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might enter into bonds or partnerships among themselves rather than with strangers; but I need only remark, in brief, that daily events palpably indicate the reverse.

11. The cause, as above stated, being radical, deep, and universal, a person of experience is not wont to be much surprised at any extremes in human nature. In children and ignorant people we rather look for irregularities; and if our surprise be ever excited, it is at educated and respectable persons; and still more if they sustain the holy office of Christian ministers.

12. Faithfulness demands that I should not be deterred by the outward respectability or office of any man from exhibiting the practical confirmations of my subject; yet I would not willingly offend any person or denomination by any allusions, or by the expression of regret that too little regard is paid to the regulation of temper by many, in all sects. If I have occasionally made excursions for matter, beyond the precincts of my own community, it will be seen that I have not been less free with my own order. Temper is a universal subject, and my object is to exhibit it irrespective of churchman or dissenter. For my own sake and that of other ministers; for the sake of our flocks and our cause, I deeply deplore that our sacred function is no security against improper tempers. The more considerate of our people will remember that we are but flesh, and will pray for us; but others will think and speak differently.

13. He who receives holy orders, or other appointment to the ministry, is not necessarily a wise man; and if he be a learned man, which is not

always the case, he is not necessarily of such experience and suavity of address as to be fully suited to be the guardian of a parish or congregation. All men are not equally fit to enter on untried stations; much depends on their former mode of life. Those who have moved in a humble sphere may become giddy by elevation; and those who have moved in a higher may be equally unfitted as to the temper of their minds. In either character divine grace may soften the native passions, but both may fail in seeking and relying upon that grace, for the proper subjugation of every high thing that exalteth itself. A young minister may enter on his appointment with superlative conceit of belonging to "the cloth." He may talk of "my people," my pulpit," &c. with more majesty than is seemly. He may reiterate ego, ego, and hold forth in positive and authoritative strains. In his intercourse with the people he may affect to be somebody; may evince a vast desire to rule others, and feel more wounded at a slight of his dignity than at an open sin.


14. Candidates for the ministry are generally more taken up with books than the study of human nature and human tempers. Up to the time of entering on their functions it is obvious they can have seen but little of the world, especially in that light which is necessary to fit them for the pastoral care. When, therefore, they enter upon it, they would do well to recollect that they will have to do with persons of various temperament, -some twice their age, and perhaps thrice their experience; and others of superior worldly consequence, and probably not inferior in learning. This will oftener be the case in towns; and if

their lot be cast in a country place, they will do well rather to bear with rusticity than to quarrel with it. In most places people will move their hats in proportion to the consistency of our character and the benignity of our manners. A young minister, forgetting his proper business, may fill his hands, distract his head, and chafe his spirit with temporal matters, till he get into such a position in the eyes of his flock as to lower rather than raise their respect, either for his judgment or his temper.

15. I shall feel great pleasure in relieving the gloominess of the picture in the further progress of this work; but as yet I have by no means finished the darker touches. Experience and good sense make some men wise and amiable, but not all. For example:-A Christian minister applies to another to preach a charity sermon; but the one applied to afterwards discovers that another had been previously requested, to whom it was not convenient; and so he throws up the thing simply from the proud conceit that he was not asked first.

16. Two ministers are requested to preach one sermon each, on the same day, at the same place, and for the same charity; but the one appointed for the afternoon, when the common people chiefly attend, takes a grievous offence because he was not fixed for the morning, when more of the quality are present.

17. A dozen ministers of different denominations attend a Bible meeting: one who was invited, but does not arrive in time to take his resolution, mounts the platform at a later period. A lay gentleman who holds the last resolution is

requested to transfer it to the late comer; but lo! this is too bad and disrespectful. He accepts the transfer indeed, but only for the sake of expressing his displeasure at being put last, albeit he knows some one must speak last; and he might have spoken first had he arrived in time, although he had no claim, above his brethren, to special distinction.

18. An incumbent engages a curate to assist him in two contiguous churches. The latter, being new and more zealous, attracts the larger congregations. The incumbent, becoming jealous, begins to interrupt the fixed arrangement of alternate services. Being able to see both churches from his house, he looks out, and observing the bent of the people to hear the curate, he turns round and says, 'You may take A. this afternoon, and I will take B; not regarding the more than probable fact, that the curate, having prepared for B, is not in readiness for A. The public take offence at the incumbent, and he, out of mere jealousy, abruptly dismisses the curate. I have witnessed such a circumstance.

19. An incumbent, with his curate and their wives, are asked out to dine with a social party at a friend's house; but the curate's wife, more from accident than intention, sits in a more honourable place than the incumbent's, and so the latter conceives a jealousy of the other, and declares she will not visit the house again to be treated with such disrespect.

20. I might go on thus, multiplying examples, from the court downwards, exhibiting the noble, the honourable, the clerical, the legal, the medical, the trading, the working, and poorer classes, as

greatly deformed with proud and invidious tempers.

21. I have adverted to the clerical world, not in sport nor in malice, but rather by way of proving lesser things by greater. I regard the evangelical ministers of Great Britain, taken as a whole, and making allowances for differences of opinion, as the most devout body of men upon earth. I argue then, that if in this body, so advantageously circumstanced, we discover such irregularities of temper, it would evince great ignorance of men and things, to suppose that any other classes of men are less peccable or less irascible.

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22. Bad tempers are confined to no particular age or station of life. "The leaven of malice and wickedness pervades the entire mass of the human family. The truth is, each brings his peculiar temper into the world, and each indicates his native disposition at an early age. A few are favoured with judicious parents or guardians, are early initiated, and taught to demean themselves in a becoming manner; but many are so imprudently indulged by parents, misnamed fond, that, ere they attain the age of five or seven years, they will not endure wholesome discipline; but rave and push, and speak and act as they list.

23. I am at a loss to conceive how respectable parents can justify such blind and ruinous indulgence. But they generally reap their own reward. Finding their children at length unmanageable, they resolve to send them to school, to be corrected for the very faults which they themselves instilled or connived at. Here the little creatures have much to unlearn, to their own hearts' grief, and the no small trial of their tutors and go

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