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archs were of silver gilt. The dome of the the 14th day of the calendar moon, the rule tabernacle was of pure gold, and was sur is that Easter day is always the first Sunday mounted by a gold cross weighing 75 pounds after the Paschal full moon, i.e., the full moon and incrusted with precious stones. All the which happens upon or next after the 21st of sacred vessels and other apparatus were of March; and if the full moon happens on a gold. The altar cloths were embroidered with Sunday, Easter day is the Sunday after. gold and pearls; and the altar itself was com- Apostles, Deaths of. It is generally posed of a mass of molten gold, into which believed that only one of Christ's Apostles, were thrown pearls, sapphires, diamonds, John, escaped martyrdom. Matthew is suponyxes, and every other object which could posed to have been slain with a sword in raise its costliness to the highest imaginable Ethiopia. James, son of Zebedee, was bedegree. The total cost of the structure is headed at Jerusalem. James, the brother of stated by the ancient authorities at 320,000 our Lord, was thrown from a pinnacle of the pounds. Some regard this as pounds-weight Temple and then beaten to death with a fulof silver, others as of gold. If the latter, ler's club. Philip was hanged up against a which is most generally adopted, the cost pillar at Hieropolis, a city of Phrygia. Barreaches the enormous sum of $65,000,000. tholomew was flayed alive at Albanapolis, in On the capture of Constantinople by the Turks Armenia. Andrew suffered martyrdom on a in 1453 St. Sophia was appropriated as a cross at Patræ, in Achaia. Thomas was run mosque, and has since been put to that use. through the body with a lance at Coromandel,

Easter.- The festival of the Resurrection in the East Indies. Thaddeus was shot to of Christ probably derives its Teutonic name death with arrows. Simon Zelotes was crucifrom the festival of the goddess Ostara — in fied in Persia. Peter was crucified, head downAnglo-Saxon, Eastre — which the Saxons of old ward it is said, during the Neronian persewere wont to celebrate about the same season cution. Matthias was first stoned and then at which the Christian festival of Easter occurs. beheaded, and Paul was beheaded at Rome by In the second century a dispute arose as to the the tyrant Nero. Judas Iscariot, after the proper time for celebrating Easter between the betrayal of our Lord, hung himself. Eastern and Western Churches. The great Bible, English Translations of.mass of Eastern Christians celebrated Easter Between the eighth and tenth centuries poron the 14th day of the first month or moon, tions of the Bible were translated into Angloconsidering it to be equivalent to the Jewish Saxon by Aldhelin, Egbert, Bede, and others. Passover, when Christ was crucified. The In 1290 an English version of the Psalms was Western Christians celebrated it on the Sun- inade. Wycliffe's version of the New Testaday after the 14th, holding that it was the ment was finished in 1380, and a little later he commemoration of the Resurrection of Jesus. completed the Old. The seven penitential The Council of Nice, A. D. 325, decided in Psalms were apparently printed in 1505. Befavor of the Western usage. At the time of fore 1526 William Tyndale had completed an the introduction of the Gregorian Calendar it English translation of the New Testament. was debated whether Easter should continue a In the beginning of that year they were secretly movable feast or whether a fixed Sunday after conveyed to England from the Continent, the 21st of March should not be adopted. In where the translation had been made, where deference to the ancient custom, the eccle- they were bought up and burned.

The exsiastical authorities decided to adhere to the cellence of his translation is evidenced by the method of determining the day by the moon. fact that in our present version a very large It must be understood, however, that it is not portion of the New Testament is taken verbathe actual moon in the heavens, nor even the tim from Tyndale's translation. In 1535 the mean moon of the astronomers, that regulates first English version of the whole Bible was the time of Easter, but an altogether imaginary published by Miles Coverdale, a friend of Tynmoon, whose periods are so contrived that the dale's, and was dedicated to Henry VIII. Benew (calendar) moon always follows the real tween that year and 1557 several versions of

sometimes by two, or even three the Bible were printed, but they were in the days. The effect of this is that the 14th of greater part revisions of Tyndale’s previous the calendar moon which had from the time work. The Geneva Bible, or, as best known, of Moses been considered full moon for eccle- the Breeches Bible, appeared in 1557. It was siastical purposes

falls generally on the 15th translated by several English divines who had or 16th of the real moon, and thus after the fled to Geneva to escape from the persecutions real full moon, which is generally on the 14th of Bloody Mary, and received the name of or 15th day. With this explanation, then, of Breeches Bible on, account of the rendering what is meant by “ full moon” viz., that it is of Genesis iii, 7: " Then the eyes of both of

new moon

them were opened, and they knew that they required to read, when the judge demanded of were naked, and they sewed fig-tree leaves to the bishop's commissary, Legit ut clericus ? If gether and made themselves breeches.The the answer was simply legit, the prisoner was Bishops’ Bible was published in London in burned on the hand and discharged; but if it 1568. The text of this was compared with was non legit, he suffered the punishment due the original by eight bishops and seven other to his offense. During the reign of Queen scholars of reputation, who appended their Anne the benefit of clergy was extended to initials to their respective tasks. In 1582 ap- all persons convicted of clergyable offenses, peared, at Rheims, in France, an English ver- whether they could read or not, but it was dission of the New Testament, prepared by sev- cretionary with the judge whether a fine or eral Roman Catholic exiles, and in 1609-'10 a imprisonment was inflicted. The benefit of similar version of the Old Testament at Douay. clergy was totally abolished during the reign They form the standard English Scriptures of of George IV. the Roman Catholics, being generally known Catacombs.— Those in Paris were origias the Douay Bible. In July, 1604, King nally quarries which had existed under the James appointed fifty-four scholars to prepare city from the earliest time. In 1774 the a new version of the Bible. Only forty-seven Council of State issued a decree for clearing accepted the appointment, and the result of the Cemetery of the Innocents, and for removtheir labors was the publication in 1610 of the ing its contents, as well as those of other graveversion known as “ King James's Bible,” which yards, into these quarries. These quarries has been in common use from that time to or catacombs, as they were called

were conthis, slightly modified by the revision prepared secrated with great solemnity on April 7,1786, by the most learned English and American and the work of removal from the cemeteries scholars a few years ago.

was immediately begun. The bones were Benefit of Clergy.-Until the reign of brought at night in funeral cars, covered with Henry VI. all members of the clerical order a pall, and followed by priests chanting the were almost totally exempted from the juris- service of the dead. At first the bones were diction and authority of the secular magistrate heaped up without any kind of order except in respect of crimes and offenses. This was that those from each cemetery were kept sepacalled “ Benefit of the Clergy." If a priest or rate ; but in 1810, a regular system of arrang« clerk ” happened to be imprisoned by the ing them was commenced, and the skulls and secular arm on a criminal charge, he was, on bones were built up along the wall. From the the demand of the bishop, instantly delivered main entrance to the catacombs, which is near up without any further inquisition — not to be the Barriers d'Enfer, a flight of ninety steps let loose upon the community, it is true, but to descends, at whose foot galleries are seen be detained by the ordinary till he had either branching in various directions. Some yards purged himself from the offense, or, having distant is a vestibule of octagonal form, which failed to do so, had been degraded. In the opens into a long gallery lined with bones from reign mentioned this was so far altered that floor to roof. The arm, leg, and thigh bones the prisoner had first to be arraigned, but are in front, closely and regularly piled, and could arrest judgment by plea, declining the their uniformity is relieved by three rows of jurisdiction either before or after conviction. skulls at equal distances. This gallery conAt first the test of admission to this singular ducts to several rooms resembling chapels, privilege was the clerical dress and tonsure ; lined with bones, variously arranged. One is but in course of time all who could read -- a called the “ Tomb of the Revolution,” anmark of great learning in those days — whether other the “ Tomb of Victims" – the latter of the clergy or laity, were allowed the privi- containing the relics of those who perished in lege. A layman, however, could only claim it the early period of the Revolution and in the once, and upon doing so was burned on the massacre of September.” It is estimated hand and discharged. He was then tried by that the remains of fully 3,000,000 human the bishop, and usually acquitted, even though beings lie in this receptacle. Owing to the he had been previously convicted either by his unsafe condition of the roof, admission to the country or his own confession. By this ac- catacombs has been forbidden for years. Of quittal the offender was restored to his liberty, the other catacombs in existence, the most his credit, and his property — in short, in the celebrated are those on the Via Appia, at a eye of the law he became a new and innocent short distance from Rome, where, it is believed, person. The test of reading was applied as the early Christians were in the habit of retirfollows: On conviction, the felon demanded ing in order to celebrate their new worship in his clergy, whereupon a book (commonly a times of persecution. These catacombs conPsalter) was put into his hand, which he was sist of long, narrow galleries, usually about eight feet high and five feet wide, which twist | dissent from the national creed, and the Emand turn in all directions, very much resem- perors Theodosius and Justinian appointed ofbling mines, and at irregular intervals into ficials called “inquisitors,” whose special duty wide and lofty vaulted chambers. The graves, it was to discover and to prosecute before the where are buried many of the saints and mar- civil tribunals offenders of this class. For tyrs of the primitive church, were constructed several centuries cases of heresy were tried beby hollowing out a portion of the rock at the fore the ordinary courts, but in course of time side of the gallery large enough to contain the examination of those accused of this crime the body. The catacombs at Naples, cut into was handed over to the bishops. Special mathe Capo di Monte, resemble those at Rome, chinery for the trial and punishment of hereand evidently were used for the same purpose, tics was first devised in the eleventh and twelfth being in many parts literally covered with centuries against the various sects who had Christian symbols. In one cf the large vaulted separated from the Church, and who became chambers there are paintings which have re- known under the general term of Albigenses. tained a freshness which is wonderful. Simi- Heresy was then regarded as a crime against lar catacombs have been found at Palermo and the state as well as the Church, and the civil, Syracuse, and in Greece, Asia Minor, Syria, no less than the ecclesiastical, authorities were Persia, Egypt, and in Peru and other parts of arrayed against those sects. The murder of a South America.

papal legate in 1205 gave a pretext for declarApocrypha,

„The.-In the earliest churches ing against the Albigenses a war in which thouthe word Apocrypha was applied with very sands perished, and in 1299 the Council of different significations to a variety of writ- Toulouse decreed the “ Inquisition” for their ings; sometimes it was given those whose extermination. The searching out of hereauthorship and original form were unknown; tics was first given to the bishops of the sometimes to writings containing a hidden Church, but the Pope (Gregory IX.), fearing meaning; sometimes to those whose public that these would not be active enough, transuse was not thought advisable. In this last ferred their work to the Dominican friars. A signification it has been customary, since the guild was also formed called the “ Militia of time of Jerome, to apply the term to a number Jesus Christ,” whose object was to aid inof writings which the Septuagint had circulated quisitors in their work. The Church found among the Christians, and which were some- the heretics, examined, and sentenced them, times considered as an appendage to the Old and then called in the civil authority to put Testament, and sometimes as a portion of it. its sentence into execution. The inquisitorial At the Council of Laodicea, 360 A. D., the courts at first only held occasional sessions, but Greek Church rejected all books except those after 1248 they sat permanently. A person, if in the present Protestant canon. In 474 Pope suspected of heresy or denounced as guilty, Gelasius convened a council of seventy bishops, was liable to be arrested and detained in which confirmed the opinion of Pope Innocent prison, only to be brought to trial when it might I., recognizing the Apocryphal books as sacred, seem fit to his judges. The proceedings were and rejecting some of the doubtful books of conducted secretly. He was not confronted the New Testament. The Council of Trent, with his accusers, nor were their names, even, 1545-'63, finally settled the question for the made known to him. The evidence of an acRoman Catholic Church, accepting the Apocry- complice was admissible, and the accused himpha as a part of the sacred canon. The Prot- self was liable to be put to torture, in order to testant churches reject their use in public extort a confession of guilt. The punishworship It was customary at one time to bind ments to which, if found guilty, he was liable, up the Apocrypha between the authorized were death by fire, as exemplified in the terversions of the Old and New Testaments, rible auto-da-fé, or on the scaffold, imprisonthough this has now ceased, and, as a conse- ment in the galleys for life or for a limited quence, this curious, interesting, and instruct- period, forfeiture of property, civil infamy, ive part of Jewish literature is now known only and in ininor cases retraction and public pento scholars.

Inquisition, The, was a tribunal in the Inquisition, Spanish. The Inquisition Roman Catholic Church for the discovery, re- was introduced in Spain in 1232, by Pope pression, and punishment of heresy, unbelief, Gregory's appointment of the Dominicans of and other offenses against religion. From the Aragon as inquisitors, and it ultimately came very first establishment of Christianity as the to be viewed by the people with most abreligion of the Roman empire, laws more or | ject terror. At first it passed no sentence less severe existed, as in most of the ancient more severe than the confiscation of property, religions, for the repression and punishment of but toward the close of the fifteenth century,


the zeal of Mendoza, the archbishop of Seville, books, and occasionally decreed an execution. gave a new impulse to the institution. At that The jurisdiction of the Inquisition had been time there was a real or pretended alarm lest greatly restricted when Joseph Bonaparte the Jews and Moors in Spain should unite abolished it in December, 1808. It was restored against the Christians. Bishop Mendoza pro- by Ferdinand VII. in 1814, but was again posed to King Ferdinand, in 1477, that an abolished by the Constitution of the Cortes in

nquisition should be established in Castile, 1820. After the second restoration a tribunal with the primary object of searching out the was re-established at Valencia in 1826. Jews who had relapsed into Judaism after was finally abolished, however, in 1834, and having professed Christianity, or who simply in 1835 all its property was confiscated for the feigned conversion. The Inquisitorial Court public debt. of Seville was established in September, 1480, Celibacy in the Roman Catholic in the person of two Dominican friars. Tor- Church.- Previous to the close of the fourth quemada, another Dominican, appointed in century there was no law nor uniformity of 1483, was Grand Inquisitor for fifteen years. opinion regarding the celibacy of the Romish Under him three new tribunals of the Holy priests. About this time, however, Pope SiriOffice were erected at Cordova, Jaen, and Villa cius forbade priests to marry, and those who Real; afterwards a fifth was added to ledo. had married previous to ordination were comThese Tribunals were always popular with the manded to put away their wives. Children lower orders and the clergy in Spain, but ter- born to a clergyman after ordination were derible in the eyes of the nobles and the rich clared by the Emperor Justinian to be illegitimiddle class, who believed that they were mate and incapable of inheritance. This often used by the Government as engines of doctrine was opposed by the Eastern Church, political repression in order to diminish their and in 692 it was condemned as heretical by influence. Ranke calls the Spanish Inquisi- the Council of Constantinople, and the martion “ a royal tribunal furnished with spiritual riage of priests has, therefore, always been weapons. In 1492 an edict was issued for sanctioned by the Orthodox Greek Church. the banishment of all Jews refusing to em- Notwithstanding the action taken by the brace Christianity from Spain, chiefly on Romish Church, it was several centuries beaccount of their alleged incorrigible obstinacy fore celibacy was firmly established, and this in persisting in the attempt to convert Chris- was not accomplished until Pope Gregory VII., tians to their own faith and instruct them in in the face of violent opposition in all countheir rites. About a hundred thousand accord- tries, deposed all married priests and excomingly went into banishment.

municated all laymen who upheld them in the The history of the Spanish Inquisition was exercise of their spiritual functions. This written by Llorente, who was secretary to the decree was carried out with the utmost rigor, tribunal of Madrid from 1790 to 1792. Al- and brought about the result which the Church though he is supposed to have possessed great had been aiming at for centuries, and which opportunities for obtaining exact information, still continues to be the canonical law. his estimate of the persons condemned to death Indulgences. - Originally, indulgences is now considered very much exaggerated. meant a release from the temporal penalties The figures of Llorente include not only those which remained due after the sin itself had condemned for heresy, but besides persons been remitted by confession and absolution, charged with many other crimes, such as and were granted during the first centuries of polygamy, seduction, unnatural crime, smug- the Christian churches, not only by the pope, gling, witchcraft, sorcery, imposture, etc., but by all bishops, to infirm persons or to those civil offenses within the jurisdiction of the penitents who showed extraordinary conInquisition and punishable with death. trition. An indulgence cannot be granted for

The celebrated Autos-da-Fe (Acts of the con- unforgiven sin. It is not the remission of sin fession of the faith), says Möhler, “ were as a nor of the eternal punishment due to mortal sin, rule bloodless. But few inquisitional processes still less is it a permission to commit sin in the terminated with the death of the accused.” future. Before an indulgence can be gained, sin The Auto, speaking generally, was a form of must have been previously remitted by repentreconciling culprits to the Church. Neverthe- ance. Thus, instead of being an encouragement less the severities practiced by the tribunals to sin, it is a strong motive to repentance. Many were such that Rome frequently interfered. indulgences have been abrogated, or declared By the beginning of the seventeenth century, the apocryphal by the Roman Catholic Church. Inquisition, having largely obliterated heresy The Council of Trent prohibited the disrepuin Spain, became more lenient; its efforts were table gains” made at some places at the then principally directed against heretical expense of those who desired to obtain indulgences. The same council prescribes that all fellows are subsequently elected from the scholindulgences must be granted "gratis." ars and the students who have distinguished

Cambridge, University of, is situated themselves in the Tripos examinations. The at the town of Cambridge, forty-eight miles University has forty professors, in addition to northeast of London. The first regular society readers, demonstrators, and assistants. The of students was that of Peter-House, founded tutor of the college is understood to be in loco in 1257. The history of the University, how- parentis to his pupils, the dean has the overever, may be said to date from the opening of sight of “religion and morals," and instruction the twelfth century, but until the year men- is given by college lecturers. The great prizes tioned there were no public halls or hostels, each at the University are the Fellowships, of which student living in his own hired lodging. About there are about four hundred. The follow1257 the students began to live together in ing is a list of the colleges and their founders : hostels, under the rule of a principal. These St. Peter's College or Peter-House, founded by hostels were named after the saints to whom Hugh de Balsham, Bishop of Ely, 1257 ; Clare they were dedicated, the churches which they College, founded under the name of University adjoined, or the persons who formerly built or Hall by Richard Baden in 1326, was burned in possessed them. In the year 1280 there were 1338, and rebuilt and endowed by Elizabeth, as many as thirty-four, and some of them Countess of Clare; Pembroke College, founded contained from twenty to forty masters of arts, by the Countess of Pembroke, 1347 ; Gonville and a proportionate number of younger stu- and Caius College, founded by Edward Gondents. These hostels were the beginning of ville in 1348 ; Trinity Hall, founded by William what may be called the college system, which Bateman, Bishop of Norwich, 1350 ; Corpus distinguishes the sister universities of Oxford Christi or Benedict College, founded by the and Cambridge from those of Edinburgh, guilds of Corpus Christi and the Blessed London, and the Continent. All the royal Virgin, 1351; King's College, founded by and religious foundations, with one exception, Henry VI., 1441 ; Queens' College, founded which now constitute the University were en- by Margaret of Anjou, wife of Henry VI., 1446 ; dowed between the latter part of the thirteenth St. Catherine's College or Hall, founded by and the close of the sixteenth century. The Robert Wodelarke, provost of King's College, governing body of the university is the senate; 1473 ; Jesus College, founded by John Alcock, but, before being submitted to it, all university Bishop of Ely, 1496; Christ College, founded laws must be approved by the council, a body by the Countess of Richmond, 1505 ; St. John's elected by the resident members of the senate. College, founded by the Countess of RichAfter the chancellor and high steward, the mond, 1511; Magdalene College, founded by chief executive power is vested in the vice- Thomas, Baron Audley, of Walden, 1519; chancellor, who is elected annually from the Trinity College, founded by Henry VIII., heads of colleges. There are three terms in 1546 ; Emmanuel College, founded by Sir this university - the Michaelmas, or October Walter Mildmay, 1584 ; Sidney Sussex College, term; the Lent term, and the Easter term. founded by Lady Frances Sidney, 1598; DownTo take an ordinary B.A. degree, a student ing College, founded by Sir George Downing, must reside nine terms. The M.A. degree 1800. follows, without examination, about four years Oxford University is one of the two after. There are four classes of students greatest seats of learning in Great Britain. It Fellow Commoners and Noblemen, Pensioners, is situated at Oxford, fifty-two miles from Sizars and Subsizars, and the more distin- London, and comprises twenty colleges and six guished, who are elected Scholars on the foun- halls - - the latter for the residence of students. dation of this college. The pensioners are the The colleges, their founders, and the dates great body of students, are not on the founda- thereof, are as follows: University College, tion, and pay for their own commons, viz., founded by William of Durham, 1249 ; Baldinners in halls, etc., and for their rooms. liol, by John Balliol and Devorgilla, his wife, The sizars are poorer students, selected, how- between 1263 and 1268 ; Merton, by Walter ever, by examination, who receive free com- de Merton, Bishop of Rochester, at Malden, mons and certain money payments, and are in 1264, and removed to Oxford before 1274 ; admitted at lower charges than the pensioners, Exeter, by Walter de Stapleton, Bishop of but wear the same dress and are no longer sub- Exeter, 1314 ; Oriel, by Edward II., 1326 ; ject to the performance of menial offices, as Queen’s, by Robert Eglesfield, chaplain to they once were. The scholars are elected, by Philippa, queen of Edward III., 1340; New, examination, from the pensioners and sizars. by William of Wykeham, Bishop of WinchesThey are on the foundation of the college, from ter, 1386 ; Lincoln, by Richard Fleming, which they receive certain emoluments. The Bishop of Lincoln, 1427 ; All Souls', hy Henry

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