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Value. The rate of worth or amount or price of a or to suffer judgment to pass against him, y confessing commodity.

the action. Venditioni Exponas. A writ directed to the sherill, Warranty. As applied to goods and chattels, may be commanding hiin to sell goods which he has taken pos- either expressed or implied; the implied warranty only session of under a writ of fieri facias, and which re-extends to the title of the vendor. If that proves detimain in his hands unsold.

cient, the purchaser may demand satisfaction from the Vendor and Vendee. A vendor is the person who seller. sells, and a vendee the person who buys, anything.

Watercourse, Right of. A right to an uninterrupted Venue. The county at which an action at law is in- flow of water. tended to be tried.

Way, Right of. The right of going over another Verdict. A verdict is the unanimous judgment or nuan's ground. opinion of the jury on the issue of fact submitted to Wages. Compensation for services. them.

Waiver. The relinquishment or refusal to accept of Vend. To sell; to transfer for a pecuniary consider- | a right. ation.

Wares. Goods; merchandise; commodities. Versus. Against.

Wash Trades. Pretended trading. Trades made Viva Voce. By word of mouth.

on an open market by parties between whom there is a Voluntary Conveyance, or Settlement. A con

tacit or private understanding that they shall be void. veyance or settlement without any valuable considera

Done with a view to influence prices and considered a tion.

reprehensible practice. Voucher. A receipt or discharge. Void. Having no binding force or effect.

Watered Stock. An increase in capitalization withVoidablo. That which has some force or effect, but

out a corresponding increase in assets. which, in consequence of some inherent quality, may

Wharfinger. The owner or keeper of a wharf. be annulled or avoided.

Wiu. A will is the legal written declaration of a

man's intentions of what he wills to be performed after Waifs. Stolen goods which the thief has thrown his death with reference to the disposition of his propaway or left behind him.

erty. It must be in writing, signed by the testator, and Ward. An infant under the guidance and protec attested by two witnesses, who must not only be present tion of a guardian.

and see the testator sign, but must themselves subscribe Warrant. An authority or precept from a justice, the will as witnesses in the presence of the testator and commanding the apprehension of an offender, or a of each other. Without these formalities the willis insearch to be made for stolen goods.

valid. A codicilis a kind of addendum or supplement Warrant of Attorney. An authority given by any. to a will. Its execution and attestation must be at one to an attorney at law, to appear and plead for him; tended with the same formalities as the will itself,



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Book VII.

Religion, Education, Fine Arts.

Religion, Education, Fine Arts.

European Cathedrals. — Among the slowly, till the era of the Reformation, when it most noted and magnificent cathedrals in Eu- was suspended ; and during the subsequent rope are St. Peter's, in Rome; the cathedral of centuries not only was nothing done to advance Cologne, and that of Milan; St. Mark's, in it, but what had been already executed, was Venice; Westminster and Salisbury, in Eng. not kept in repair. In the beginning of the land; Rouen and Notre Dame, in France ; present century, however, attention was diSeville and Strasburg, in Spain and Germany, rected to its unrivaled beauties, and the neces-. respectively. St. Paul's, in London, though sary funds to repair and complete it according architecturally much inferior to the others, is to the original designs were raised. The body yet so noted as to deserve a brief description. of the church measures 500 feet in length, and It is built in the form of a cross, 514 feet long 230 feet in breadth; the towers are above 500 and 287 feet wide. The cost of the whole feet high. Since 1823 $4,500,000 have been building, which is of Portland stone, was nearly expended on the building; the total cost of the $4,000,000, being the proceeds of a tax on the whole is estimated at $10,000,000. The cathecoal brought into the port of London during dral at Milan is also of Gothic architecture, its erection. The edifice was built under the but the façade is marred by classic doors and direction of Sir Christopher Wren, was thirty- windows, and the altars within are in the same five years in course of erection, and was com- style. The edifice is nearly 500 feet long, and menced and finished under the same bishop, 250 feet wide through the transepts, and the the same architect, and the same mason. The height of the nave is about 150 feet. The cen. great bell of this cathedral is only tolled on the tral spire is more than 350 feet high. The occasion of a death in the royal family. St. throng of statues (some 4,500 in all) and the Peter's, at Rome, was commenced about the many pinnacles are marked features of the exyear 1503 by Julius II. under the direction ofterior. Bramante, but the present form of the basilica The celebrated church of St. Sophia, at is due almost entirely to Michael Angelo. The Constantinople, was originally built by the interior is 613 feet in length, the height of the Emperor Constantine in 325-326, and is so nave 152 1-2 feet; the length of the transepts called as being dedicated, not, as commonly is 446 1-2 feet; the interior diameter of the supposed to a saint of that name, but to dome is 139 feet, the exterior 195 1-2 feet. The Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom); that is, to the colonnades around the piazza inclose a space Eternal Wisdom of God, or the Logos, the 787 feet in diameter, and are connected with second person of the Trinity. The church the façade by two galleries 296 feet in length. was twice destroyed and rebuilt, the present The facade is 379 feet long, and 148 1-2 feet edifice having been built by the Emperor high, and contains five doors, which admit to Justinian about 532. It may be described as the grand entrance, which occupies the whole a square of 241 feet, forming interiorly a width of the church, 468 feet long, 66 feet Greek cross, and surrounded in the interior by high, and 50 feet wide. The height from the a woman's choir or gallery, supported by pavement to the top of the cross is 476 feet. magnificent pillars, for the most part borrowed The Cologne cathedral is one of the noblest from ancient buildings. In the center rises a specimens of Gothic architecture in Europe. dome, which is supported by two great semiIt is said to have had its origin in an erection domes, the whole presenting a series of unexby Archbishop Hildebold, during the reign ampled beauty. The height of the dome is of Charlemagne, in 814. Frederic the Red- 175 feet. The building is approached by a bearded bestowed upon it, in 1162, the bones double porch, which is about 100 feet in depth. of the three holy kings, which he took from The whole of the interior was richly decorated Milan, and this gift contributed greatly to the with sculptured marble and mosaics. The increase of its importance. The bones are building occupied seven years in its erection, retained as precious relics to this day, but the and the history of the work and of the details old structure was burned in 1248. According of its material and construction is full of to some accounts the present cathedral was marvels. Ten thousand workmen are said to begun in the same year, but others fix the date have been employed upon it. The materials of its commencement in 1270-'75. To whom were supplied from every part of the empire, the design of this noble building is to be as- and comprised remains of almost every celecribed is uncertain. The work was carried brated temple ɔf the ancient paganism. The on, sometimes more actively, sometimes more sedilia of the priests and those of the patri.

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