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in gold; but if he means to say that we cannot change our monetary system without protecting those who have loaned money before the change was made, I desire to ask him where, in law or in morals, he can find justification for not protecting the debtors when the act of 1873 was passed, if he now insists that we must protect the creditors.

He says he will also propose an amendment which will provide for the suspension of free coinage if we fail to maintain the parity within a year. We reply that when we advocate a policy which we believe will be successful, we are not compelled to raise a doubt as to our own sincerity by suggesting what we shall do if we fail. I ask him, if he would apply his logic to us, why he does not apply it to himself. He says he wants this country to try to secure an international agreement. Why does he not tell us what he is going to do if he fails to secure an international agreement? There is more reason for him to do that than there is for us to provide against the failure to maintain the parity. Our opponents have tried for twenty years to secure an international agreement, and those are waiting for it most patiently who do not want it at all.

And now, my friends, let me come to the paramount issue. If they ask us why it is that we say more on the money question than we say upon the tariff question, I reply that, if protection has slain its thousands, the gold standard has slain its tens of thousands. If they ask us why we do not embody in our platform all the things that we believe in, we reply that when we have restored the money of the Constitution all other necessary reforms will be possible; but that until this is done there is no other reform that can be accomplished.

Why is it that within three months such a change has come over the country? Three months ago, when it was confidently asserted that those who believe in the gold standard would frame our platform and nominate our candidates, even the advocates of the gold standard did not think that we could elect a president. And they had good reason for their doubt, because there is scarcely a State here today asking for the gold standard which is not in the absolute control of the Republican party. But note the change. Mr. McKinley was nominated at St. Louis upon a platform which declared for the maintenance of the gold standard until it can be changed into bimetallism by international agreement. Mr. McKinley was the most popular man among the Republicans, and three months ago everybody in the Republican party prophesied his election. How is today? Why, the man who was once pleased to think that he looked like Napoleon-that man shudders today when he remembers that he was nominated on the anniversary of the battle of Waterloo. Not only that, but as he listens he can hear with ever-increasing distinctness the sound of the waves as they beat upon the lonely shores of St. Helena.

Why this change? Ah, my friends, is not the reason for the change evident to any one who will look at the matter? No private character, however pure, no personal popularity, however great, can protect from the avenging wrath of an indignant people a man who will declare that he is in favor of fastening the gold standard upon this country, or who is willing to surrender the right of self-government and place the legislative control of our affairs in the hands of foreign potentates and powers.

We go forth confident that we shall win. Why? Because upon the paramount issue of this campaign there is not a spot of ground upon which the enemy will dare to challenge battle. If they tell us that the gold standard is a good thing, we shall point to their platform and tell them that their platform pledges the party to get rid of the gold standard and substitute bimetallism. If the gold standard is a good thing, why try to get rid of it? I call your attention to the fact that some of the very people who are in this convention today and who tell us that we ought to declare in favor of international bimetallism— thereby declaring that the gold standard is wrong and that the principle of bimetallism is better-these very people four months ago were open and avowed advocates of the gold standard, and were then telling us that we could not legislate two metals together, even with the aid of all the world. If the gold standard is a good thing, we ought to declare in favor of its retention and not in favor of abandoning it; and if the gold standard is a bad thing why should we wait until other nations are willing to help us to let go? Here is the line of battle, and we care not upon which issue they force the fight; we are prepared to meet them on either issue or on both. If they tell us that the gold standard is the standard of civilization, we reply to them that this, the most enlightened of all the nations of the earth, has never declared for a gold standard and that both the great parties this year are declaring against it. If the gold standard is the standard of civilization, why, my friends, should we not have it? If they come to meet us on that issue we can present the history of our nation. More than that; we can tell them that they will search the pages of history in vain to find a single instance where the common people of any land have ever declared themselves in favor of the gold standard. They can find where the holders of fixed investments have declared for a gold standard, but not where the masses have.

Mr. Carlisle said in 1878 that this was a struggle between "the idle holders of idle capital" and "the struggling masses, who produce the wealth and pay the taxes of the country;" and, my friends, the question we are to decide is: Upon which side will the Democratic party fight; upon the side of "the idle holders of idle capital" or upon the side of "the struggling masses?" That is the question which the party must answer first, and then it must be answered by each individual hereafter. The sympathies of the Democratic party, as shown by the platform, are on the side of the struggling masses who have ever been the foundation of the Democratic party. There are two ideas of government. There are those who believe that, if you will only legislate to make the well-to-do prosperous, their prosperity will leak through on those below. The Democratic idea, however, has been that if you legislate to make the masses prosperous, their prosperity will find its way up through every class which rests upon them.

You come to us and tell us that the great cities are in favor of the gold standard; we reply that the great cities rest upon our broad and fertile prairies. Burn down your cities and leave our farms, and your cities will spring up again as if by magic; but destroy our farms and the grass will grow in the streets of every city in the country.

My friends, we declare that this nation is able to legislate for its own people on every question, without waiting for the aid or consent of any other

nation on earth; and upon that issue we expect to carry every State in the Union. I shall not slander the inhabitants of the fair State of Massachusetts nor the inhabitants of the State of New York by saying that, when they are confronted with the proposition, they will declare that this nation is not able to attend to its own business. It is the issue of 1776 over again. Our ancestors, when but three millions in number, had the courage to declare their political independence of every other nation; shall we, their descendants, when we have grown to seventy millions, declare that we are less independent than our forefathers? No, my friends, that will never be the verdict of our people. Therefore, we care not upon what lines the battle is fought. If they say bimetallism is good, but that we cannot have it until other nations help us, we reply that, instead of having a gold standard because England has, we will restore bimetallism, and then let England have bimetallism because the United States has it. If they dare to come out in the open field and defend the gold standard as a good thing, we will fight them to the uttermost. Having behind us the producing masses of this nation and the world, supported by the commercial interests, the laboring interests, and the toilers everywhere, we will answer their demand for a gold standard by saying to them: You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns, you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold.

In view of the wide publication of this speech, I may be pardoned for making some reference to it. While a member of the Committee on Resolutions, I was prevented from attending the first sessions of the committee owing to our contest, and was not a member of the subcommittee which drafted the platform. As soon as our contest was settled, I met with the committee and took part in the final discussion and adoption of the platform. Just before the platform was reported to the convention, Senator Jones sent for me and asked me to take charge of the debate. In dividing the time I was to have twenty minutes to close, but as the minority used ten minutes more than the time originally allotted, my time was extended ten minutes. The concluding sentence of my speech was criticised both favorably and unfavorably. I had used the idea in substantially the same form in a speech in Congress, but did not recall the fact when I used it in the convention. A portion of the speech was extemporaneous, and its arrangement entirely so, but parts of it had been prepared for another occasion. Next to the conclusion, the part most quoted was the definition of the term, "business men." Since I became interested in the discussion of monetary questions, I have often had occasion to note and comment upon the narrowness of some of the terms used, and nowhere is this narrowness more noticeable than in the attempt to ignore the most important business men of the country, the real creators of wealth,

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On the motion to adopt the substitute offered by the minority, the vote by States was as follows:

Arkansas

California.

Colorado

Connecticut..

Delaware..

Florida..

Georgia
Idaho

...

Illinois..

Indiana.
Iowa.

Kansas

Kentucky..

Louisiana.

Maine....

Maryland.

Massachusetts.....

Michigan...

Minnesota*

Mississippi..

Missouri....

Montana

Nebraska...

Nevada...

Total Vote. Ayes.

6

16

30

28

18

18

34

6

16

6

New Hampshire... 8
New Jersey.....

20

States.
Alabama...

Arkansas..

California.

Colorado..

Connecticut..

22

16

18

8

12

6

8

Delaware.

Florida.

Georgia

Idaho...

Illinois.

26

6

48

30

26

20

26

16

12

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12

5

3

12

5

7

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16

States.

Total Vote. Ayes.
72
72

New York......

North Carolina..

22

North Dakota..... 6

Ohio....

46

8

Oregon
Pennsylvania. 64
Rhode Island..

8

26

South Carolina... 18

6 South Dakota..... 8

Tennessee..

24

Texas

30

Utah

6

Vermont.

8

24

Virginia..
Washington

8

West Virginia..... 12
Wisconsin..

24

6

Wyoming..
Territories.

Upon this, the vote by States was as follows:

Not

Total
Vote. Ayes. Nays. Vot'g

.22

22

..16

18

8

12

6

8

26

6

48

3

Nays.
16

16

18

1

1

26

6

48

8

1

5

48

30

26

20

26

16

2

4

3

28

6

18

34

6

16

6

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4

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Alaska

6

Arizona...

6

Dist. of Columbia.. 6
New Mexico......

6

Oklahoma....

6

Indian Territory.. 6

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Totals......

:

States.
Indiana..
Iowa...

Kansas

930

Michigan
Minnesota

Kentucky.
Louisiana..

Maine...
Maryland..
Massachusetts....30

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*One absent from Minnesota.

After the defeat of the substitute, the roll was called upon the following amendment offered by Senator Hill:

We commend the honesty, economy, courage and fidelity of the present Democratic National Administration.

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3

24

6

2

2

303

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Nays.

1

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Total
Not
Vote. Ayes. Nays. Vot'g
30

...30

...26

26

.20

.26

20 26 16

.16

.12 11

1

.16 16

28

28 28

.18

17

24

6

4

4

6

6

626

..

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States.

Mississippi ......18
Missouri...

Montana.

Nebraska....
Nevada....

.34

6

.16

6

New Hampshire. 8
New Jersey......20
New York....
North Carolina...22
North Dakota.... 6
Ohio......

.46

8

Oregon....
Pennsylvania.....64

Rhode Island..... 8
South Carolina...18
South Dakota.... 8 8
Tennessee.. .24

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Not

Total
Vote. Ayes. Nays. Vot'g

18

34

4

16

Kentucky....

Louisiana.

Maine.

Maryland....
Massachusetts

.72

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8

20

72

64

8

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.26

6

.48

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..16 16

.18

18

8

8

.12

6

8

..

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1

5

26

6

48

.30

30

..26 26

..20 20

..26 26

16 16

.12

.16

..30

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2

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Total Vote. Ayes. Nays. States.
.22 22
Michigan.
Minnesota*
Mississippi
Missouri...

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States.

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Texas

Utah

24

Totals........930

Mr. Hill then offered the following amendments:

But it should be carefully provided by law at the same time that any change in the monetary standard should not apply to existing contracts.

Our advocacy of the independent free coinage of silver being based on belief that such coinage will effect and maintain a parity between gold and silver at the ratio of 16 to 1, we declare as a pledge of our sincerity that, if such free coinage shall fail to effect such parity within one year from its enactment by law, such coinage shall thereupon be suspended.

Both amendments were defeated without roll call. Upon the motion to adopt the platform, the vote by states was as follows:

12

Vermont.

Virginia.....
Washington
West Virginia ...12
Wisconsin.... .24
Wyoming..

6

Territories.

Alaska

Arizona.

Total
Not
Vote. Ayes. Nays. Vot'g
.30

30

6

6

6

Dist. of Columbia. 6
New Mexico.... 6
Oklahoma
6
Indian Territory.. 6

Montana.

Nebraska.

Nevada.

6

8

.24

8

North Carolina.

North Dakota..
Ohio.....

Oregon...
Pennsylvania.

New Hampshire..

New Jersey
New York...

2 10 Rhode Island..

4

South Carolina...

3

*One not voting.

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Total Vote. Ayes. Nays.

.28

28

6

18

34

6

16

6

..20

.72

.22
6

46

8

.64

8

.18

6

5666

564

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22

46

8

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9

18

11

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8

20
72

64

8

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