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trates .............

...................

our individual tastes, and, so far as possible, the brain and nerves; but our analyses as yet we should take our meals amid pleasant social are too imperfect to allow a subdivision, and surroundings. In great crises that call for un- as all the mineral elements are more or less usual exertion, we should rest the stomach, combined with each other, and all reside tothat for the time the brain may work the gether in articles of food, we shall include harder ; but the deficiency of nutrition ought all mineral elements under the term Phosalways to be supplied in the first interval of phates. repose.”

The waste, and consequently the supply, of

these three classes of elements is very differCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ent, four times as much carbonaceous food THE HUMAN BODY.

being required as nitrogenous, and of the The human body is composed of the follow- phosphates not more than two per cent. of the ing elements, all of which are found also in

carbonates. Altogether, the waste of these printhe food provided by nature, or in air or

ciples will average in a man of moderate size, water, and all must be supplied, day by day, with moderate heat, more than one pound in a or some bad results are sure to follow :

| day, varying very much according to the amount

of exercise and the temperature in which he LB.' oz. gr. lives. These elements must all be supplied in

vegetable or animal food, not one being allowed Oxygen, a gas, in quantity sufficient to!

to become a part of the system unless it has been occupy a space equal to 750 cubic feet. 11 Hydrogen, a gas, in quantity sufficient to

first organized with other elements of food, in occupy 3000 feet, which with oxygen,

some vegetable, or in water, or the atmosphere; constitutes water, the weight of the two indicating nearly the necessary

but being appropriated by some animal, remain amount of water........................

organized and adapted to the human system, Carbon, constituting fat, and used also

for fuel to create animal heat......... | 21.00 so that animal and vegetable food contain the Nitrogen, which constitutes the basis of

same elements in the same proportion and the muscles, and solid tissues, and which is supplied by that part of the

nearly the same chemical combinations, and food which we shall denominate Ni

..! 3! 8! 01

are equally adapted to supply all necessary elPhosphorus, the physical source of vitali. I

ements. ty, and the most important of the mineral elements, will represent the whole class which we shall denominate the Phosphates......

are furnished in Calcium, the metallic base of lime, which

In Animal Food, is the base of the bones..

Albumen, Fluorine, found combined in sinall quanti

The Nitrates in Fibrin, and ties in bones.....................

Casein Chlorine, constituting, with sodium, common salt, found in the blood........

('The Carbonates ) Sugar, Sodium, the base of all the salts of soda..

Starch, and a Iron, which is supposed to give color to

| are furnished in ) little Fat. the blood .

10 0100 In Vegetable Food, Potassium, the base of all the salts of pot

Gluten, ash........

0 290

The Nitrates in {Albumen, Magnesium, the base of magnesia, and

and Casein. magnesian salts ......

:!' ". 12 |

i Silicon, the base of silex, which is found

The Phosphates in both animal and vegein the hair, teeth, and nails............ 100! 2 table food are found inseparably connected

The elements of a man weighing 154 lbs. with the nitrates, none being found in any of Classification of Food.- Food may be the carbonates, and generally in the propordivided into three classes. That class which tion of from two to three per cent. of all the supplies the lungs with fuel, and thus furnishes principles in vegetable, and from three to five heat to the system, and supplies fat or adipose in animal food. substance, etc., we shall call Carbonates, car- | The Carbonates of both animal and vegetabon being the principal element; that which ble food are chemically alike — fat, sugar, and supplies the waste of muscles, we shall call starch, all being composed of carbon, oxygen, Nitrates, nitrogen being the principal element; and hydrogen, and in about the same chemical and that which supplies the bones, and the combinations and proportions. brain, and the nerves, and gives vital power, The Nitrates, also albumen, gluten, fibrin, both muscular and mental, we shall call the and casein, are alike in chemical combinaPhosphates, phosphorus being the principal ele- tions and elements, being composed of nitroment. These last might be subdivided into gen, oxygen, and hydrogen, and a little carbon the fixed and the soluble phosphates,---- the not digestible. These simple bodies are not, fixed being a combination principally with however, capable of being assimilated and conJime to form the bones, and the soluble being verted into tissue; they must be previously combinations with potash and soda, to work combined, primarily by the vegetable kingdom.

The Carbonates

Fat.

1 12 190

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Analysis of Articles of Food in their Natural State.

ARTICLES.

Nitrates.

Carbonates.

Phosphates.

Water.

[blocks in formation]

69.8
69.5
66.4
73.0
45.0
80.0
75.4
71.5
57.7
60.0
58.5
79.5
22.5
26.5
7.0
4.0
6.6
5.0

14.0 14.0 13.6 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.2 13.0 14.8

2.5

14.1

1.5

0.5

14.0 13.5 75.2

1.4

0.9
2.9

1.0

[blocks in formation]

Wheat..
Barley.
Oats
Northern corn, or maize....
Southern corn...
Tuscarora corn....
Buckwheat..
Rye.........
Beans.....
Pease.....
Lentils
Rice
Potatoes......
Sweet potatoes..
Parsnips.....
Turnips...
Carrots ....
Cabbage.
Cauliflower ..
Cucumbers
Apples.
Milk of cow ...
Human milk..
Veal.....
Beef...
Lamb....
Mutton.
Pork......
Chicken..
Codfish
Haddock...
Sole..........
Plaice......
Flounder
Turbot....
Trout.
Whiting ..
Smelt
Salmon ...
Eels.
Herring...
Halibut....
Oyster ....
Clam.......
Lobster.
Eggs, white of...
Eggs, yolks of...
Butter ..

0.5 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.5 1.0 1.0 0.5 4.5 5.0

7.0

3.5

3.5
1.5

4.5
5 or 6

1.5
1.2
1.1
0.6
4.0
6.4
1.5
5.0
5.0

3.0
16.0
15.0
11.0
12.5
10.0
20.0
14.0
13.0
15.0
14.0
15.0
14.0
17.0
15.0
17.0
20.0
17.0
18.0
18.0
10.0
12.0
14.0
15.5
17.5

5 or 6

16.5 30.0 35.0 40.0 50.0

35.0 very little very little very little very little some fat very little very little very little very little some fat sonie fat some fat some fat very little very little very little

none

5 or 6
5 or 6
3 or 4
5 or 6
5 or 6
5 or 6
5 or 6
6 or 7
3 or 4
4 or 5
3 or 4
2 or 3
2 or 3
5 or 6

4.5
5.5

38.5 73.0 79.0 82.0 79.0 80.0 78.0 79.0 75.0 78.0 75.0 74.0 75.0 75.0 74.0 87.0

79.0 80.0 54.0

2884

all carbonates

CLEANLINESS.

One of the most notable checks which perTo keep the body in a cleanly condition is spiration experiences is that produced by a the third important requisite for health. This current of cold air upon the skin, in which becomes necessary in consequence of a very case the pores instantly contract and close, important process which is constantly going on and the individual is seized with some ailment near and upon the surface of the body.

either in one or the other of the organs of waste, The process in question is that of perspira- whichever is in him the weakest, or in the intion. The matter here concerned is a watery ternal lining of some part of the body, all of secretion produced by glands near the surface which is sympathetic with the condition of the of the body, and sent up through the skin by skin. A result of the nature of that last channels imperceptibly minute and wonderfully described is usually recognized as a cold or numerous. From one to two pounds of this catarrh. We are not at present called on parsecretion is believed to exude through these ticularly to notice such effects of checked perchannels, or pores, in the course of twenty-four spiration, but others of a less immediately hours, being, in fact, the chief form taken by hurtful or dangerous nature. what is called the waste of the system, the re- The fluid alluded to is composed, besides mainder passing off by the bowels, kidneys, water, of certain salts and animal matters, and lungs. To promote the egress of this which, being solid, do not pass away in vapor, fluid is of great consequence to health ; for, as does the watery part of the compound, but when it is suppressed, disease is apt to fall rest on the surface where they have been disupon some of the other organs concerned in charged. There, if not removed by some artithe discharge of waste.

ficial means, they form a layer of hard stuff,

and unavoidably impede the egress of the cur-, the palpable effect of exercise upon the skin ; but rent perspiration. By cleanliness is merely many are not aware that the sensible perspirameant the taking proper means to prevent this tion is but an increase of an insensible peror any other matter accumulating on the sur-spiration which is unceasingly poured out from face, to the production of certain hurtful con- myriads of little pores -- the mouths of the sequences.

sweat glands and the oil glands of the skin. Ablution or washing is the best means of The ordinary insensible perspiration is continattaining this end; and accordingly it is well ually freeing us from a mass of impurity which for us to wash or bathe the body very frequently. cannot be retained in our system without inMany leave by far the greater part of their jury. Convert the insensible perspiration into bodies unwashed, except, perhaps, on rare oc- sensible, by exercise, and produce moderate casions, thinking it enough if the parts ex- sweating, and if the clothing be rational, you posed to common view be in decent trim. If will give off to the winds the cause of many a the object of cleaning were solely to preserve headache and gloomy thoughts. Now this infair appearances, this might be sufficient; but creased skin secretion must come from somethe great end, it must be clearly seen, is to where; and so it does, for the increased keep the skin in a fit state for its peculiar and exertion causes increased wear and tear of very important functions. Frequent change system ; every step works up tissue ; and musof the clothing next to the skin is of course a cles, blood vessels, nerves, are all used quicker great aid to cleanliness, and may partly be than when there is no action. Off go these esteemed as a substitute for bathing, seeing used-up matters, probably the worst first, that the clothes absorb much of the impuri- through lungs and skin, as fast as they can, ties, and, when changed, may be said to carry and the man begins to feel this waste, for from these off. But still this will not serve the end all sides there are telegraphs to the stomach nearly so well as frequent ablution of the for supplies, and he finds himself getting exwhole person. Anyone will be convinced of cessively hungry, the dinner hour very welthis, who goes into a bath, and uses the flesh-come, and the formerly capricious stomach brush in cleansing his body. The quantity of ready for anything; and so new supplies go in scurf and impurity which he will then remove, to supply the place of the old used-up works, from even a body which has changes of linen and the physical man is greatly renovated -once a day, will surprise him.

taken to pieces, as it were, and built up again.

1. In order that exercise may be truly adEXERCISE.

vantageous, the parts must be in a state of Bodily exercise is absolutely essential to the sufficient health to endure the exertion. In no maintenance of good health. The human body case must exercise be carried beyond what the inay be regarded as a complex machine, the parts are capable of bearing with ease; othervarious parts of which are so beautifully wise a loss of energy, instead of a gain, will adapted to each other, that, if one be dis- be the consequence. turbed, all must suffer. The bones and mus- 2. Exercise to be efficacious, even in a cles are the portions of the frame on which healthy subject, must be excited, sustained, motion most depends. There are four hun- and directed by that nervous stimulus which dred muscles in the body, each of which has gives the muscles the principal part of their certain functions to perform that cannot be strength, and contributes so much to the nutridisturbed without danger to the whole, and it |tion of parts in a state of activity. is a wise provision of nature that the more 3. The waste occasioned by exercise must these muscles are exercised the stronger do be duly replaced by food; as, if there be any they become; hence it is that laborers are deficiency in that important requisite, the blood stronger and more muscular than persons whose will soon cease to give that invigoration to the lives are passed in easy or sedentary occupa- parts upon which increased health and strength tions. Besides strengthening the limbs, mus- depend. cular exercise has a most beneficial influence Kinds of Bodily Exercise.-- Exercise on respiration and the circulation of the blood. I is usually considered as of two kinds — active Says a distinguished medical writer: “Exer- and passive. The active consists in walking, cise tells by inciting both heart and lungs to running, leaping, riding, fencing, rowing, increased action and energy, and this, done in skating, swimming, dancing, and various exa pure air, is great gain to the purification of ercises, such as those with the poles, ropes, the blood ; but exercise does much more, for etc., prescribed in gymnastic institutions. The not only are the lungs, with their large capac-passive consists in carriage-riding, sailing, ity for air, great purifiers, but the skin is little friction, swinging, etc. less effective towards the same end, All know Walking is perhaps the readiest mode of taking exercise, and the one most extensively re- quently repeated, rather than long, and full sorted to. If it brought the upper part of the speed should not be attempted for some time. body as thoroughly into exertion as the lower, Running is well adapted to young and mid. it'would be perfect, for it is gentle and safe dle aged persons, but not to those who are fat. with nearly all except the much debilitated. Sedentary persons may find great benefit in it To render it the more effectual in the upper after the day's work is ended. If they live in part of the body it were well to walk at all cities, a quiet spot in the park may be selected, times, when convenient, singly and allow the and short trials adapted to the strength entered arms and trunk free play. It is best to walk into. Invalids may do the same thing, only with a companion, or for some definite object, they must be more careful than the robust never as the flow of nervous energy will be by these to over-exert themselves. means promoted, and the exercise be rendered, Girls may run as well as boys, and, while as has been already explained, the more serv- they cannot go so fast, they can race much iceable.

| more gracefully and beautifully. Indeed, there Very long or rapid walks should not be at- can be few more attractive sights than that of tempted by individuals of sedentary habits, a race between beautiful girls from ten to twelve nor by weakly persons. Their frames are years of age. After maturity, the change in totally unprepared for such violent exertion. the formation of the bones of the pelvis in girls

Running as an Exercise.- Among the renders running less easy and graceful. In means which nature has bestowed on animals ancient Greece girls were trained to run races in general for the preservation and enjoyment as well as boys, and to their superb physical of life, running is the most important. Since, culture was in great part due the grandeur then, it is pointed out to us by nature, it must and beauty of Greek life during the years of be in a high degree innocent. It is very sin-their ascendency. The modern style of dress gular that we should apparently do all we can for young women is also entirely unsuited to - which, fortunately, is not much — to make running. our children unlearn the art of running. Our Fencing is of all active exercises that which earliest physical treatment of them seems cal- is the most commendable, inasmuch as it culated to destroy their aptitude for it; in a throws open the chest, and at the same time little time, it is too often the case that the city calls into action the muscles both of the upper boy scarcely dares look as if he wished to run, and lower extremities. Add to this that it we prohibit it so strongly as vulgar, and when improves very much the carriage of the body; he is more grown up gentility steps in and pro- for which reason it may be reckoned a branch hibits it altogether. Medical prejudices and our of polite education. own convenience contribute likewise their Dancing is exhilarating and healthful, and share, and never allow our children, boys and seems to be almost the only active exercise girls, to acquire an art innocent of itself and which the despotic laws of fashion permit necessary to all. It is possible that a person young ladies to enjoy may get injury from running, but the fault is Rope Jumping. As the cool weather not in the exercise, but in the person who runs approaches the jumping rope may be more and without having had proper training and prac- more in the hands of girls. Properly used it tice.

is not an objectionable plaything. But chilRunning should only be practiced in cool dren cannot be too frequently cautioned against weather; as, for instance, in the late fall, jumping against time or competing to see who winter, and early spring months.

can jump the greatest number of times withThe clothing should be light, the head bare, out stopping. and the neck uncovered. As soon as the ex- Repose a Condition Demanded by ercise is finished, warm clothing should be put Exercise.- Exercise demands occasional peon and gentle exercise continued for some time. / riods of repose, and, in particular, that a cerIt is not necessary to have a race course. The tain part of every twenty-four hours be spent teacher of a school may take his pupils into in sleep. After having been engaged in daily the fields and find suitable ground for them. I occupations for fourteen or sixteen hours, a Then his pupils may exercise their bodies in general feeling of fatigue and weakness is inother ways, acquire strength, agility, health, duced; the motions of the body become ditfiand the capacity of continued exertion; the cult, the senses confused, the power of volition will is brought into play vigorously, which is or will suspended, and the rest of the mental a great aid in the battle of life.

faculties, becoming more and more inactive, Care must be taken not to overdo, and thus, sink at length into a state of unconsciousness. perhaps for life, weaken or injure the heart. The sense of sight first ceases to act by the The race, at first, should be short and fre- closing of the eyelids; then the senses of taste

and smell become dormant; and then those of is enjoyed. Parents err in fancying that a hearing and touch. The muscles, also, dis- very hard bed contributes to harden the conpose themselves with a certain reference to stitution of their children ; for which reason ease of position, those of the limbs having they lay them down on mattresses, or beds grown indolent before those that support the with boarded bottoms. A bed for young head, and those that support the head be- children cannot be too soft, provided the child fore those of the trunk. In proportion as does not sink into it in such a manner that the these phenomena proceed, the respiration be- surrounding parts of the bed bend over and comes slower and more deep, the circulation cover the body. The too great hardness of diminishes in impetus, the blood proceeds in beds, says Dr. Darwin, frequently proves ingreat quantity toward the head, and all the jurious to the shape of infants, by causing functions of the internal organs become re- them to rest on too few parts at a time; it also tarded. In this state, shut out as it were from causes their sleep to be uneasy and unrefreshthe external world, the mind still retains its ing. Whatever be the time chosen for sleep, wonted activity, deprived, however, of the it is evident that no person can with impunity guidance of judgment and the power of dis- convert day into night. Eight o'clock for tinct recollection; in consequence of which, it children, and eleven for adults, may be recomdoes not perceive the monstrous incongruities mended as good hours for retiring to rest. It of the imagery which sweeps before it, and is well known that children require more sleep takes but faint cognizance of the time which than adults; and more sleep is requisite in elapses.

winter than in summer. The average duration It may be laid down as an axiom, that the of sleep which may be recommended for adults more uninterrupted sleep is, the more refresh- is eight hours; but much depends upon habit, ing and salutary will be its effects ; for dur- and many persons require only six. It is ing this period, the body undoubtedly acquires scarcely necessary to observe that, on rising in an accession of nervous energy, which restless- the morning, the strictest attention should ness, however induced, must disturb; and be paid to washing the face, neck, and hands; therefore the state of the body before going to the mouth and teeth should also be well sleep, the kind of bed, and the manner of cleansed. The most simple powder for the clothing, require especial attention. As the teeth is finely brayed charcoal, a little of functions of the body are performed more which will clear away all impurities, and preslowly during our sleeping than our waking serve the teeth. On leaving the bedroom, the hours, a full meal or supper, taken immedi- | windows should be opened, and the clothes of ately before going to bed, imposes a load on the bed turned down, in order that the exhalathe stomach which it is not in a condition to itions of the body during sleep may be dissidigest, and the unpleasant consequence of op- pated. If, instead of this, the bed be made pressive and harassing dreams is almost cer- immediately after we have risen, these exhalatain to ensue. When the sleeper lies on his tions are again folded up with the clothes — a back, the heart pressing, while pulsating, on practice which is not consonant either with the lungs, gives rise to a sense of intolerable cleanliness or health. oppression on the chest, which seems to bear Overworking the Undeveloped down upon the whole body, so that in this Brain. — “ Overwork," properly so-called, painful state not a muscle will obey the im- can only occur when the organ upon which pulse of the will, and every effort to move ap- the stress of the labor falls is as yet immature, pears to be altogether unavailing. This con- and, therefore, in process of development. stitutes incubus or nightmare; and it may be When an organ has reached the maturity of observed, that, as acidity on the stomach, or its growth it can only work up to the level of indigestion, gives rise to such dreams, so all its capacity or faculty for work! Fatigue may dreams of this disturbed character are converse produce exhaustion, but that exhaastion will indications of indigestion ; for which reason come soon enough to save the organ. Rethe great physiologist Haller considered dream- peated "efforts ” may, under abnormal condiing to be a symptom of disease.

tions, follow each other too rapidly to allow of The kind of bed on which we repose requires recuperation in the intervals of actual exertion, attention. Some are advocates for soft, others and as the starting point will, in each succesfor hard, beds; hence some accustom themselves sive instance, be lower than the previous state, to feather beds, others to mattresses. The there may be a gradual abasement; but even only difference between a soft and a hard bed this process should not seriously injure a is this -- that the weight of the body in a soft healthy and well developed organ. In short, bed presses on a larger surface than on a hard a great deal of nonsense has been said and bed, and thereby a greater degree of comfort written about the "overwork” of mature

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