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punished with transportation for life. From Ruth, when the kinsman of Boaz gave up his this time until the passage of the Emancipa- claim to the inheritance of Ruth, and to Ruth tion bill the subject was continually pressed also, he indicated his assent by plucking off upon the attention of Parliament. Slavery his shoe and giving it to Boaz. Also, we read existed in Great Britain in Saxon and Norman in Deuteronomy that when the brother of a times, when the peasantry were sold in the dead man refused to marry his widow she asmarket like cattle for exportation, and were serted her independence of him by - loosing looked upon as mere chattels, to be bought and his shoe." sold with the land upon which they toiled. In Captain Kidd was born in Scotland, and Scotland, even as late as 1780, a law existed took to the sea when a mere boy. In 1695 a which compelled colliers, on entering a mine, company composed of leading gentlemen in to perpetual service there, the right to their Great Britain and in the Colonies was formed labor passing with the mine to an inheritor or to make a business of privateering and reap purchaser, and their children being in like the profits, which were known to be immense. manner attached to the mine, and forbidden The “ Adventure," a galley of 287 tons, quite under severe penalty to seek other employment. a large vessel for those days, was purchased,

Trojan War. The legend regarding the and the command given to Kidd, who sailed Trojan war has, undoubtedly, a historical ori- with two commissions, one of which empowgin, in the fact of the actual destruction of ered him to act against the French, and the Troy by a Grecian military expedition. About other to cruise against pirates. Besides these 1194-'84 B. C., according to the traditions, commissions under the Great Seal, he had the Paris, one of the sons of Priam, enticed Helen, ordinary letters of marque from the Commisthe beautiful wife of Menelaus, King of Sparta, sioners of the Admiralty. The king was to away from her husband, and, at the call of have one tenth of all the booty, and the rest Menelaus all the heroes of Greece flew to arms was to be divided between the shareholders and to avenge this wrong. The Grecian host num- Kidd in certain specified proportions. A porbered 100,000 warriors, among whom were tion was to be appropriated to the crew, who Ulysses, Achilles, Ajax, Diomed, and Aga- were to receive no regular pay. Kidd left Plymmemnon, who, as brother of Menelaus, was outh April 23, 1696, captured a French fishchosen to lead the expedition. The siege of ing vessel off Newfoundland, and in July the city of Priam lasted ten years. Finally the ' reached New York, where he remained until Greeks, by the device of Ulysses, built an im- September, when he sailed for Madagascar, mense wooden horse, in which they concealed a then one of the strongholds of the buccaneers. number of their warriors, and left it on the plain In January of the following year he arrived at in sight of the city, and then retired to their the island, and in 1698 reports were abroad in ships as though abandoning the siege. The England that he had raised the black flag, and Trojans, believing that the statue was left as orders were dispatched to the effect that he be a propitiatory offering to their gods, carried it apprehended should he come within reach. within their walls, and at night the concealed April, 1699, found him in the West Indies, warriors issued from the horse and opened the whither he had gone in a vessel called the gates of the city to their returned comrades, “ Quidah Merchant.” This he secured in a and Troy was sacked and burned. The king lagoon in the island of Saona, near Hayti, and and all his sons were killed ; in fact, according re-embarked in a small sloop named the - San to the legend, Æneas, and his father, Anchises, Antonio,” for the Colonies of America. He and a few devoted followers, were the only ones sailed up Long Island Sound to Oyster Bay, to escape, and these, after long wanderings by after making a landing in Delaware Bay, and sea and land, finally settled on the shores of there took aboard a New York lawyer named Etruria, in Italy. The battles which were fought James Emott, whom he afterward sent to before the walls of Troy have been immortalized Boston to the Earl of Bellamont, who had beby Homer in the “Iliad.”

come governor of the Colonies. Emott was Bride, Throwing Shoe after. — The Kidd's advance agent, sent forward to ascercustom of throwing a shoe after a departing tain how the privateersman would be received. bride and groom originated so far back in the While the lawyer was absent on this mission, dim and mystical past that the memory of man Kidd buried some bales of goods and treasure stretcheth not back to its beginning. It is by on Gardiner's Island. To the inquiries of the some thought to typify an assault, and is a New York lawyer Bellamont made evasive lingering trace of the custom among savage answers, and then later induced Kidd to pronations of carrying away the bride by violence. ceed to Boston, where he landed July 1, 1699. Others claim that it has a likeness to a Jewish Five days later, Kidd, who was examined by custom mentioned in the Bible. Thus, in the Council, was sent to England, where he was given something of the form of a trial. 'the thirteen original States. The society is He was permitted to have no counsel, was not nominally a charitable and social organization, allowed to send for papers or witnesses, and and is distinct from the general committee of was, of course, found guilty of piracy and of the Tammany Democracy, which is a political the murder of one of his crew, and was hanged organization. at Execution Dock, with nine of his associates. I Salutation, Forms of.- The custom of Bellamont fitted out another vessel to go in shaking hands, which is the most common search of the “ Quidah Merchant,” but news among civilized nations, comes undoubtedly came before the search began that the latter from remote barbarism, when two men, meethad been stripped and burned by the men left ing, gave each other their weapon hands as a with it by Kidd. The treasure which was security against treachery or sudden attack. secured on Gardiner's Island, with what was In the East and among the Slavic nations the found with Kidd on the “ San Antonio,” character of salutations is quite different. amounted to $70,000.

Among the Persians, the custom of throwing Bridge of Sighs is the bridge connect-'one's self upon the ground and kissing the ing the palace of the Doge with the state feet of the monarch prevails. In China, an prison in Venice. It was so called because i inferior upon horseback meeting a superior prisoners once having crossed it from the dismounts and waits until the latter has passed. Judgment Hall were never seen again, and it In Japan the inferior removes his sandals was supposed that many of them were dropped when meeting his superior, crosses his hands through a trap-door into the dark and deep by placing the right hand in the left sleeve, waters of the canal flowing beneath.

and, with a slow, rocking motion of his body, Scarabæus, a peculiar beetle held sacred cries out, “ Augh! Augh!(Do not hurt by the Egyptians. Several mystical ideas were me.) In Siam, the inferior throws himself attributed to it; the number of its toes, 30, upon the ground before his superior; the latter symbolized the days of the month; the time it sends forward one of his slaves to see whether deposited its ball, which contained its eggs, the former has been eating anything, or carwas supposed to refer to the lunar month; the ries with him any smell at all offensive. If he movement of the clay-ball referred to the does, he is immediately kicked out without action of the sun on the earth, and personified ceremony; but if not, the attendant raises him that luminary. It was supposed to be only of up. In Ceylon, the inferior, on meeting a the male sex, hence it signified the self-exist- superior, throws himself upon the ground, reent, self-begotten generation, or metamorphosis, peating the name and dignity of the latter. and the male or paternal principle of nature. Among some tribes of the American Indians In this sense it appears on the head of the the custom is to salute by rubbing noses Pygmæan deity Ptah-Socharis Osiris, the together. This form is also common in the Demiurgos, and in astronomical scenes and Friendly and Society Islands, where it is resepulchral formulas. In connection with the turned by each taking the hand of the other Egyptiau notions, the Gnostics and some of and rubbing it upon his own nose and mouth. the Fathers called Christ the scarabæus. The The Moors of Morocco ride at full speed toward insect during its life was worshiped and after a stranger, as if they intended to run him death embalmed.

down, and, on arriving near, suddenly stop Tammany, Society of, or Columbian and fire a pistol over his head. The Arabians Order, was formed in 1789, being the effect of shake hands six or eight times ; but if persons a popular movement in New York, having pri- of distinction they embrace and kiss several marily in view a counterweight to the so-called times, also kissing their own hands. In Tur" aristocratic” Society of the Cincinnati. It key, it is the custom to place the hand upon was essentially anti-Federalist or Democratic the breast and bow to the person saluted. In in its character, and its chief founder was Wil- | Burmah, when a gentleman meets a lady or liam Mooney, an upholsterer, and a native-born another gentleman he applies his mouth and American of Irish extraction. It took its title nose closely to their cheek and draws in a long from a noted, ancient, wise, and friendly chief breath, as if smelling a delightful perfume of the Delaware tribe of Indians, named Tam- with both mouth and nose. In the greater many, who had, for the want of a better subject, portion of Germany it is an act of politeness been canonized by the soldiers of the Revolu- i to kiss the hand of a lady; but this privilege is tion as the American patron saint. The first allowed in Italy only to near relatives, while meeting was held May 12, 1789. The act of in Russia it is extended to kissing the foreincorporation was passed in 1805. The Grand head. On the European continent, it is usual Sachem and thirteen Sachems were designed for men who are intimate friends to kiss one to typify the President and the Governors of another. The Pelew Island inhabitants grasp either the hand or foot of the one they wish to quittal was followed by a series of outbreaks salute and rub their faces against it; while and assassinations which were only checked after Yemen persons of rank permit their fingers to the Czar himself had fallen at the hands of a be kissed, after long refusal.

Nihilist assassin. The doctrines and objects Nihilism.-The term “Nihilist” was prob- of the Nihilists must be taken from the declaably first used by the Russian novelist Tur- rations of their leaders. Bakunin, in a speech geneff, and was given to the party now known at Geneva in 1868, announced that he was the as Nihilists in derision, because its members bearer of a new gospel, whose mission was to sought the destruction of all existing order ' destroy the lie at the beginning of which was and government without proposing and appar- God. Having got rid of this belief, the next ently without intending to substitute any de- lie to be destroyed was right, a fiction invented fined scheme or organization in its place. The by might to strengthen her power. “Our first earliest advocate of this doctrine was Michael work,” he said, “must be destruction of everyBakunin, who, as early as 1847, advocated a thing as it now exists, the good and the bad; Russian republic, and in 1868 founded the for, if but an atom of this old world remains, “ International Alliance of Revolution," a the new will never be created.” secret society having for its object a popular Bacteria is the name given to certain uprising against all monarchical governments. forms found in animal and vegetable fluids beThis society was undoubtedly the parent of the cause of their shape, and is derived from a many secret organizations that have since Greek word meaning a club. They are mere sprung into existence throughout Europe. points of organized matter, and constitute the Though Alexander II. introduced a much more lowest form of organic life. They are found liberal policy than any of his predecessors, it in the sap of plants, in the blood of man and came so far short of the desires of the party of of the lower animals, and are abundant in progress that the spirit of discontent seemed eggs. They bear an important part in healthy stimulated, and the existence of a revolution- as well as morbid processes, in the ripening of ary conspiracy was proved in 1877, when, after fruit as well as decay. They also exist in susa great trial lasting eighteen months, 135 per- pension in the air, and the festering of an open sons out of 183 arrested were found to belong sore is occasioned by the entrance of bacteria to such an organization. In 1878, when Vera from the surrounding air. They also act as Sassulitch shot General Trepoff, chief of the powerful organic ferments in the transformasecret police, the Nihilists began to attract at- tion of starch into sugar, of sugar-cane into tention as a really formidable society. Her ac- glucose, etc.

Temperature and Rainfall of Foreign Cities.
Mean Annual

Mean
Annual

Mean Annual
CITIES.
Annual Average

CITIES.
Anmual Average

CITIES.

Annual Average
Temper- Rainfall,
Temper- Rainfall,

Temper- Rainfall,
ature. Inches.
ature, Inches,

ature. Inches. Alexandria.... 69.0

10 Florence.

59.2
41 Munich...

48.4 Algiers

64.3
27 Frankfort.

50.0
Naples...

60.3

30 Amsterdam

49.9
Geneva

52.7

32
Nice

58.0 Archangel..

33.0
Genoa.

61.1
47 Odessa

48.0 Astrakhan.

50.1
6 Glasgow

49.8
Pará.

81.0 Athens.

63.0
Hague.

52.0
Paris

51.3 Bagdad..

74.0
Hamburg.

47.0
Pekin..

53.0

27 Barcelona..

63.0
Havana.

79.1
91 Port Said

2 Berlin

48.2
24 Hong Kong

73.0
101 Prague

50.2 Bermuda ..

72.0
55 Honolulu ..

75.0
Quebec ..

40.3 Berne..

46.0
46 Iceland..

39.0
30 Quito

60.9 Birmingham 48.2

Jerusalem

62,6

16 Rio de Janeiro.. 77.2 Bombay.

81.3
75 Lima

73.3
Rome:

60.5

31 Bordeaux.

57.0
30 Lisbon..

61.4
27 Rotterdam

51.0 Brussels.

50.0
29 London

50.8
25 San Domingo 81.3

108 Budapest.

51.9
17 Lyons

53.0
Shanghai..

59.0 Buenos Ayres... 62.8

Madeira

66.0
25 Smyrna..

60.0

24 Cairo

72.2
Madrid

58.2
9 St. Petersburg .. 39.6

17 Calcutta

82.4
76 Malta

66.0
Stockholm..

423 Canton

71.0
39 Manchester.

48.8
36 Sydney

65.8

49 Cape Town

62.0
23 Manila.

78.4
Tobolsk

32.0
Cayenne.
116 Maranham

277 Trieste..

55.0

43 Cherrapongee*..

610 Marseilles..

58.3
23 Valdivia..

52.0

106 Christiania..

41.5
Melbourne.

57.0
29 Valparaiso

64.0 Constantinople.. 56.5

Mexico

60.9
Venice..

55.4 Copenhagen

46.6
19 Milan..

55.1
38 Vera Cruz.

77.0

180 Delhi.

77.0
24 Montevideo

62.0
44 Vienna

51.0 19 Dublin..

50.1
29 Montreal

44.6
Warsaw

56.2 Edinburgh

40.0 * In Southwestern Assam. It is the wettest place in the world. In 1861 the rainfall there reached 905 inches, NOTE.— The mean annual temperature of the globe is 50° Fahrenheit. The average rainfall is 36 inches.

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List of Ships of the United States Navy. (Abbreviations - Propulsion : S., screw; T. S., twin screw; Tr. S., triple screw; P., paddle; I. H. P., indicated horse power.]

FIRST RATE.

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Iowa...
Indiana
Massachusetts
Oregon
Brooklyn.
New York
Columbia
Minneapolis.
Texas.
Puritan.
Olympia.

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66

Chicago.
Baltimore
Philadelphia
Monterey..
Newark..
San Francisco..
Charleston
Miantonomoh.
Amphitrite..
Monadnock.
Terror.
New Orleans
Albany.
Lancaster
Cincinnati
Raleigh...
Atlanta....
Boston...

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1896 11,340 1st class battleship

Steel
.1893
10,288

Steel
1893 10,288

Steel 1893 10,288

Steel 1895 9,215 Armored cruiser

Steel
.1891 8,200

Steel
1892
7,376 Protected cruiser

Steel
1893 7,375

Steel
1892
6,315 2d class battleship

Steel
1882

6,060 Double-turret monitor Iron . 1892 5,870 Protected cruiser

Steel

SECOND RATE. 1885 4,500 Protected cruiser

Steel 1888 4,413

Steel
1889 4,324

Steel
1891 4,084 Barbette turret, low free-
board monitor

Steel
1890
4,098 Protected cruiser

Steel
1889 4,098

Steel 1888 3,730

Steel 1876 3,990 Double-turret monitor

Iron 1883 3,990

Iron 1883 3,990

Iron 1883 3,990

Iron 1896 3,437 Protected cruiser

Steel 3,437

Steel 3,250 Cruiser

Wood
1892 3,213 Protected cruiser

Steel
1892
3,213

Steel
1884 3,000

Steel
1884
3,000

Steel
THIRD RATE.
2,790 Cruiser

Wood
2,690
1893 2,155 Harbor-defense ram

Steel
2,100 Single-turret monitor Iron
2,100

Iron 2,100

Iron
2,100

Iron
1891
2,089 Unprotected cruiser

Steel
1891
2,089

Steel
1892 2,089

Steel 1,900 Cruiser

Wood 1,875 Single-turret monitor Iron 1,875

Iron 1,875

Iron 1,875

Iron 1,875

Iron 1,875

Iron 1,875

Iron 1,875

Iron 1890 1,710 Gunboat

Steel 1890 1,710

Steel 1888 1,710

Steel 1881 1,700

Iron 1884 1.486 Despatch boat

Steel 1895 1,392 Light-draft gunboat

Steel 1896 1,392

Steel 1,375 Cruiser

Wood 1.375

Wood 1,375

Wood 1,375

Wood 1895 1,371 Light-draft gunboat Steel 1,370

Iron 1892 1,177 Gunboat

Steel .1891 1,177

Steel 1,020 Cruiser

Iron 1,020

Iron
1896 1,000 Composite gunboat

Comp
1896
1,000

Comp
1897
1,000

Comp
1897
1,000

Comp
1896 1,000

Comp 1897 1.000

Comp

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List of Ships of the United States Navy- Continued.

FOURTH RATE.

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Dynamite-gun vessel Steel Gunboat

Steel Training ship

Wood Gunboat

Steel Cruiser

Iron Gunboat

Iron TORPEDO BOATS. Torpedo boat

Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel

1,720 1,800 2,000 2,000 2,000

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Cushing (No. 1).......... 1890 Ericsson (No. 2)..... ..1894 Foote(No.3)............1896 Rodgers (No. 4)........ Winslow (No. 5)... 1897 Porter (No. 6).... 1896 Dupont (No. 7)... 1897 Morris No. 14)... ......1897 Talbot (No. 15)...

......1897 Gwin (No. 16)............1897 Mackenzie (No. 17)... McKee (No. 18).......... Manly (No. 22)... Somers (No. 23)... Stiletto......

105 120 142 142 142 165 166 105 461

. 1896

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1,750 850 850 850 850

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31

18. 22

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Tug

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10.
11.5
10.
11.5
11.12

Fortune... Iwana ...... Ley den... Narkeeta... Nina. Rocket Standish .. Tra ific..... Triton ..... Wahneta ... Unadilla..... Samoset.....

8.5

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10.

280

13.

212
192
345
225

11.5

1895

12.

1897

Sails

Monongahela.....
Constellation.....
Jamestown...
Portsmouth....
Saratoga .....
St. Mary's....

2,100
1,186
1,150
1,125
1.025
1,025

9.

9.15

Steel 1,900

Wood 359 a In ordinary. TUGS.

Iron 340
Steel 300
Iron 340
Steel 300
Iron 388
Wood 147

Iron 340
Wood
Steel 300
Steel 300
Steel 500

Steel 450
SAILING SHIPS.

Wood
Wood
Wood
Wood
Wood

Wood
RECEIVING SHIPS.

Wood 1,050
Wood 950
Wood
Wood
Wood 980

Wood 692
UNSERVICEABLE.
Sailing ship

| Wood
Cruiser

Wood

95

Wood
Cruiser

Wood 1.202

Wood 839 Sailing ship

Wood

Wood
Cruiser

Wood 1,000
Wood 1,100
Wood

530 | Wood

310 UNDER CONSTRUCTION. 1st class battleship

Steel 10,000
Steel 10,000
Steel 10,000
Steel 10.000
Steel 10.000
Steel 16,000
Steel 16,000

Steel 16.000 Submarine torpedo boat Steel 1,200 Tug

Steel 450

Franklin .... Wabash ..... Vermont ..... Independence. Pensacola. Richmond...

Sails

6,170
4,650
4,150
3,270
3,000
2,700

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