shiris : * Victory or Westminster Abbey!" Other famous sea the Olympia (flagship), Boston, Baltimore, Petrel. Racontests of the world are:

leigh, and Concord, destroved Spain's Asiatic Squa.l. Winchelsea-English defeat 4 anish vessels and | ron, 13 vessels, under Admiral Montejo: Isla de Cuba. capture 36, August 29, 1350.

Isla de Luzon, Castilla, Don Antonio de Ulloa, Don Juan Harfleur-English capture or

y 500 French ves de Austria, Reina Cristina, Callao, El Cano, El Corres), sels, August 15, 1416.

General Lezo, Hercules, Marques del Duero, Rapido: Gibraltar Bay-Dutch defeat the Spanish, April 25, also the navy yaril and nine batteries. American loss, 1607.

eight wounded and about $5.000 damage to ships. SpanDover Strait-Dutch destroy the English fleet, Novem- ish loss, about 1.200 killed or wounded and some 86,000,ber 29, 1652.

000 in vessels destroyed or captured. May 1, 1898. Portsmouth-English defeat the Dutch and destroy Santiago de Cuba-Cervera's squadron of six vessels: 11 men-of-war and 36 inerchantmen, February 18, 1653. the Vizcaya, Almirante (quendo, Maria Teresa, Cristo

North Foreland - 100 English and Dutch men-of-war bal Colon, Furor, and Pluton, made a bold dash to engaged : 11 Dutch taken and 6 sunk, June 2, 1083.

escape from the harbor, and was destroyed by SamsCoast of Holland - English sink 30 Dutch men-of-war, son's fleet: The Oregon, Iowa, Indiana, Texas, Brook. July 31, 1653.

lyn, Gloucester, and Vixen. American loss: 1 killed, 2 Santa Cruz-Spanish fleet burned by the English, woundel. Spanish loss: 360 killed, 165 wounded, 1,650 April 20, 1627.

taken prisoners. July 3, 1898. Harwich-Dutch lose 18 ships to the English, June 3,

At Santiago de Cuba the armies and navies were both 1605.

engaged. Army Josses: United States, 800 killed, 1.040

wounded; Spain, 2.000 killed, 1.500 wounded, 1.650 taken Thames-Dutch lose to English 24 men-of-war, 4 admirals killed, and 4,000 seamen, July 25, 1666

prisoners. Total army and navy losses: United States,

801 killed, 1,002 wounded. Spain, 2,31'0 killed, 1.663 Messina--Spanish teet, 29 vessels, destroyed lwy Eng

woundell, 3.300 taken prisoners. lish, July 11, 1718,

In all her naval conflicts with England, France, Spain. Gibraltar-English defeated combined fleets of Spain and the Tripoli pirates, the United States has never sus. and France, September 13, 1782.

tained what would be considered a crushing defeat. Trafalgar-Velson sink 10 French and Spanish vessels She has lost individual vessels, but only after the most after fighting with 27 ships, 33 of the combined fleet; desperate resistance, giving proof of the saying that Nelson killed, October 21, 1805.

** Americans do not fight to save their skins."

DICTIONARY OF HISTORY. 1 fish in immense quantities. Among other important

resources of the Territory are lumber and minerals of . Abbeys and Monasteries robbed of their plate and all kinds. The southwestern part is covered for thoujewels by William the Conqueror, 1069; entirely dis-sands of miles with dense forests of yellow cedar, white solved by Henry the VIII.. 1540. This ruler suppressed spruce, and balsam fir. Among the valuable minerals, in England and Wales 643 monasteries, 90 colleges, 2374 coal has been found at different places along the coast : churches and chapels, and 110 hospitals; and had the petroleum, lead, iron, and graphite at various points; abbots of Reading, Glastonbury, and St. John's, Col copper, marble, and sulphur in great abundance; also chester, hanged and quartered for refusing to surrengold and silver and valuable stones, such as amethysts, der their abbeys, and denying his supremacy.

parnets, agates, and carnelians. The climate of the Aberdeen, University of, founded 1477: King's Col Territory is very severe in the inland districts, but mild lege founded 1500; Marechal College founded 1593; the along the coast. At Fort Yukon the thermometer sinks town of Aberdeen and its vicinity was visited by a as low as seventy degrees below zero in the winter; tho destructive inundation August 8, 1829

summers are short and hot, the winters long and cold. Aboukir, in Egypt, surrendered to the English forces In Southern Alaska the winter climate is the average March 18, 1801.

winter climate of Kentucky, and the summer climate Abydos is a town of Asia Minor, situated on the about that of Minnesota. The capital of Alaska is Hellespont. Tradition places here the story of Hero Sitka, and the Territory is governed by a Governor and and Leander; history tells that this was where Xerxes other necessary officers appointed by the authorities at led his vast army over the Hellespont on a bridge of Washington. The trade of seal hunting is entirely in boats; and Byron here swam the Hellespont, and'ren- the hands of the Alaska Commercial Company, who in dered it ever famous by his * Bride of Abydos.'

1870 secured, by Act of Congress, a monopoly of this Acre, taken by Richard I. and other Crusaders July business for twenty years. They are not allowed, how12, 1191, after a siege of two years and the loss of 300,000 ever, to kill the animals except during certain months men; attacked by the French under Bonaparte, who, in the year, nor more than a specified number annually. failing in the twelfth assault, retired with great loss of Alexandrian Library, consisting of 400,000 manumen, May 21, 1799.

scripts, destroyed by fire B. C. 47. The second library, Actium, in Epirus, naval battle of, which rendered consisting of 700,000 volumes, was destroyed by the SarAugustus master of the Roman Empire, September 2, acens, under Caliph Omar, at whose command they for 31 B, C.

six months burned books instead of wood, for the purAdrianople, taken by the Ottomans, 1360; taken pose of heating water for their baths, 640 A. D. from the Turks by the Russians, 1829.

Algiers, formerly the country called Numidia, as Agincourt, Battle of, between the French and Eng- united under Massinissa and Jugurtha. It became a Rolish, gained by Henry V., October 25, 1415; 10,000 of the man province 44 B.C.; afterwards it was independent, till French killed and 14,000 taken prisoners, the English the inhabitants invited Barbarossa the pirate to assist losing only 40. In the French army were four times as them against the Spaniards, who, however, seized it, many men as in the English.

1516. Sometime afterward it became the property of Aix-la-Chapelle, taken by the French, 1793; and the Turks; reduced by Admiral Blake, 1655 : bombarded again, September 21, 1794; Congress at, September 29, by the French, 1761; bombarded by the British fleet, 1818.

and the Christian captives set free, August 27, 1816. Albans, St., the first battle between the Houses of The French army, under the command of General BourYork and Lancaster, in which the former was victori-mont, landed in the Bay of Sidi Feraeh, June 14, 1830; ous, May 22, 1455; another battle was fought, February | the city was taken July 5th; and the whole of the terri2, 1461, between the Yorkists, under the Earl of War- tory of Algiers was subsequently reduced, and became wick, and the Lancastrians, under Queen Margaret; a province of France. the latter were the victors.

Altare, instituted by Pope Sixtus I., 117 A. D.: first Alderton Moor, Yorkshire, Battle of, where the Roy Christian altar erected in Britain, 634; first consecrated alists routed the Parliamentarians, June 29, 1643.

by Pope Sylvester, 1334. Alessandria, Italy, taken by the French, 1798; sur- Amazons, The, made an irruption into Attica about rendered to the Austrians and Russians, July 24, 1799. 1209 B. C.; a queen of, visited Alexander the Great and

Alexandria, Egypt, built by Alexander in 17 days, cohabited with him, in the hopes of having issue, but the walls whereof were six miles in circuit. B. C. 333 died soon after her return home, 330 B. C. taken by Cæsar, B. C. 46; by Dioclesian, 296 A. D.; by America, first discovered by Columbus, 1492; South the Persians, 615 A. D.; by the Saracens, 640 A.Diby America, completely, by Americus Vespucius, a Florenthe French, 1798. Battle of, between the French and tine, and North America by John Cabot, a Venetian, English, in which the former were defeated, but the | 1497; thirteen colonies declared themselves independent English general, Abercromby, was killed, 1801.

of the British crown, July 4, 1776, and recognized as Alhambra, The, is a palace and fortress of the such by England, 1783. South American independence Moors, founded about 1253, by Mohammed I. Cele- / was established and recognized by the United States brated as the palace of the kings of Granada. Its two and England, who sent consuls to the new state, 1824. courts, that of the Myrtles and that of the Lions, are | American Congress, first met at Philadelphia Septembeautiful examples of Arabian art in Spain. The Al- / ber 5, 1775; removed to Washington, 1801. hambra was surrendered to the Christians by the Moors Amerigo Vespucci was a naval astronomer, from about 1491.

whom America accidentally received its name. He was Albinos, called also Leucoethiopes, or white negroes, born at Florence, March 9, 1451, and was at the head of and by the Dutch and Germans Kakerlaken, were at a large Florentine firm in Seville in 1496. He fitted out one time considered a distinct race, but closer observa- Columbus'third fleet, and in 1499 himself sailed for the tion has shown that the same phenomenon occurs in New World with Ojeda, and explored the coast of Venindividuals of all races, and that the peculiar white | ezuela. The accident which fastened his name on two appearance rises from an irregularity of the skin. The continents may be traced to an inaccurate account of iris of the eye is red in the Albino. Albinoism occurs his travels published at St. Dié in Lorraine in 1507, in also in other mammalia, birds, and insects.

which he is represented to have reached the mainland Alabama, first settlement was made by the French, in 1497 -- which would have been before either Cabot or at Mobile, in 1711. The commerce of the state is consid- | Columbus -and in which the suggestion is made that erable, and its manufacturing interests are increasing he should give his name to the world he had discovered. rapidly; chiefly cotton and cotton goods, yarn, thread, Anglesey, the Mona of the Romans, reduced by iron, leather, and lumber. Its mining interests are being Julius Agricola, 76 A. D.; by the English, 1295. rapidly developed; but the principal industry is agri- Anjou, Battle of, where the Duke of Clarence and culture, cotton and corn being the leading productions. 1,500 English were slain, 1421. Various cereals, sugar cane, rice, and tobacco are also Anglo-Saxons, first landed in Britain 449. produced.

Anointing, first used at the coronation of Alfred, Alaska was purchased by the United States from 872. Russia in 1867, for $7,200,000 in gold, and was formally Antioch, in Syria, built by Seleucus after the battle taken possession of October 9th of the same year by or Ipsus, B. C. 300; 100,000 of its inhabitants killed by the General Rousseau on behalf of the United States, at Jews in one day, B, C. 145. New Archangel, on the Island of Sitka. With the Antonio, Battle of, in Mexico, between the Royalists islands, it comprises 580,107 square miles, or nearly one and Independents, August 18, 1813; the latter were sixth of the entire area of the United States previous to defeated. this purchase. The land abounds in fur-bearing ani- | Appian Way, aqueducts, etc., constructed at Rome, mals; the seas yield fur-bearing seals and others, and | B. C. 311.

Arkansas (Bear State)-First settlement, by the was lined, each contained twenty-five gates, which anFrench, at Arkansas Post, 1685. Admitted to the Unionswered to the number of the streets they led into. The in 1836. Ranks fifth in cotton, ninth in mules, twenty- most remarkable editice in the city was the Temple of second in miles of railway, twenty-fifth in population Bel, a pyramid of 8 square stadia, the basement stage and in square miles, thirty-first in wealth. The mineral being over 200 yards each way. On the summit were a resources of the State are very large, and receiving golden image of Bel, 40 feet high, two other statues of much attention. Stock raising is extensive. Agricul gold, a golden table 40 feet long and 15 broad, and many ture is the chief industry; corn, cotton, and wheat other colossal objects of the same precious metal. At the being the leading productions. Oats, tobacco, sweet base was a second shrine, with a table and images, and potatoes, and fine fruits are also produced to a con altars. A similar temple stood at Borsippa, the suburb siderable extent.

of Babylon; and it is believed that the ancient Babel of Arbela, Battle of, when Alexander conquered Persia, the Bible was also at Borsippa, a little below the later B. C. 331.

Babylon. The city came prominently into notice about Arcadians, Colony of, conducted by Evander into 747 B, C., but its great importance dates from the fall of Italy, B. C. 1243.

Nineveh, when Nabopolassar made it the capital of the Areopagus, The famous senate of, established at Chaldean empire, and began the series of fortifications Athens in the reign of Cecrops, B. C. 1509,

and public works, completed by his son, NebuchadnezArgentria, in Alsace, Battle of, where the German zar. It was several times dismantled, and, when Alextribe, the Alemanni, were defeated by the Romans, ander the Great took possession of it, was a comparative with a loss of 35,000 out of 40,000 men, May, 378 A.D. ruin. Much of the material from which it was built was

Arizona was first explored by the Spaniards in used by his successors to build Seleucia. That city, in 1526, and missions were established in this region before its turn, fell into decay, and from its material several 1600. It ranks fifth in silver, eighth in sheep, ninth in other cities were built, among them Bagdad. Since gold. Mining and cattle raising are the chief in- 1817 it has been established beyond reasonable doubt dustries.

that the village Hilleh is located on the site of ancient Armada, The Spanish, consisting of 130 ships, with Babylon. 50,000 men, arrived in the English channel July, 1588, | | Baltimore. Battle of, in which 9.000 British, under but was dispersed by a storin.

General Ross were repulsed by the Americans, and GenArms, Coats of, became hereditary in families in the eral Ross killed, September 12, 1811. latter end of the twelfth century. They took their rise Bannockburn. Battle of, between 30,000 Scotch and from the knights painting their banners with different 200,000 English, when the latter were routed with a loss figures, to distinguish them in the Crusades. The arms of 50,000 slain, and 30,000 prisoners, June 25, 1314. of England and France were first quartered by Edward Barbers, the profession first brought to Rome from the III., 1358; the French arms discontinued by the Sicily, B. C. 299; barbers and surgeons in London made English kings, January 1, 1801.

one company, 1540; separated, 1744. They formerly exArmy, first standing one in modern times, established hibited a head or poll at their doors, and the barber's by Charles VII. of France, 1445; introduced into England pole now used by them is a burlesque imitation of it. by Charles I., 1638; declared illegal, together with the Barcelona, said to be built by Hamilcar, the CarRoyal Guards, 1679.

thaginian general, who subdued Spain; reduced by Louis Ascalon, Judea, Battle of, where Richard I. defeated XIV. of France, 1714. Saladin's army of three hundred thousand men, 1191. Baron, Title of, first used in England, 1388. The bar

Assyria, Kingdom of, began under Ninus, called As-ons attended Parliament in complete armor, in the reign sur, B. C. 2084: lasted about one thousand two hundred of Henry III. and sixty-fours years, ending with Sardanapalus.

Baronets, English, first created, 1611 ; Scotch, 1625; Athens, founded by Cecrops, B. C. 1571; kingdom | thirteen new ones created, December 9, 1827. ended in Codrus, 1070; governed by annual archons, 684; Bastille, at Paris, taken, and the governor killed, June city taken by Xerxes, 480; by the Romans, 87: by the | 14, 1789. Venetians, A. D. 1204; by the Turks, 1687; by the Greeks, Bastille,this famous French stronghold was originally 1826.

built by Charles V., asa chateau, in 1369. The high wall Austerlitz, Battle of, December 2, 1805.

around it was subsequently erected by Philippe-Auguste. Austria, anciently the Belgic Gaul of the Romans, Louis XI. first used it as a state prison, and it was eventaken from Hungary and annexed to Germany, when it | tually demolished by the people during the Revolution, received its present name, 1040; erected into a duchy, July 14, 1789. The Man in the Iron Mask" was im1156; made an empire, August 11, 1804; Francis II., prisoned there, and died in 1703. emperor of, made a formal resignation of the high office Battle of Lake Erie, between the British squadron, of Emperor of Germany, August 7, 1806. Austria and | commanded by Captain Barclay, and the United States, Russia united against France, August, 1805. The Aus- commanded by Captain Perry, in which the whole Brittrian army, under Mack, surrendered at Ulm to Napo ish force was captured, September 10, 1813. leon, October 20, 1805.

Belgium, incorporated with the French republic. Avignon, taken from the Pope by the French, 1769; September 30, 1794; incorporated with Holland by the restored, 1773; declared to belong to France by the Na Congress of Vienna, 1815; declared itself independent, tional Assembly, 1791 ; and confirmed by the congress of October 4, 1830, and has since chosen a king as its ruler. allied sovereigns, 1815.

Belgrade. Battle of, between the Germans and Turks. Aztecs The, were the early inhabitants of Mexico, who

when the latter were beaten and lost 40,000 men, 1456; the became highly civilized, and adopted a monarchical

city taken by the Turks, 1690 : battle of, between the form of government in 1352. Their most celebrated king

Hungarians under Prince Eugene, and the Turks, when was Montezuma-Illumicamina, whoerected several mag

al mag the latter were defeated, July 16, 1717. nificent buildings, the remains of which are still to be

Bermuda Islands, discovered 1609; settled 1612; setseen. They believed in a Supreme Being, whom they

tlements destroyed by a hurricane, October 11, 1780. never represented by sculpture or painting, as they believed him to be invisible. The Aztecs were conquered

Bedouins, The, are that class of Arabs who lead a

nomadic life. Living in the desert of Arabia, they have by the Spaniards under Cortez, 1521.

evolved characteristics as robbers and herdsmen inBabylon, founded by Nimrod, the grandson of Ham,

timately connected with their mode of life. Keen of B. C. 2610; city walled, 1243; taken by Cyrus, 588: by

physical sense, with active imagination, yet destitute Darius, 511. According to Herodotus, the ancient city of

of solid knowledge, the Bedouin unites independence of Babylon stood on a broad plain, and was an exact

and love of liberty, with a violent passion, an infamous square, 120 stadia (equal to fourteen miles) each way, so

love of plunder, and an entire disregard of the rights of that the entire circuit of the city was 480 stadia. It was

property. They are professedly Mohammedan, Bigsurrounded by a broad and deep moat, full of water, be

amy is rare; polygamy scarcely known. hind which rose a wall 50 royal cubits (equal to 9312 feet) Bible Societies, first commenced under the auspices in width, and 200 in height. On the top, along the edges of Granville Sharp, March 7, 1801; the pope issued a of the wall, were constructed buildings of a single bull against them, March 20, 1807. chamber, facing one another, leaving between them Bithynia, a kingdom of Asia, conquered by Crosus, room for a four-horse chariot to turn. In the circuit of

ircuit of kino of Lydia. B. C. 560 : by Alexander. 332. From its the walls were a hundred gates, all of brass, with brazen ruins rose the Ottoman Turks, who made Prusa their lintels, and side-posts. Subsequent writers reduce the capital before they possessed Constantinople, 1327. circuit of the city to 360 stadia, and the height of the Blenheim, Battle of, between the English and wall to from 60 to 70 feet. The other walls ran along the French, when the latter were defeated, with a loss of banks of the Euphrates, and the quays with which it 27,000 killed and 13,000 prisoners; while the total loss of

« PreviousContinue »