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the exception and not the rule among our school-boys. Were military drill to be made a part of the study in the public schools of the United States, ten years from this time, in case of an emergency, millions of young men, well drilled and prepared to take the field, would stand ready to respond to the call of duty. With these objects in view, I have compiled the following system of Cadet Tactics for use in public and private schools. Great care has been exercised to have them conform on all essential points to the Infantry Tactics of the United States Army. Upton” and orders from the War Department have been closely followed, in order that the information imparted to our school-boys may hereafter be utilized in the ranks of the National Guard, or, if occasion requires, in the service of our country.

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1. Sections, to consist of one Sergeant, two Corporals and not less thap six nor more than fourteen cadets.

2. Platoons, to consist of one Lieutenant and two complete sections.

3. The Company, to consist of two Platoons, one First Sergeant, one Quartermaster Sergeant and two drummers, to be commanded by a Captain.

4. The Batallion, to consist of four Companies, one Adjutant, one Sergeant Major and one Drum Major, to be commanded by a Major.

5. Sections, Platoons and Batallions will be numbered from right to left; Companies will be designated by letters of the alphabet.

6. The drummers of each batallion will be assembled together under the Drum Major, who will have charge of their instruction.

7. This organization will be found simple of application, and not so cumbersome but what it will be easily understood.


8. Movements are only explained toward one flank; by substituting left for right, or the reverse, the corresponding movement is explained toward the other flank.

9. Movements not prescribed from a halt or on the march may be executed either at a halt or marching.

10. Movements not specially excepted may be executed in double time.

11. Movements divided into motions, when executed in detail, the command of EXECUTION causes the prompt performance of the first motion, and the command TWO, THREE, etc., that of the remaining motions. The commands by the numbers precede the execution of movements by detail. The commands without the numbers causes the movements by detail to be discontinued.


12. In this school each Sergeant will be the instructor of his section; each Lieutenant will supervise the instruction of their respective platoons; each Captain will in like manner superintend the instruction of their respective companies. The instruction in this school should continue for at least three months, the drills to take place (if possible) daily, and to be of from fifteen to thirty minutes' duration At the close of each drill, before the sections are dismissed, the cadets should be questioned on the instruction given, thereby awakening an interest in the work, and adding theory to practice. The instruction in this school will invariably be by section.


13. The Sergeant indicates where the right is to rest, places himself six yards in front of the center and com



mands: (1) In open order, (2) FALL IN. At this command, the cadets form in one rank, facing to the right, the tallest corporal being the first file, the shortest corporal being the last file; each cadet will place himself two paces from the one preceding him. The Sergeant then commands (1) Left, (2) FACE, at which each cadet faces to the left and is taught the following:


14. Heels, on the same line and as near each other as the conformation of the cadet will permit.

Feet, turned out equally, forming with each other an angle of about sixty degrees.

Knees, straight, without stiffness.
Body, erect on the hips and well balanced.
Shoulders, square and falling equally.
Arms, hanging naturally.
Elbows, near the body.

Hand, palms turned slightly to the front, the little finger

behind the seams of the trousers. Head, erect without constraint. Face, square to the front.

Eyes, direct to the front, and striking the ground at the distance of fifteen yards.

Chin, slightly drawn.

This position must be easy and graceful, without stiffness or constraint. SAN FRANCISCO.

SERGEANT D. GEARY. To be continued.


The dimmest pool, in lanes or windy streets,

Glasses the heavens and the rushing storm;
And in the depths of the humblest heart that beats,
The Eternal throws its awful shadow-form.


Some time


I came to some conclusions about these two studies that I here set down. The first is, that more of the defects of current school instruction have their source in poor reading than anywhere else. And in this statement I include the disciplinary as well as the studies. The second is, that instruction in grammar should look mainly to the interpretation and construing of language. The third is, that the great majority of teachers of grammar, in considering its main function to be the art of language, have made a mistake. And the last is, that the relations of reading and grammar have been largely overlooked. The end of reading is to obtain from written language the facts, ideas, thoughts, sentiments, and feelings that it contains; and this involves not only the meanings of words, but also the logical interpretation of thought connections. No doubt, grammar can be so taught, and should be so taught, as to aid the art of language; but its great end is to secure just such a logical interpretation of language as good reading calls for. Reading is, in fact, a rápid analysis; analysis is slow reading. This being the case, analysis should contribute directly to progress in reading and to the understanding of literature. How much of what is called reading is machine-like and unintelligent is well known to all competent school superintendents. It would be an excellent idea to have children taught the grammatical analysis of their Sunday-school lesson.

Holding these views, I sought, the last two years that the schools of Cleveland were under my charge, to bring the instruction in reading and in grammar closer together. As illustrative of the method employed, so far as grammar is concerned, I add a list of the questions used in examining the candidates for admission to high school, in June, 1886. The stanzas that are the basis of the examination are found



in the reader that pupils had been using; the teachers had been told that the examples chosen for analysis would be taken from the reader, but beyond that no clew was furnished. The time allowed the pupils to write their answers was three hours.

1. The following stanzas are from Tennyson's “Ode on the Death of the Duke of Wellington” :

Bury the Great Duke
With an empire's lamentation !
Let us bury the Great Duke
To the noise of the monrning of a mighty nation.
Mourning when their leaders fall,
Warriors carry the warrior's pall,

And sorrow darkens hamlet and hall.
Where shall we lay the man whom we deplore ?
Here, in streaming London's central roar.
Let the sound of those he wrought for,
And the feet of those he fought for,

Echo round his bones forevermore. What empire is meant? What is an empire's lamentation? What means “hamlet and hall”? What thought do you get from the last two lines of stanza one ? Why is London called "streaming”?

2. Analyze all the sentences in the second stanza.

3. Give case and construction of “Great Duke” in first line, “" "

us," "pall,'' “whom,” “London's,” and “bones." 4. What part of speech is "mourning" in line 4? Of the same word in line 5? What part of speech is "stream


5. Parse “warriors” and “warrior's” in line 6, “bury” in line 1, and the same in line 3.

6. Give the principal parts of the verbs in second stanza. 7. Correct and give reasons:

(1) “ Sense and not riches win esteem."
(2) “We sorrow not as them that have no hope.”
(3) “ Who should I meet the other day but my

old friend?
(4) “This 20 years have I been with you.”
(5) " It cannot be me you mean.”

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