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900 Hamburg

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Arthur's Round Table. The officers of the Number of Miles by Water from order are the Prelate, the Chancellor, the Reg

New York to ister, the Garter King of Arms, and the Usher Amsterdam.. 3,510 | Kingston

1,640 of the Black Rod.

Bermuda
660 Lima.

11,310
Bombay...
11,574 Liverpool.

3,210 Boston. 310 London.

3,375 Number of Miles from New York to

Buenos Ayres.
7,110 | Madras

11,850
Calcutta...
12,425 Naples...

4,330 Canton..

13,900 New Orleans. Adrian, Mich.. 775 Lafayette, Ind... 903

2,045 Cape Horn. 610 Lansing, Mich.

8,115 Panama.. Akron, Ohio. 785

2,358 Cape of Good Hope. 6,830 Pekin

15,325 Albany, N. Y. 143 Lawrence, Mass. 262 Charleston...

750 Philadelphia.. 238 Leavenworth, Kan... 1,385 Columbia River...

240 Alexandria, Va..

15,965 Quebec

1,400 Algiers, La 1,551 Lexington, Ky. 810 Constantinople..

6,140 Rio Janeiro... Allegheny, Pa. 434 Lexington, Mo. 1,354 Dublin..

3,840

3,225 Round the Globe... Allentown, Pa. 92 | Little Rock, Ark. 1,430 Gibraltar.

25,000

3,300 Sandwich Islands... 15,300 Alton, Il... 1,060 Lockport, N. Y.. 507 Halifax..

612 San Francisco... 15,858 Annapolis, Md.. 222 Louisville, Ky.

3,775 St. Petersburg.. Ann Arbor, Mich.. 716 Lowell, Mass. 261

4,420 Havana

1,420 Valparaiso.. Atchison, Kan.. 1,368 Lynchburg, Va.. 404 Havre..

9,750 3,210 | Washington.

400 Atlanta, Ga.. 1,018 Macon, Ga...

1,121 Auburn, N. Y.

328 Madison, Wis.. 1,049 Augusta, Me.

407 Memphis, Tenn.. 1,289 Patents Issued Since 1852. Augusta, Ga...

887 Milledgeville, Ga.... 1,100 Aurora, Ill.

951 Milwaukee, Wis. 996 Baltimore, Md.. 188 Mobile, Ala.

1,370

PATENTS AND CERTIFICATES OF REGISTRATION ISSUED Bangor, Me..

482 Montgomery, Ala..... 1,193 Year
Bath, Me...
382 Montpelier, Vo..

Patents Designs
Reis-

Total

Total TradeBaton Rouge, La. 1,320 Nashua, N. H.

275

Patents marks Labels Certifi

cates Belfast, Me.

424 Nashville, Tenn.. 1,085
Bellefontaine, Ohio.. 658 New Albany, Ind. 903 1852 890 109 20 1,019
Binghamton, N. Y. 215 New Bedford, Mass.. 181 1860 4.363 183 232 4,778
Blackstone, Mass... 272 New Brunswick, N.J.. 32 1870 12,157 737 439 13,333 121

121 Bloomington, Ill.. 1,037 Newburgh, N. Y.... 53 1880

12,926 515 506 13,947 349 203 552 Boston, Mass

236 New Haven, Conn.. 76 1890 25,322 886 84 26,292 1,418 304 1,719 Bristol, R.I..

215 New Orleans, La... 1,550 1891 22,328 836 80 23,244 1,762 a 137 1,899 Bucyrus, Ohio. 632 Newport, Ky..

744 1892 22,661 817 81 23,559 1,737 6 1,743 Buffalo, N. Y. 433 Newport, R. I. 162 1893 22,768 902 99 23,769 1,677

1,677 Burlington, N. J. 74 Norwalk, Conn.

45 1894 19,875 928
64 28,867 1,806

1,806 Burlington, Iowa... 1,122 Omaha, Neb.

1,455 1895

20,883 1,118 59 22,057 1,829 3 1,832 Burlington, Vt. 280 Oswego, N. Y.

237 1896 21,867 1,445 61 23,273 1,813 11 1,846 Cambridge, Mass... 239 Paterson, N.J.

17 1897 22,098 1,631 65 23,794 1,671

c 14 1,701 Camden, N. J.... 91 Peoria, Ill.

1,072 1898 20,404 1,803 60 22,267 1,238 d 200 | 1,473 Canandaigua, N. Y... 377 Petersburg, Va... 378 Carson City, Nevada. 2,800 Philadelphia, Pa.. 88

a Registration of labels practically ceased May 27, Chambersburg, Pa... 246 Pittsburg, Pa... 431 1891, under decision of United States Supreme Court in Charleston, s. c. 874 Portland, Me...

314 Higgins et al. v. Keuffel et al. (55 0.G., 1139). Charlestown, Mass... 235 Providence, R. I.... 193

6 32 Prints. c 16 Prints. d 35 Prints. Chattanooga, Tenn... 980 Quincy, Ill...

1,176

NOTE.— The number of patents granted prior to the Chicago, Ill.. 911 Racine, Wis..

976

commencement of this series of numbering (July 28, Chillicothe, Ohio. 615 Raleigh, N. C..

669

1836) was 9957. Cincinnati, Ohio. 744 Reading, Pa...

128 Circleville, Ohio. 640 Richmond, Va..

The whole number of original patents, in

356 Cleveland, Ohio. 581 Rochester, N. Y 386 cluding designs, issued up to Dec. 31, 1898, Columbia, s. C. 744 Rock Island, Ill.. 1,093 Columbus, Ohio. 624 Rome, N. Y

264

was 646,785. Concord, N. H.. 308 Roxbury, Mass..

238

Cremation. The reduction of the human Covington, Ky.

745 Sacramento, 1...... 2,900 Cumberland, Md. 364 St. Joseph, Mo.. 1,384 body to ashes by fire was a very early and Davenport, Iowa.. 1,093 St. Louis, Mo.. Dayton, Ohio... 804 St. Paul, Minn.

1,984 widespread usage of antiquity. The early ArDenver, Col... 1,980 Salem, Mass.... 252 yans, as opposed to the non-Aryan aborigines Des Moines, Iowa. 1,251 Salt Lake City, Utah. 2,410 of India, Greeks, Romans, Slavs, Celts, and Detroit, Mich.. 679 San Francisco, Cal..... 3,038 Dover, N. H..

304 Sandusky, Ohio.. 642 Germans, burned their dead; therefore cremaDubuque, Iowa. 1,100 Saratoga, N. Y... Dunkirk, N. Y. 460 Savannah, Ga...

152 tion may be regarded as the universal custom Elmira, Ñ. Y.. 274 Scranton, Pa.

142 of the Indo-European races. The graves of Erie, Pa.

508 Springfield, 111 1,062 North Europe, throughout the “ bronze age,” Evansville, Ind 1,021 Springfield, Mass. 138 Fall River, Mass. 180 Springfield, Ohio. 828

contain only jars of ashes. The advocates of Fitchburg, Mass. 218 staunton, Va..

486 disposing of the dead by cremation are at the Fort Kearney, Neb... 1,598 Stonington, Conn... Fort Wayne, Ind..

763 Syracuse, N. Y.. 302 present time numerous, their principal arguFredericksburg, Va.. 296 Taunton, Mass.. 210 ments in favor of it being of a sanitary nature. Galena, nu.

1,083 Tallahassee, Fla..... 1,190 Galesburg, Ill... 1,076 Terre Haute, Ind... '912 According to the method which is most faGalveston, Tex.. 1,900 | Toledo, Ohio.. 742 vored by modern cremationists, the body is Georgetown, D. C.... 228 Tonawanda, N. Y.. Hamilton, Ohio... 766 Trenton, N. J... 68 placed in an oblong brick or iron-cased chamHarrisburg, Pa.. 182 Troy, N. Y..

148 | ber, underneath which is a furnace. The air of Hartford, Conn.. 112 Utica, N. Y. Hudson, N. Y.. 115 Vicksburg, Miss..

1,542 the chamber is raised to a very high temperaIndia napolis, Ind.. 838 Washington, D. C.. 230 ture before the body is put in, and a stream of Jackson, Miss. 1,498 Wheeling, W. Va... 522 Jefferson City, Mo... 1,210 Wilmington, Del.. 116 heated hydro-carbon from a gasometer is then Kalamazoo, Mieh... 822 Wilmington, N. C... 604 admitted, which on contact with the intenselyKansas City, Mo... 1,361 Worcester, Mass... 192 Kingston, N.Y. 88

heated air within immediately bursts into flame.

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Number of Bricks to Thickness of

Superficial Feet

of Wall.

45

23 45 68 90 113 138 158 180 203 225 450 675 900

15 23 30 38 45 53 60 68 75 150 225 300 375 450 525 600 675

15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 300 450 600 750 900

30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 600 900

270
316

38 75 113 150 188 225 263 300 338 375 750

1 2.. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 20. 30. 40. 50. 60 70 80 90 100 200 300. 400. 500. 600. 700 800 900. 1000..

405
450

the

1,575
1,800

1,350

2,700

3,375

4,050

The chamber is, of course, so constructed 28 sor Hayden, and upon his representations an neither to admit draughts of air from without, act was passed by Congress, and approved nor to permit the escape of gas from within. March 1, 1872, by which what is now known The noxious gases which are evolved in the be- as the Yellowstone National Park was ginning of the combustion process are passed served and withdrawn from settlement, occuthrough a fue into a second furnace, where pancy, or sale, and dedicated and set apart as a they are entirely consumed. By this process a public park or pleasure-ground for the benefit body weighing 144 pounds can be reduced in and enjoyment of the people.” This great park about fifty minutes to not more than four contains the most striking of all the mountains, pounds of lime-dust. In the cremation of each gorges, falls, rivers, and lakes in the whole body about 200 pounds of fuel are used. Yellowstone region. The mountain ranges No. Brick Required to Construct any and are always covered with snow. The banks

rise to the height of from 10,000 to 12,000 feet, Building.

of the Yellowstone river abound with ravines (Reckoning 7 Brick to each superficial foot.)

and canyons, which are carved out of the heart

of the mountains through the hardest rocks. 4 inch. 8inch. 12 inch. 16 inch. 20 inch. 24 inch The most remarkable of these is the canyon of

Tower Creek and Column Mountain, which is 90 about ten miles in length, and is so deep and 180 gloomy that it is called “ The Devil's Den," 225 The Grand Canyon, which begins where Tower

Creek ends, is twenty miles in length, is im360 passable throughout, and is inaccessible at the

water's edge except at a few points, and its

900 depth is so profound that no sound ever reaches 1,125 1,350

ear from the bottom. The Park contains 1,200 1,500 1,800 1,125 | 1,500 1,875 2,250 a great multitude of hot springs of sulphur,

1,350 1,050 2,100 2,625 3,160 sulphate of copper, alum, etc. There are at 1,200

2,400 3,000 3,600 least 50 geysers that throw columns of water to 2,025 1,500 3,000 3,750 4,500

the height of from 50 to 200 feet, and the falls 1,500 3,000 4,500 6,000 7,500 9,000 of this wonderland are considered marvelous.

4,500 9,000 11,250 13,500 The altitude of the entire Park is 6,000 feet or
6,000

9,000 12,000 15,000 18,000
7,500 11,260 15,000 18,750 22,500 more above the sea level.

9,000 13,500 18,000 22,500 27,000
5,250 10,500 15,750 21,000 26,250 31,500

Aqueducts.--Among modern works the 6,000 12,000 18,000 24,000 30,000 36.000 most famous are :6,760 13,500 20,250 27,000 33,750 40,500 7,500 | 15,000 22,500 30,000 137,500 45,000

Length. Million gal's

daily. Comparative Yield of Various Grains, Madrid.

Croton (New York)..... 41

$9,000,000

11,500,000 Vegetables, and Fruits.

2,250,000 Glasgow..

7,775,000 Lbs. per acre.

Lbs. per acre. Washington. Hops 442 Grass..

7,000 .1,260 Carrots..

6,800 Barley. .1,600 Potatoes.

Rome, in the time of the Cæsars, had nine

7,500 .1,840 Apples

8,000 aqueducts, measuring 249 miles in the aggre.1,920 Turnips..

8,420 Beans,.. -2,000 Cinquefoil grass. 9,600

gate, and with a daily. capacity of 320,000,000 2,000 Vetches, green......... 9,800 gallons, or 200 gallons per inhabitant. The 2,000 Cabbage. .2,800 Parsnips

.11,200 great aqueduct of Peru, built by the Incas, Hay.

.4,000 Mangel-Wurzel.. .22,000 was 360 miles long. Pears .5,000

Watches of the Night.— The Jews, like Yellowstone Park is situated, the the Greeks and Romans, says the Rev. Dr. greater part, in Wyoming, the remainder partly William Smith in his “ Bible Dictionary," in Montana and partly in Idaho, and comprises divided the night into watches instead of hours, 3,575 square miles. The adaptability of this each watch representing the period for which section of the country to the purposes of a sentinels or pickets remained on duty. The national park was first brought prominently proper Jewish reckoning recognized only three before the public by a company of surveyors such watches, entitled the first or " beginning who visited the region in the year 1869. In of the watches” (Lamentations ii, 19), the 1870 and 1871 the territory was again ex- middle watch (Judges vii, 19), and the mornplored by scientific expeditions, and the re- ing watch (Exodus xiv, 24; I Samuel xi, 11). ports of the first visitors were confirmed. The These would last, respectively, from sunset to expedition of 1871 was headed by Profes- ten o'clock P. M., from ten o'clock p. m. to

750

2,250

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Wheat.

Oats.
Pease.

Plums
Cherries
Onions.

two o'clock A. M., and from two o'clock A. M.ing the lower part of the face black. The to sunrise. After the establishment of the mourning color among the Romans under the Roman supremacy, the number of the watches republic was black or dark blue for both sexes, was increased to four, which were described but during the empire the women wore white. either according to their numerical order, as in In Europe and America the color is black; in the case of the “ fourth watch ” (Matthew xiv, Turkey, it is violet; in China, white; in Egypt, 25), or by the terms “even, - midnight, yellow; in Ethiopia, brown. It is customary " cockcrowing,” and “ morning ” (Mark xiii, for the courts in all European countries to go 35). These terminated, respectively, at nine into mourning on the occasion of the death of o'clock P. M., midnight, three o'clock A. M., a member of a royal family. The custom of and six o'clock A. M.

draping buildings on the death of a great man Walkyries. The name “ Walkyries" is or a hero of uational reputation has always derived from the old Norse val, which signifies prevailed in the United States. a heap of slaughtered men, and kjora, to Natural Gas.- The earliest use of natychoose. In the Scandinavian mythology the ral gas of which there is any record is in Walkyries, also called battle-maidens, shield-China, where for centuries it has been conmaidens, and wish-maidens, are beautiful veyed from fissures in salt-mines to the surface young women, who, adorned with golden orna- through hollow bamboos and used for burning ments, ride through the air in brilliant armor, purposes. There are also places in Asia, near order battles and distribute the death-lots ac- the Caspian Sea, where it is seen to issue from cording to Odin's command. Fertilizing dew- the earth, and a similar phenomenon is to be drops on the ground from the manes of their seen in the Szalatna salt-mine in Hungary. horses, light streams from the points of their The first discovery of natural gas made in lances, and a flickering brightness announce America was in the neighborhood of Fredonia, their arrival in the battle. They rejoice the Chautauqua County, New York, early in this glazing eye of the hero with their charming century. In 1821 a small well was bored in glances, and lead him to Walhalla, where they the village and the gas was conducted through act as his cup-bearers. Some of the Walky- pipes to the houses and used for illuminating ries spring from elves and other superhuinan purposes, and, on the occasion of Lafayette's beings; some, also, are the daughters of visit in 1824, it is said that the village was princes. They ride generally in companies of illuminated with this gas. Although this disthree, or of three times three, or four times covery was widely known it did not lead to three, and have the gift of changing them- any further experiments, either in the neighborselves into swans. Whoever deprives a Walky- hood or in other places, till fully twenty years rie of her swan-robe gets her into his power. after. In the early part of the present century

Mourning Customs.– From the earliest it was found that the wells which were bored times the manner of expressing grief at death for salt in the Kanawha Valley yielded large has differed in different countries. The He- quantities of gas, but it was not utilized as brew period of mou

ourning was usually seven fuel until 1841. In 1865, a well which was days; but in some instances, as at the death sunk for petroleum at West Bloomfield, New of Moses and Aaron, it was extended to thirty York, struck a flow of natural gas. An effort days. The mourners tore their clothing, cut was made to utilize this, and it was carried in 'off the hair and beard, strewed ashes on their a wooden main to the city of Rochester, a disheads, and cast themselves on the ground, tance of twenty-four miles, in 1870, for the weeping and smiting their breasts. The Greeks purpose of illuminating the city, but the exmourned thirty days, except in Sparta, where periment was a failure. In 1873, a well in the mourning period was limited to ten days, and Armstrong County, Pennsylvania, was so arwore coarse black garments, cut off their hair, ranged that the gas could be separated from and secluded themselves from the public gaze. the water with which it was discharged, and In the event of the death of a great general, conveyed through pipes to several mills in the whole army cut off their hair, and also the that vicinity, where it was extensively used for manes of their horses. The Roman mourning manufacturing purposes for the first time. period lasted only a few days; but if the death From that date to the present day the use of was that of some great ruler or general, all natural gas, both for fuel and illuminating, has business was stopped, and the forum and the increased very rapidly, it having been discovschools were closed. . Among the Fiji Island- ered in other parts of Pennsylvania, Ohio, and ers the women are required to burn their Indiana. bodies on the death of a chief, and in the Associated Press was organized about Sandwich Islands the people go into mourning thirty years ago by the following New York by knocking out the front teeth and by paint-city papers: Herald, Tribune, World, Times,

6
7

X 16 X 17

9

35

35

6 5

.... 48

1.210 1,732 3,556 4,840

66

66

3

69 108 .193 .302 .435

10.890

Sun, Evening Express, and Journal of Com- | only be visible to a spectator on the top of a very merce, for the purpose of facilitating the col- high and narrow mountain peak, which would lection of news. The general agent of the elevate his plane much above that of the sun's Association is located in New York, and asso- rays without cutting off their light. A comciate agents in Chicago, Washington, Cincin-plete circle may also be sometimes seen in the nati, and other news centers. There is also a rainbow formed by the sunlight on the spray complete reportorial staff, and the news col- arising from cataracts. The lunar rainbow, lected is used not only by the syndicate of pa- which is a comparatively rare but very beautipers, but is transmitted by telegraph to others ful phenomenon, differs from the solar simply in almost every city in the country who have in the source and intensity of the light by secured the privilege by purchase.

which it is produced ; and, as in all cases of All Fools' Day.- The origin of the cus- feeble light, the distinction of the colors is tom of April fooling cannot be traced with any very difficult. In fact, except under the most degree of certainty. In the literature of the favorable circumstances, the lunar rainbows last century there are found many references to rarely show colors at all, giving a pale, ghostly it, and yet beyond that it is scarcely possible to gleam of apparently white or yellow light. go. One suggestion is that the custom of playing tricks on the first day of April was

Names and Dimensions of Various derived from some ancient pagan custom, such

Sizes of Paper. as the Huli festival among the Hindoos, or the

FOLDED. Roman Feast of the Fools. One fact,

Billet Note....
how-

10
X 8 Letter.
Octavo Note....

x 9 Com'rcial Letter. 11 ever, we do know, and that is that the practice Commercial Note 8 x 10 Packet Post...... 114 x 18

x 11 Foolscap prevails in many countries, under various Packet Note...

1216 x 16

Bath Note......... 81/2 x 14 names, which would seem to indicate that it dates away back to the early history of the race.

Hills in an Acre of Ground. Rainbow.- A rainbow can only be seen

40 feet apart....... 27 hills 8 feet apart.. 680 hills when the spectator stands between it and the 30 sun ; its center must always be directly oppo-20

314 site the sun, moving with the sun's motion, 16 falling if the sun is rising, and rising if the 12

43,560 sun is declining. A rainbow occurs when the

The Wedding Anniversary. sun or moon, not too far above the horizon,

Cotton Wedding throws its beams upon a sheet of falling rain- At end of First Year comes the .........

Paper Wedding drops on the opposite side of the heavens.

Leather Wedding

Wooden Wedding Thus, a ray of light from the sun strikes a

Woolen Wedding raindrop obliquely ; part of it is reflected at Tenth Year.

Tin Wedding Twelfth Year.

Silk and Fine Linen Wedding the surface of the drop; the rest, passing into

Fifteenth Year..

Crystal Wedding the drop, is refracted; on the other side of the Twentieth Year.

China Wedding drop part of the ray passes through, and the

Twenty-fifth Year.

.Silver Wedding Thirtieth Year..

Pearl Wedding rest is again reflected; on passing from the drop

Ruby Wedding

Fiftieth Year. on the same side that it entered, a second re

Golden Wedding Seventy-fifth Year

Diamond Wedding fraction occurs. These successive reflections and refractions separate the ray of white light

Pensions.—The total number of pensioninto its component colored rays, and as the ers classified and compared for the years 1898 angles of incidence and emergence vary for and 1897 are as follow :each color, the eye of a spectator perceives them as distinct bands. Now, every drop in

Widows, Revolutionary soldiers. the sheet of falling water which has equal Daughters, Revolutionary soldiers. obliquity to the spectator's eye will send to it Survivors of War of 1812..

2,407 2,810 rays of the same color. But the only drops Survivors, Indian wars, 1832-'42..

2,313

4,067 which can fulfill these conditions of like obliq- Widows, Indian wars, 1832-P42. uity of reflected rays are those which define Widows, Mexican War..

8,143 8,072 the base of a cone whose apex is the eye, and Under general laws:

Army invalids.

327,080 336,999 the center of whose base is in a right line pass- Widows, army.

94.602

4,833 ing through the sun and the eye of the specta

Navy invalids.
Widows, navy

2,300
tor. At or near sunset, when the sun and the act of June 27, 1890:
observer are in the same horizontal plane, the Army invalids.

119.787 110.693

Army widows. bow will be seen to form a complete semi- Navy invalids.

5,766 circle ; when the sun is higher in the sky, a Navy widows.

Army nurses.. smaller arch is seen; the entire circle could

66

1

Second Year.
Third Year..
Fifth Year.
Seventh Year.

Fortieth Year

1898

1897

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993,714 976,014

Total.

1,000

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12mo

16mo

24mno

32mo

No. of

Forms.

Rms.

2

1
2

8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72

12 24 36 48 60 72 84 96 108

6

32 6+ 96 128 160 192 224 256 288 320 352 384 416 448 480 512

6 8 10 12 14 16 18

120

24 48 72 96 120 144 168 192 216 240 264 288 312 336 360 384 408 432 456 480 501

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

2

9 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 22 23

6 8 10 12 14 16 18

16 32 48 64 80 96 112 128 144 160 176 192 208 224 240 256 272 288 304 320 336 352 368 384 400 416 432 448 464 480 496 512 528 544 560 576 592 608

2

Paper Table for Printers' and Pub- | air. If they return home they are then taken lishers' Use.--Showing the quantity of to greater distances, progressively increased paper required for printing 1,000 copies (in- from forty to fifty miles. When the bird is cluding 56 extra copies to allow for wastage), able to accomplish this flight he may be trusted of any usual size book, from 8vo down to to fly any distance, overland, within the limits 32mo. If the quantity required is not found of physical power. It is the general plan to in the table, double or treble some suitable keep the birds in a dark room for some hours number of pages or quantity of paper.

before they are used. They are then fed spar

ingly, but are given all the water they can

Copies. drink. The paper on which the message is Pages. Pages. Pages. Pages. Pages.

Qrs.

written is tied around the upper part of the bird's leg, or to one of the large feathers of the tail, so as not to impede its flight. The feet are washed in vinegar to keep them from getting too dry, so that the bird will not be tempted to descend to water and thus possibly ruin the message.

The rate of Aight is from twenty to thirty miles an hour, though the bird has been known to pass over great distances much more rapidly. When thrown up in the air, the pigeon at first flies round and round, as though for the purpose of sighting some landmark that it knows. When this is discovered, it flies toward it, and thence onward to its home.

Emancipation in Great Britain.The system of slavery was abolished throughout all the British Colonies by act of Parliament in 1833, when a bill was passed which gave freedom to all classes and indemnified their owners with an award of £20,000,000. According to this act, slavery was to cease on August 1, 1834, but the slaves were to continue with their former owners as apprentices for a certain period. This apprenticeship, however, did not work satisfactorily to either side, and complete emancipation took place in 1838. In 1787 the subject of the suppression

of the slave trade was agitated in London and Carrier Pigeons. That pigeons have received the support of Mr. Pitt, the Prime been used for a great many years for the Minister, and William Wilberforce, a member transmission of messages is well known, but of Parliament, and in 1791 a bill forbidding with what nation the custom originated it is the further importation of slaves was offered impossible to discover. The Romans used the by Wilberforce in Parliament, but was not birds for this purpose, they were in use among passed. The conquest of the Dutch colonies the Asiatics, and we have the assertion of the in America by the British led to such an inpoet Tasso for believing that they were em- crease in the British slave-trade that in 1805 ployed during the siege of Jerusalem in 1099; the traffic was forbidden in the conquered coloand it is a historical fact that they were used nies; and in 1806 the friends of emancipation during the crusade of St. Louis, in 1250. gained still another step by the passage of an Their most remarkable use in modern times act forbidding British subjects to engage in the was during the siege of Paris, in 1870. In trade, and the following year a general aboliTurkey they have been more generally used tion bill making all slave-trade illegal after than in any other country, and it is said that January 1, 1808, was adopted by Parliament. there the art of training them is carried to its This, however, did not have the desired effect, highest perfection. Pigeons intended for this as British subjects still continued the trade use are taken, when they have acquired full under the flags of other nations. So, in 1811, strength of wing, in a covered basket to a dis- it was made a felony, punishable with imtance of about half a mile from their home, prisonment at hard labor or transportation ; and then set at liberty and thrown into the and subsequent laws made it piracy, to be

88 96 104 112 120 128 136 144 152 160 168 176 184 192 200 208 216 224 232 240 248 256 264 272 280 288 296 304 312 320

25
26

132 144 156 168 180 192 204 216 228 240 252 264 276 288 300 312 324 336 348 360 372 384 396 408 420 432 444 456 468 480

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28 29 30 31 33

6 8 10 12 14 16 18

32 33 34 35 36 37

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39 40

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