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ovarits of educarts,

lative Council of Nova Scotia number 21, and Quebec 24.1 Production and Industry.- Agriculture. Of the The membership of the Legislative Assemblies are: total area of Canada in 1891, there were 28,037,242 acres Prince Edward Island 30. Nova Scotia 98, New Bruns- of improved land, out of 60,287,730 acres of occupied wick 41, Quebec 73, Ontario 94, Manitoba 40, British land. Of the improved lands, 19,904,826 acres were unColumbia 33, and the North-West Territories 26. The der crop, being 4,792,642 acres more than were under North-West Territories are presided over by a Lieu-crop in 1881. The acreage under pasture in 1891 was 15.tenant Governor and a Legislative Assembly. The Ex- | 284,788 acres, an increase of 8,899,226 acres since 1881. ecutive Council consists (since October 1, 1897) of the The acreage under wheat in 1891 was 2,723,861 acres, an Lieutenant Governor and five members, elected, as such, increase of 381,506 acres in ten years. The average yield by the people,

of 1891 per acre was 15.4 bushels, an increase of 1.6 Instruction. All the provinces of the Dominion bushels per acre over the yield of 1881. There is a cenhave one or more universities, and several collegestral experimental farm near Ottawa, and others in sevwhich prepare for university degrees. There are in all eral of the provinces. In 1895 there were 195 ranches about 16 degree-granting bodies in the Dominion, with in the N.-W. Territories, covering an area of 904,187 about 24 colleges, including denominational, medical, acres. and other special institutions. From special official Forestry. The timber wealth of Canada is very statistics of these institutions it may be estimated that large, and timbering one of its most important industhey are attended by about 13,000 students, and their tries. The forest area is estimated at 1,248,798 square

f 8700,000, while | miles. The forest products of 1891 were valued at 80,the estimated value of their endowments, Idings, 1071,415 dollars, of which 27,207,647 dollars were exported. land, etc., is over $16,000,000.

The census returns show an aggregate of 2,045,073,072 The expenditure for the year on public and high cubic feet as the total cut of the year. The forest prod. schools, including Government grants, was over $10,- ucts exported to the United Kingdomn in 1897 amounted 000,000. The supervision of education is under the in value to 14,973,292 dollars out of a total of 32,937,976 control of the Governments of the several provinces, dollars. The recently introduced wood pulp industry is and the systems in uso vary somewhat, but are all based | increasing rapidly, the exportable surplus being 741,960 on the principle of free education, the funds being sup- dollars in 1897, chiefly going to Great Britain and the plied in nearly all the provinces by Government grants United States. The Crown forests belong to the Proand local taxation. In British Columbia and the North I vincial Governments, except in Manitoba, the N.-W. West Territories the schools are supported wholly by | Territories, and the Railway Belt (forty miles wide) in Government. Education is more or less compulsory British Columbia, where they belong to the Dominion. in all the provinces, but the law is not very strictly Fisheries. The total value of the produce of the fisherenforced. In Ontario, Quebec, and the North-West ies of Canada in 1896 was 20,407,424 dollars; in 1895, 20,185,Territories there are separate schools for Roman Catho 298 dollars. The values of the principal catches in 1896 lics; in the other provinces the schools are unsectarian.were: cod, 3,610,979 dollars; salmon, 4,009,679 dollars ; Separate schools in Manitoba were abolished by a Pro-herring, 2,909,744 dollars; lobsters, 2,205,762 dollars, and vincial Act passed in 1890.

mackerel, 727,743 dollars. In 1896, according to provJustice. There is a Supreme Court in Ottawa, hav- | inces, the values were: Nova Scotia, 6,070,895 dollars : ing appellate, civil, and criminal jurisdiction in and British Columbia, 4,183,999: New Brunswick, 4,799,433 : throughout Canada. There is also an exchequer court, Quebec, 2.025,754: Ontario, 1.605,674; Prince Edward which is also a colonial court of admiralty, with powers Island, 976,126: Manitoba and N.-W. Territories, 745,543. ag provided in the Imperial “ Colonial Courts of Admi- Mining.--Nova Scotia, British Columbia, Quebec, N. ralty Act, 1890." There is a Superior Court in each prov- and W. Ontario, and part of the N.-W. Territories, are ince: county courts, with limited jurisdiction, in most the chief mining districts of Canada. The total value of the provinces; all the judges in these courts being of the mineral produce of Canada was, in 1897, 28,779,173 appointed by the Governor General. Police magistrates dollars: in 1896, 22,609,825 dollars. The principal product and justices of the peace are appointed by the Provincial is coal, of which, in 1896, 3,745,716 tons were raised, valGovernments.

ued at 7.226,462 dollars; in 1897, 3,876,201 tons, valued at Religion. There is no State Church in the whole of 17,442,204 dollars. Among the other minerals produced British North America. The Church of England is gov.in 1897 were gold, 6,190,000 dollars; nickel, 1,400,000 erned by twenty bishops, with about 1,000 clergy; the lars; asbestos, 324,700 dollars; petroleum, 1,011,546 dolRoman Catholic Church by one cardinal, seven arch- lars; copper, 1,501,660 dollars; silver, 3,322,000 dollars: bishops. twenty-three bishops, and about 1,500 clergy: lead, 1,396,850 dollars: iron ore, 178,719 dollars. It is and the Presbyterian Church in Canada, with about estimated that the coal-bearing area of the N.-W. 1.000 ministerg - formed in 1875 by the union of two Territories extends over 65,000 square miles. formerly distinct bodies - by presbyteries, synods, and Capital.-The capital of Canada was transferred in an annual assembly as in the Scotch Church, with 2,388 | 1841 from Kingston to Montreal, and in 1849 serious riots churches and stations. The Methodists have 1,700 and arose resulting in the burning of the Parliament Houses the Baptists about 500 ministers. All these bodies have on the 26th of April, over the question of compensation one or more divinity schools. The number of members for those who had suffered losses during the recent of each religious creed in the Dominion was as follows rebellion. The riots were in reality caused by the hostil. at the census of April 6, 1891 :

ity of the British and Frenoh inhabitants. One of the Roman Catholics.. 1.992.017 I Congregationalists.... 28,157

| results was the establishment of two seats of governPresbyterians..... 755,326 Miscellaneous creeds..106.739 ment, one at Toronto and the other at Ottawa, ParliaAnglicans....... 646.059 No creed stated.....*89.355 | ment sitting four years in each city alternately. Ottawa Methodists.... 817,765

later on was made the capital of Canada and eventually Baptists....... 303,839 Total............4,833,239

of the Dominion. Lutherans..... 63,982

Naturalization.-No question of naturalization arises • Including Pagans.

in connection with the emigration of British subjects to

Canada. Settling in the Dominion makes no more The following shows the numbers of the leading de

change in this respect than a removal from York, Glasnominations in the several provinces according to the

gow, Swansea, or Dublin to London, and a new arrival census of 1891 :

has all the privileges of a Canadian born fellow subject. For foreigners the Canadian naturalization laws are marked by a spirit of liberality, and such persons can

transact any business and hold real estate without being PROVINCE.

naturalized. By residing three years and taking the oath of allegiance they become naturalized British subjects. The oath is one of simple allegiance and does not require any offensive renunciations. Naturaliza

tion confers political and all other rights. Ontario...... 358,300 385,999 453,147 684,033 106,017

Money and Credit.-The Bank Acts of Canada imQuebec....... .. 1,291,709 75,472 52.673 39.514 7.991

pose stringent conditions as to capital, notes in circulaNova Scotia...... 122,452 61,410 108.952 64,195 83,122

tion, limit of dividend, returns to the Dominion New Brunswick... 115,961 43,095 40,639 85,504 79,649

Government, and other points in all chartered and Manitoba.......... 20,571 30.852 39,001 28,437 16.112

incorporated banks. In making payments every bank is British Columbia. 20,843 23,619 15.284 14,298 3,098

compelled if required to pay a certain proportion in Prince Edw'd Island 47.837 6,646 33,072 13,596 6,265

Dominion Government notes, and must hold not less The Territories...... 14,34 15,900 12,558 8,158 1,655 than 40 per cent, of its cash reserve in Dominion Govern.

ment notes. In 1897 there were 37 incorporated banks

Roman
Catholic.

Church of
England.

Presby-
terian.

Metho

dist.

Baptist.

16.12 incorporate if required to pay a cerminet holá not less

other: British. 5,0001.a

nema

Coin and builles. 50,786,915 coad-b'r'g quartz

All other drullion. 4,678,193 Fish, of other

date the nimDuring the veas 9,191 post office

!8 3692, nousst office

making returns to the Government, with 575 branches The following table shows the value of the leading all over the Dominion

imports and exports in 1897: Post-office savings banks under charge of the Government have been in operation in Canada since 1868; there are also Government savings banks, under the

Imports, 1897,

Exports of

for Home management of the Finance Department, in the Mari

Dollars. li Canadian prod- | Dollars. time Provinces, Manitoba, and British Columbia. In

Consumption.

uce, 1897. 1897 there were 779 offices of the former and 28 of the latter. In 1897 the post-office savings banks had 135,737 Wool, mfrs. of... 7,125,748 Cheese............

14.676,239 depositors and 32.380,829 dollars on deposit.

Iron, steel, and

Horned cattle.... 7,132,807 Internal Communications. Canada has a system of mfrs. of...... 10,613,620 Horses.

1,710,922 canal, river, and lake navigation Over 2,700 miles in Coal and coke.. 9,276,534 Sheep ...

1.002,011 length, and vessels from the lake ports reach the Atlan Breadstuffs. 1,136,263 Eggs......

978,479 tic without breaking bulk. Up to 1897, 71,750,000 dollars Cotton mfrs...... 4,269,620 other animal had been spent on canals for construction alone. In Tea and coffee.... 4.034,208 products ....... 13,744,794 1896, 25,622 vessels, of 4,677,826 tons, passed through the Sugar of all kinds 8,560,790 Wood pulp... 741,959 Canadian canals,carrying 151,342 passengers and 3,413,674 Cotton wool and

Wood and other tons of freight, chiefly grain, timber, and coal.

waste........... 3,290,240 mfrs. of ........ 32,169,087 The Dominion of Canada had a network of railways Silk and mfrs, of 1,988,305 Wheat and wheat of a total length of 16,687 miles completed at the end of | Provisions ...... 655,316! flour.

7,085,048 June, 1897, being an increase of 300 miles over that of Wool, raw..... 878,339 Peas.......

2,352,891 1896. The number of miles in operation was 16,550. The Wood and mfrs.

Apples ....... 2,682,472 Canadian Pacific Railway main line from Montreal to of...

861,728 Hay ..........

999,238 Vancouver is 2,906 miles in length. By means of this Animals, living.. 397,902 Other agriculrailway and a line of Pacific steamers subsidized by the Flax, hemp, jute,

ltural products.. 4,862,997 Imperial and Dominion Governments, Montreal and and mfrs, of.... 1,362,853 Codfish........... 2,706,827 Yokohama have been brought within 14 days of one an- Spirits and wines 1,379,436 Fish of other other. There is a monthly steam service between Austra- | Coin and bullion. 4.676,194 kinds......

7,607,496 lia and British Columbia, for which the Dominion Gov- | All other articles. 50,786,915 Coal.............. 3,330,017 ernment gives 25,0001. a year and the Australian 12,0001. a year.

& nuggets, etc. 2,804,101 The number of electric railways in Canada in 1897 was

Other minerals... 5,164,797 35, with a mileage of 535; the number of passengers

Iron and steel and carried during the year was 83,811,306; the total paid up

m is.............

522,988 capital was 18,727,355 dollars, and the bonded debt, 9,

Leatherand mfrs.] 1,541,732 S4.452 dollars.

Coin and bullion. 327,298 On June 30, 1897, there was 9,191 post offices in the

All other articles. 9,815,638 Dominion. During the year ended on the foregoing

Foreign produce. 13,990,415 date the number of letters sent through the post office was 123,830,000, of post cards 26,140,000, of newspapers, Total. ........ 111,234,021 Total.........

.. 137,950,253 books. etc. 26,640,000, and of parcels 369.570. Newspapers sent from the office of publication are carried free. Their number in 1897 was estimated at upwards of 74,319,976. The letters and post cards posted amounted to 28.88 per head, and the other articles to 19.54 per head. Revenue, 4,311,243 dollars; expenditure, 4,897,783 dollars. A uniform rate of postage of three cents has been established over the whole Dominion. The num

minion. The num vincias Unidas del Rio de la Plata," bears date ber of money order oftices in Canada in 1897 was 1,319 and of orders issued 1,162,209, their value having been 13,081,860 dollars.

when Buenos Ayres joined the confederacy. There were 29,318 miles (2,786 being Government) of By its provisions, the executive power is left telegraph lines in Canada in 1897 and 70,761 miles of wire, with 2.572 offices, and the number of messages

to a President, elected for six years by represent, as nearly as could be ascertained, 4,313,925. There

There sentatives of the fourteen provinces, equal to were in 1894, 44,000 miles of telephone wire, and 33,500 sets of instruments; 72,500,000 messages were sent. The returns for 1897 do not vary greatly from those of 1894.

combined; while the legislative authority is

vested in a National Congress, consisting of a Area, Population, and Seats of Gov

Senate and a House of Deputies, the former ernment of the Provinces.

numbering 30, two from the capital and from Area, Popula

each province, elected by a special body of

Seats of PROVINCES. Square tion,

electors in the capital, and by the legislatures Miles.* 1891.

Government.

in the provinces; and the latter 133 members

elected by the people. By the constitution as Alberta....

100,000 25,278 ..Regina. Assiniboia.....

90,340 30,37+ Regina: revised in 1898, there should be one deputy for Athabaska ....

251,300

......Regina.

every 33,000 inhabitants. A deputy must be British Columbia... 383,300

.. Victoria. Manitoba........

73,956

..... Winnipeg 25 years of age, and have been a citizen for New Brunswick. 28,200 321,270

four years. The deputies are elected for four 20,600 Nova Scotia.....

450,523 ....... Halifax. Ontario........

222,000 2,114,475 Toronto. years, but one half of the House must retire Prince Edw'd Island 2,000 109,088 arlottetown.

Senators must be 30 years Quebec.. 347,350

every two years.

1,488,586 .....Quebec. Saskatchewan....... 114,000 11,146 ........Regina. of age, have been citizens for six years, and Mackenzie, Ungava,

have an annual income of 12,000 dollars. and Franklin...... 1,019,200 31,462 ........Regina. Yukon...............1 198,300 ..

One third of the Senate is renewed every three Keewatin.......... 756,000

years. The two chambers meet annually from Great Lakes & I 47.400

May 1 to September 30. The members of both Total.............. 3,653,946 4,823,875

the Senate and the House of Deputies are paid

for their services, each receiving 12,000 pesos * Land and water included in area, 1187.828 by census of 1896.

par annum. A Vice-President, elected in the

98,173

asures

ma

same manner and at the same time as the ical connection between them through the President, fills the office of Chairman of the identity of the Sovereign and the community Senate, but has otherwise no political power. of certain departments of state affairs. The President is commander-in-chief of the The common head of the monarchy is the troops, and appoints to all civil, military, and Emperor (Kaiser) of Austria and King (Király) judicial offices, and has the right of presenta- of Hungary. The crown is hereditary in the tion to bishoprics; he is responsible with the Habsburg-Lothringen dynasty, passing by ministry for the acts of the executive ; both right of primogeniture and lineal succession to President and Vice-President must be Roman males and (on failure of males) to females. Catholics, Argentine by birth, and cannot be The monarch must be a member of the Roman re-elected.

Catholic Church. He is styled - His Imperial The Ministry, appointed by and acting un- and Royal Apostolic Majesty,” being “ Emder the orders of the President, consists of eight peror of Austria, King of Bohemia, etc., and Secretaries of State — namely, of the Interior, Apostolic King of Hungary." Foreign Affairs, Finance, War, Justice, Agri- Affairs common to the two States are: -(1) culture, Marine, and Public Works.

Foreign affairs ; (2) military and naval affairs, The President has a salary of 36,000 dollars, but excluding legislation concerning the army ; the Vice-President of 18,000 dollars, and each (3) finance relating to common affairs, but of the five ministers of 16,800 dollars per each State provides separately for the assessannum.

ment, collection, and transmission of its con

tribution. The two States, moreover, form Local Government. The Constitution, with certain small exceptions, is identical with that of the United States. Such matters as affect the Republic as a whole are under the superintendence of the Central Government. The governors of the various provinces are invested with very extensive powers, and in their constitutional functions are independent of the central executive.

(as well as political) representation abroad, They are not appointed by the President of the Republic, but eleeted by the people of each province for a term

with industrial production (salt, tobacco, of three years and four years. The provinces elect their own legislatures, and have complete control over their own affairs; they can contract loans (internal and external) under their sole and exclusive responsibility.

same in both. This commercial union, unlike Religion and Instruction. Although the Constitution recognizes the Roman Catholic religion as that of the State, all other creeds are tolerated. There are 1

nent character, depends on a compromise rearchbishop and five suffragan bishops. For the instruction of the clergy there are 5 seminaries. In 1888 civil marriage was established in the Republic.

| Legislative power relating to common affairs Primary education is free, secular, and compulsory for children from 6 to 14 years of age. The elementary schools are supported in the capital and each province by the taxes established in their Education Acts, aided by large subsidies from the general Government. There are also 35 normal schools with 10,949 pupils

pils, action of the common ministries, belong to the There are 3 universities, at Cordova, Buenos Ayres, and La Plata, comprising faculties of law, medicine, and engineering, with a total of 2,500 students; a school of

of each consisting of 60 members, of whom 20 mines (39 students), 2 colleges of agriculture, a naval and military school. There is a well-equipped national observatory at Cordova, and another at La Plata,

Austrian Herrenhaus and the Hungarian Förmuseums at Buenos Ayres and La Plata, and a meteorological bureau. Justice,-- Justice is exercised by a Supreme Court of

Houses (the Austrian Abgeordnetenbaus and five judges and an attorney-general, which is also a court of appeal, and by a number of inferior and local courts, trial by jury being established by the Constitution for

are appointed for one year. The Delegations criminal cases. Each State has its own judicial sys- are summoned annually by the Emperor, altem.

ternately at Vienna and Budapest. They deAUSTRIA-HUNGARY.

liberate independently of each other, their Austria and Hungary, or, as in international decisions being communicated reciprocally in relations they are officially called, the Austro- writing; and if, after three such interchanges, Hungarian monarchy, consists of two States, they do not agree, then all the delegates (or the Austrian Empire and the Hungarian King- an equal number of members from each Deledom. The relation between the two States in gation) meet together, and, without discussion, its present form was fully regulated by the so- settle the matter by vote. The three minis. called Compromise of 1867. According to tries or executive departments for common this agreement the two States are perfectly affairs are:independent of each other, possessing each its 1. The Common Ministry of Foreign Affairs own constitution, its legislative power, and its and of the Imperial House. executive departments for most branches of 2. The Common Ministry of War. State affairs. There is, however, a close polit. 3. The Common Ministry of Finance.

. ' 140 !

To these departments must be added : - prentices; and by the law of 1891, children from three The Common Court of Public Accounts.

to six years of age may be sent to infant schools, unless

otherwise provided for. The ministers are responsible for the dis-. Every parish or commune is bound to maintain an

infant school. charge of their official functions to the Dele The educational organization of Austria comprises :gations.

(1) Elementary schools; (2) gymnasia and realschu

len: (3) universities and colleges; (4) technical high Religion.-In Austria the relation of the State to the schools; and (6) schools for special subjects. religious bodies is regulated by the statutes of Decem

| The erection of elementary schools is incumbent on ber 21. 1867, and of May 25. 1818. In these the leading

the school districts. Compulsory attendance begins principle is religious liberty, the independence of the

with the completion of the sixth year, and continues Church as regards the State, saving the rights of the

in Austria generally, till the completion of the foursovereign arising from ecclesiastical dignity. Full teenth. liberty of faith and conscience is secured, and the en- In Austria there are eight universities maintained by joyment of civil and political rights is independent of the State, each comprising four faculties, viz.: the. religious profession. Every religious body, legally recog ology, law, medicine, philosophy. nized, has the right of ordinary public worship, the management of its own affairs, and the undisturbed pos

Pro

Prosession of its premises, endowments, and funds for the purposes of worship, instruction, or charity. Recog

fes

Universi fes

Stu-
Universities.

Stunized religious bodies in Austria are: The Roman

sors, dents ties. sors, dents Catholic, Old Catholic, Greek-Oriental, Evangelical

etc.

etc. (Augsburg or Lutheran, and Helvetian or Reformed), the Evangelical Brotherhood, the Gregorian-Armenian, and

Cracow

1.201 the Jewish. The Minister for Ecclesiastical Affairs will

Lemberg 84' 1,640 grant legal recognition to any religious bodies if their

Vienna

| 444 / 5,796 Innsbruck 1 938 doctrine, worship, constitution, and designation con

(German 166 1,232 Czernowitz 1 40 369 tain nothing illegal or immoral.

Prague Bohe-
In Hungary there is perfect equality among all legally

I'mian 168 2,470
Graz

1,421 1 Total 1,306 14,887 Catholic, the Evangelical(Augsburg and Helvetian), the Greek-Oriental, the Gregorian-Armenian, the Unitarian, and the Jewish. Each has the independent administra

In addition to tbe universities there are in Austria 48 tion of its own affairs.

theological colleges, viz.: 44 Roman Catholic, 1 Greek Justice.-In Austria the ordinary judicial authori

Catholic, 1 Armenian Catholic, 1 Greek Oriental, and i ties are:

Protestant, with a total of 2,068 students. (1) The Supreme Court of Justice and Court of Cassa

There are six Government technical high schools for tion (Oberste Gerichts-und Kassationshof) in Vienna. I various branches of engineering and technical chamis(2) The 9 higher provincial courts (Oberlandesgerichte).

try, and a high school for agriculture in Vienna. (3) The 71 provincial and district courts (Landes-und Kreisgerichte), and, in connection with these, the jury courts (Geschworenengerichte). (4) The 937 county I BELGIUM. courts (Bezirksgerichte). Of these the third and fourth

According to the Constitution of 1831 Belgroups are courts of first instance; the second group consists of courts of second instance. Courts of instance act as courts of inquiry and have summary ju- hereditary monarchy." The legislative power risdiction. Courts of second instance are courts of appeal from the lower courts, and have the supervision the criminal courts in their jurisdiction. The jury courts try certain cases where severe penalties are involved, political offenses, and press offenses. The county courts exercise jurisdiction in cases of misde

of primogeniture. By marriage without the mea nor in the counties, and co-operate in preliminary proceedings regarding crime.

King's consent, however, the right of succesThere are in all for Austria 71 provincial and 937 county sion is forfeited. but may be restored by the or district courts.

There exist also special courts for commercial, rev King with the consent of the two Chambers. nue, military, and other matters.

The King's person is declared sacred ; and his In case of conflict between different authorities the Imperial Court (Reichsgerichte) in Vienna has power to ministers are held responsible for the acts of decide. 1. Hungary the ordinary judicial authorities are:

the Government. No act of the King can The Royal Court (kir. kuria) in Budapest and the Supreme Court of Justice (Table of Septemvirs) in

A ministers, who thus becomes responsible for it. Zágráb (Agram), of the highest instance in all civil and criminal matters ; 12 Royal Tables (királyi táblák) of second instance. As courts of first instance, 76 courts (törvényszékek) with collegiate judgeships ; 456 county

Its the Chambers. In default of male heirs, the courts (járásbíróságok) with single judges; 15 jury King may nominate his successor with the courts (sajtóbíróságok) for press offenses, besides an army special court.

ction.- Public education in Hungary com- | under eighteen years of age, which is declared prises the following grades: (1) Infant schools, (2) elementary schools; (3) middle or secondary schools,

to be the age of majority, the two Chambers gymnasia and realschools in Croatia and Slavonia, real meet together for the purpose of nominating a gymnasia); (4) preparatory and training institutions for infant-school nurses and male and female teachers ; (5)

According to the law amending the constireligious education; (7) universities : (8) polytechnicum (technical high school). The schools for special subjects,

tution, promulgated 7th September, 1893, the such as agricultural, industrial, commercial, mining. Senate consists of members elected for eight and military schools, are for the greater part administered by the competent ministries, while the philan years, partly directly, and partly indirectly. thropic and artistic schools are placed under the aypay auya wag schoon... are placed under the | The number of Senators elected directly 19

Compulsory school attendance was established by law in 1868. for children of six to twelve years, and repeti

mtion courses for children of twelve to fifteen years; the industrial law of 1872 requires special courses for ap- |

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constituent body is similar to that which elects / ment railways between his home and the place deputies to the Chamber, except that the min- of Session. imum age of electors is fixed at thirty years. The Senate and Chamber meet annually in In 1895-96 the number of electors was 1,186,- the month of November, and must sit for at 000, disposing of 1,924,000 votes. Senators least forty days; but the King has the power elected indirectly are chosen by the provincial of convoking them on extraordinary occasions, councils, two for each province with less than and of dissolving them either simultaneously 500,000 inhabitants ; three for each with a or separately. In the latter case a new elecpopulation up to 1,000,000; and four for each tion must take place within forty days, and a with over 1,000,000. No one, during two meeting of the Chambers within two months. years preceding the election, must have been a An adjournment cannot be made for a period member of the council appointing him. All exceeding one month without the consent of senators must be at least forty years of age, the Chambers. Money bills and bills relating and those elected directly must pay not less to the contingent for the army originate in the than 1,200 francs in direct taxes, or own im- Chamber of Representatives. movable property in Belgium yielding an in- The Executive Government consists of eight come of 12,000 francs. In provinces, how-departments, under the following Ministers :ever, where the number eligible for the Sen- President of the Council. ate would be less than one in 5,000 of popula Minister of Railways. tion, the list is extended to this proportion by Minister of War. admission of the most highly taxed. Sons of Minister of Finance. the King, or failing these, Belgian princes of Minister of Foreign Affairs. the reigning branch of the Royal Family are Minister of Justice. by right Senators at the age of eighteen, but Minister of Interior and Public Instruction. have no voice in the deliberations till the age Minister of Agriculture and Public Works. of twenty-five years.

Minister of Industry and Labor. The members of the Chamber of Represen- Besides the above responsible heads of detatives are elected directly. Their number partments, there are a number of « Minisis proportioned to the population, and cannot tres d'Etat," without portfolio, who form a exceed one for every 40,000 inhabitants. Privy Council called together on special occa They sit for four years, one half retiring sion by the sovereign. The acting ministers, every two years, except that after a dissolu- as such, do not form part of the Privy Council. tion a general election takes place. Every

Local Government. The provinces and communes citizen over twenty-five years of age, dom

(2.607 in 1896) of Belgium have a large amount of auiciled for not less than one year in the tonomous government. The provincial and communal

electors are the same as those who elect the senators same commune, and not legally disqualified,

directly. Cominunal electors must have been domiciled has a vote. Every citizen over thirty-five at least three years in the commune, and a supplemen

tary vote is given to owners of real property yielding an years of age, married or widower, with legiti

income of at least 150 francs. No one has more than 4 votes. In communes with over 20,000 inhabitants there

are councilors elected directly, by single vote, by citizens in house tax, has a supplementary vote, as has

enrolled on the communal electoral lists, and possessing the qualifications requisite for electors to the Councils of Industry and Labor: half the councilors are ap

pointed by the workingmen electors, and half by the 2,000 francs, or having a corresponding in- electors who are industrial

electors who are industrial heads (chefs d'industrie).

In communal elections vote by ballot is suppressed, excome from such property, or who for two

cept when there is merely a single mandate to be conye

ferred. Candidates obtaining an absolute majority are declared elected; others have seats allocated in accordance with the system of "Proportional Representation.” In the year 1896-97 there were 1,188,208 provincial and 1,124,276 communal electors. To be eligible to the

Provincial or Communal Council, persons must be age who have received a diploma or certificate twenty-five years of age and

twenty-five years of age and domiciled in the province

or commune. Half the Provincial Council is renewed of higher instruction, or who fill or have filled everu fores

every four years, and it meets fifteen days each year. - There is a permanent deputation of six members elected.

which is presided over by the Governor of the province. tice, implying at least average higher instruc- Borovincial and communal interests, including locai

finances, are under the care of the Council, as far as they are not provided for in the general administration. | The Communal Councils are elected for eight years, half

being renewed every four years. In each commune

, there is a college composed of the burgomaster, presielectors possessing, in all, 2,141,041 votes. Ident, and a certain number of aldermen, corresponding

to the permanent deputation of the Provincial Council, and both are the organs of the central administration.

Religion.-- The Roman Catholic religion is professed O by nearly the entire population of Belgium. The Pro

testants number only 10.000, while the Jewg number francs (1601.), and a free pass over Govern- about 4,000. The State does not interfere in any way.

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